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1 enth Massachusetts Battery 


Light Artillery 



Formerly of I he Third Corps, and Afterwards of Hancock's 

Second Corps, - Irmy of t tie Potomac 



A Member of the* Company. 
Author of " Hard Tack and Coffee." 



ahr Arakrlgmt JJrrsa 

36S Congress Street 

Copyright 1909, 
Bij John D. Billings 


Soon after the close of the Civil War. Major J. Henry Sleeper, 
fur his own information and enjoyment, obtained permission 
from the Adjutant General of the U. S. A., to have an exact 
copy of the Morning Report Book of the Tenth Massachusetts 
Battery made. For various reasons the historian of the com- 
pany in preparing its history some years since made hut slight 
use of this book. The lapse of time has shown the survivors 
of the Battery that this omission on the part of their historian 
was a mistake; that many of them could have been materially 
aided in establishing their claims for a pension had these rec- 
ords been available, and that other historical material omitted 
should have found place in the volume. Acting on this idea at 
the last meeting of the Battery Association a committee was 
chosen, consisting of John D. Billings. Maj. Milbrey Green and 
Lieut. Charles E. Pierce and given full power to print the con- 
tents of the Morning Report Book with such other valuable his- 
torical material as seemed desirable. 

That committee, after careful deliberation, decided it to be the 
part of wisdom to publish- these, -Morning Reports, adding 
to them the history written many years* ago carefully revised 
and corrected with its roster, made accurate and complete. 
The committee also voted to include in the volume such portraits 
of members as can now be obtained and as many camp and bat- 
tlefield sketches as are available, with a mortuary list to date, 
thus embracing compactly the Battery's story as full and com- 
plete as it can now ever be told and more complete than most 
of the stories that have been written. 

Xo attempt has been made to correct orthography or supply 
omissions in the records of the Morning Reports. They are re- 
produced as written (save the daily reports of the number of 
men and horses present which are omitted.) A few hiatuses in 
the narrative are due to the breaking off of pieces of the leaves 
in using, the book having been reduced to tinder in the safe of 
Major Sleeper during the great Boston fire of 1871. 

The work of compilation, composition, and correction, though 
approved by the whole committee, was devolved on one who 
hereby assumes all responsibility for whatever faults the vol- 
ume shall be found to have. 


At the close of tbe war ill 1805. John P. Apthorp, a member 
of the Company whose story is herein narrated, prepared for 
publication a manuscript history which he had designed to 
print in the autumn of that year; but when the work was com- 
plete, and his canvass of the members for subscriptions had 
been made, their response was so limited and inadequate to the 
outlay necessary for its issue that he abandoned the enterprise. 
That manuscript was made the basis of the present work. 
About thirteen years siuc it came into my hands by the courtesy 
of its author, with the object, on my part, of joining with one 
or two other members of the Company in assuming the expense 
of its publication. I'.u; a careful reading of it led us to the 
unanimous conclusion that thorough revision was necessary be 
fore doing so. 

At the lirsi reunion of the Company, held in Boston, in Jan- 
uary, lsl'.t. a coininittee on history was appointed, consisting of 
William E. Endioott and myself, to be joined by such others as 
we might designate. For obvious reasons most of the labor neces- 
sary in its preparation was devolved upon one individual; and 
that one hereby releases all others from responsibility for its 

Ill pro] per relation to the story of the flattery it has seemed 
desirable to incorporate so much of the history of brigades, di- 
visions, corj is or the army as shall serve to show members of 
the company causes and results of movements and campaigns 
which, at the time of their occurrence. Mere little understood. 

My information in relation to the detailed history of the Bat 
[cry not derived from the above manuscript was taken in large 
measure from my personal diary, and an almost unbroken series 
of nearly three hundred letters written home during our term 
of service. 

I am under obligations to Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock for 
ready access to his duplicate copies of official reports of oper- 
ations of the Second Corps as well as for the likeness of him 
self which adorns the volume; to Maj. Gen. A. A. Humphreys 
for duplicate copies of his official reports of operations of the 
Second Corps: to the late Maj. Gen. William H. French for of- 
ficial reports of campaigns of the Third Corps during our con- 

h riiEFACE 

ueetion with it; to the Hon. William Claflin for a complete set 
of government maps which have enabled me to trace with ac- 
curacy our lines of march in nearly all the movements in which 
we participated; to Maj. J. Henry Sleeper for his many kind 
offices during the progress of the work; to my associates of the 
committee, Messrs. William E. Endicott, Charles E. Pierce, Wil- 
lard Y. Gross, George M. Townsend, and G. Fred. Gould, for 
the information and kindly criticism they have contributed; and 
to many more whose assistance has been less important only in 

Tn the prosecution of my researches, I have examined a large 
mass of war material, and have sought information by corre- 
spondence from commanders or eye-witnesses on both sides. I 
am also indebted to the past officers who have contributed their 

With this introduction I now submit this volume to my sur- 
viving comrades and their friends, hoping that they will find 
enough of interest and value in its pages to make them lenient 
towards its defects. If they fail to do this no one will more sin- 
cerely regret it than their friend 

Cambridge, Mass.. July 19, 18S1. 


August 23 to October 14, 1862. 
Origin of the Battery — Going into Camp — Incidents and 

Experiences of Camp Life, . . . . . 17 

October 14-17, 1862. 
The Journey to Washington — Incidents by the Way — 

Philadelphia Union Refreshment Saloon, ... 30 

October 17 to December 26, 1862. 
Washington — Camp Barry — Organization — Drill — In- 
cidents, .......... 38 

December 26, 1862, to June 24, 1863. 
On the March — Poolsville — Camp Life — Discontent — 
Drill — Incidents — Benson's Hill — Alarms — Retro- 
spect, 50 

June 24 to July 31, 1863. 
March to Maryland Heights — Join French's Command — 
March to Frederick — Guarding the Monocacy Bridge 
at Frederick Junction — Rumblings of Gettysburg — 
Hanging of a Spy — We Join the Third Corps — 
March to South Mountain — Williamsport — Escape 
of Lee — Chagrin of the Army — Antietam Battlefield 

— Through Pleasant Valley into Loudon Valley — 
Four Men Prisoners — Wapping Heights — Warren- 
ton — Camp at Sulphur Springs, 88 

July 31 to October 19, 1863. 
Sulphur Springs as it was — Camp Life — The Advance 
to Culpepper — Back to the Rappahannock — Auburn 

— Our Maiden Fight — Centreville — Fairfax Station 

— Ovation to Gen. Sickles — Shot for Desertion, . 118 


October 19 to November 8, 1863 
The Advance — Bristow Battle-Ground — Catlett's Station 
— -The Fight at Kelly's Ford — Advance to Brandy 
Station, 153 

November 8 to December 3, 1863. 
A Mud March — Delays — Across the Rapidan — Robert- 
son's Tavern — ■ In Line at Mine Run — A Cold Snap 
— Rumors — The Expected Assault — The Return to 
Brandy Station — A Brief Synopsis of the Campaign, 165 


December 3, 1863, to May 3, 1864. 

At Brandy Station — Winter-Quarters and Army Life in 

Them — Reorganization of the Army — Dissolution 

of the Third Corps — We Join the Second Corps — 

Corps Review — Hanging Scene, ..... 186 

May 3-20, 1864. 
Our Anticipations — Order of March- — Grant's Plan — 
Almost a Stampede — General Hancock ■ — Chancel- 
lorsville — Todd's Tavern — The Wilderness and its 
Terrific Battle — By the Left Flank — Battle of the 
Po — Spottsylvania — The Ghastly Salient — Moving 
About — The Tenth a Four-Gun Battery — News 
From Home, . . . . . . . .211 

May 20 to June i, 1864. 
By the Left Flank — "Fresh Fields and Pastures New" — 
Bowling Green — North Anna — Chesterfield Bridge 
and That Invincible Rebel Battery — By the Left 
Flank — Across the Pamunkey — At Tolopotomov 
Creek, ........ 

June 1-12, 1864. 
By the Left Flank to Cold Harbor — Three Positions — 
The Assault and Repulse — A Night Attack — Mor- 
tars and Bomb-Proofs — The "Saucy Battery" — An 
Armistice, ....... 


; 57 



June 12-20, 1864. 
By the Left Flank — Wilcox's Landing — Across the 
James — On Towards Petersburg — Why Petersburg 
was not Taken — What Hancock Says — To the 
Front — We Fire the First Shells into the Cockade 
City — The Fortieth Massachusetts Infantry — Again 
Forward — Two Moves More to the Front Line — 
Relieved by Colored Troops of the Ninth Corps, . . 273 

June 20-23, l ^4 
To the Rear — "Boot and Saddle" — The Corps Badly 
Used on the Jerusalem Plank Road — A Dry Time — 
"Where We Dug the First Well'' — The Sanitary 
Commission — By the Right Flank — Deep Bottom — 
Rain at Last — The Weldon Railroad, .... 289 

August 23-25, 1864. 
By the Left Flank — Reams Station — Destroying the 
Weldon Railroad — The Earthworks — Portentous 
Omens — Rebel Guns Silenced — The Day Grows 
Darker — Sharpshooters — Heroic Horses — The First 
Charge and Repulse — The Second Charge Repulsed — 
A Storm of Rebel Shells — The Final Charge — All 
is Lost but Honor — The Retreat — -Hancock's Brav- 
ery — Our Losses — What Hancock Says — The 
Losses of the Corps and the Enemy, .... 307 

August 26 to October 24, 1864. 
Our Parrotts — To the Front Once More — Battery XIV 

— Artillery as Sharpshooters — Warlike Pyrotechnics 

— A Six-Gun Battery Again — Marching Orders, . 340 



October 25 to November i, 1864. 

By the Left Flank — The Fight on Boydton Plank Road — 

The Tenth Sent In — At It Hot and Heavy — We are 

Flanked — On to Libby — "Give 'Em Canister" — 

Fall of Lieut. Smith and Private Atkinson — Running 


the Gantlet — Fall of Lieut. Granger — Withdrawal 

of the Corps — Synopsis of General Hancock's Report, 353 


November i, 1864, to March 25, 1865. 

Fort Stevenson — Fort Welch — Exit Hancock, Enter 

Humphreys — To the Left and Back — Forts Emory 

and Siebert — Shingling a Stable — By the Left Flank 

— The Battle of Armstrong's Farm — The Fifth 
Corps Badly Used — The Second Corps Helps Them 
Out — "Battery E" — Resignation and Departure of 
Major Sleeper — "At it on the Right" — Fort Sted- 
man — Advance and Captures of the Second Corps, . 376 

March 20 to April 9, 1865. 
The Last Left Flank — At Burgess' Tavern Again — Five 
Forks — Petersburg Is Taken — Atkinson's Grave — 
Marching in the Rebel Rear — What They Left Be- 
hind—Sailor's Creek — Graves That Did Not Hold 
Defunct Rebels — High Bridge — Farmville — Fall of 
General Smythe — Our Last Stand and Last Shots — 
Rumors — Why Are We Going So Slowly? — Skep- 
tics — General Meade to the Front — Suspense — 
General Meade Returns — "Lee Has Surrendered" — 
How the Army Felt, 4 10 

The Cruel War Over — "Limber to the Rear" — On Short 
Rations — How the Negroes Felt — Burkesville Junc- 
tion — "On to Richmond" — Richmond As We Saw 
It — To Fredericksburg and Bailey's Cross Roads — 
Washington — Homeward Bound — Palace Cars — 
Boston ■ — Cool Reception — Galloupe's Island — Mus- 
tered Out at Last — On to Brookline and Marblehead 

— Exit Tenth Massachusetts Battery, . 


S. Augustus Alden's Story of Prison Life, 

Wm. E. Endicott's Story of Prison Life, 

John D. Billtngs's Story of a Visit to Old Camps and 



The Tenth Massachusetts Battery Association 
Mortuary List to Date, TQ09, .... 







J. Henry Sleeper . 


J. Henry Sleepek . 

Page 25 

Alvax B. Fisher 

" 4i 

H. H. Granger . 


J. W'EBTi Adams 

" 89 

YYillard Y. Gross 

" 100 

Otis X. Harrington 

" 114 

Philip T. YYoodfix . 

" J 35 

Alonzo X. Merrill . 

" 169 

Hiram P. Ring 

" 169 

\Y. S. Hancock 

" J 9i 

Jonas \\". Strol't 

" 229 

Jacob B. Svliiam 

" 229 

Hosea 0. Barnes 

" 2 5 2 

Charles E. Pierce . 

" 281 

Thomas lush k 

" -'95 

John D. Billings . 

" 335 

G. Fred Gol'ld . 

" 347 

Johx P. Apthorp 

" 365 

George H. Day 

" 369 


" 377 


" ^3 

George M. Town send 

" 393 

Robert Crawford 

" 4ii 

Joseph F. Swuerson 

" 411 


" 423 


"Soldiers' Rest" ...... 

Camp of Tenth Mass. Battery, Winter '62-3 
Camp of Tenth Mass. Battery, Summer '63 . 

Corps Badges 

Where the Battery Stood in the Wilderness 


The Old Tavern at Cold Harbor, 1896 . 

The Second Position of the Battery at Cold 

Harbor, As Seen in 1896 .... 
The Battery's Third Position at Cold Harbor 
Map of Reams Station Battlefield 
Map of Boydton Plank-Road or Hatcher's Run 

Battlefield ...... 

Where the Battery Stood at Hatcher's Run 

As Seen in 1896 

Inside View of Battery E . 

Page 36 

" 53 

" 63 

" I2 3 

" 224 

" 2 59 

" 261 

" 269 

" 309 

" 355 

" 366 

" 389 

Governors Island, New York Harbor, 
Feb. 25, 1880. 

I wish you success in your contemplated history of 
Sleeper's gallant Battery, — the Tenth Massachusetts. 

Very truly and respectfully yours, 

Winfield S. Hancock. 

Angel Island, Cal., 
Jan. 21, 1880. 

T have the most vivid and pleasant remembrances of the 
services performed by your Battery. 

Very sincerely your friend, 

W.m. H. French, 

Col. 4th Artillery, Brevet Maj. Gen., 

U. S. A. 

New Orleans. Feb. 12, 1880. 

I congratulate you upon your historical undertaking, and recol- 
lecting well the brilliant services of the Tenth Massachusetts Bat- 
ter}', I shall take great pleasure in seeing them revived and 
perpetuated in your work. 

Very truly yours, 

R. de Trobriand, 

Brevet Maj. Gen, U. S. A. 



A>HjN*t 12 to October 1',, 1S62. 


It was in id summer of l,x(;2. 

The disastrous failure of the Peninsular Cam- 
paign had shrouded the country in gloom. Thou- 
sands of the flower of (he nation's youth who, burn- 
ing with the most ardent and unselfish patriotism 
had been marshalled in the ranks of the magnificent 
Army of the Potomac, had crossed another river 
never to return. It was one of the darkest periods in 
the historv of the Civil War. A triumphant enemy 
was likely to he an aggressive one The disaster must 
he repaired and that right speedily Then it was 
that President Lincoln, cast down but not destroyed, 
issued his call for :!(MI,(MM) more volunteers and un- 
der this call the following special order was issued 
from the State House in Boston: 

('i)iinnoiiirrnltli of Mii-xxarluixrlts, 
ni'iiihjiiinti tx, Buxton, Ant/. 12, 1HII2. 
Spni<il I'Diln- Xo. HI'/. 

Henry H. < Jranger is hereby authorized to raise a Battery of 
Eight Artillery under U. S. Order No. To, Battery to be full by 
ic.ih inst. 

The Captain will be designated hereafter. 

By command of His Excellency John A. Andrew, Governor 
and Commander-in-Chief. 

(Signed) WM. BROWN, 

Asst. Adjt. Gent. 


The foregoing is a correct copy of the original or- 
der by which authority was given to recruit the Com- 
panyafterwards known as the Tenth Massachusetts 

In the "Boston Journal 1 ' of August 13, 1862, ap- 
peared the following notice: — 

"Henry H. Granger has been authorized to raise a battery of 
light artillery to be filled by the 16th inst. As this is a popular 
arm of the service, there is no doubt of his ability to raise a 
company by the time specified." 

So far as can be ascertained this is the first public 
notice of the company. In subsequent issues of the 
same paper occurred these notices: — 

[Aug. U, 1862,] 
50 more men wanted for the Tenth Massachusetts Battery. Ap- 
ply immediately to 17 Old State House or 10 Howard Street. 

Recruiting Officer. 

[Aug. 18, 1862.] 
The 10th Massachusetts Battery recruiting by Lieut. H. H. 
Granger, is rapidly filling up, over 125 men having already en- 
listed. A splendid opportunity is here offered to those who wish 
to enlist in this popular arm of the service for three years. 

[Aug. 23, 1862.] 
The 10th Battery, H. H. Granger commanding, is full, and has 
been ordered into camp at Lynnfield to-day. They will leave Bos- 
ton at 12 o'clock on the Boston and Maine R. R. J. Webb Adams 
of this city has been appointed Junior 1st Lieutenant. 

[Aug. 23, 1862.] 
The 10th Battery for three years service, recruited by Capt. 
Granger, left Boston for Camp Stanton at Lynnfield via Boston 
and Maine II. R., in the noon train to-day. 

As the above notices show, a recruiting office was 
opened at the Old State House, and also at 16 How- 


ard Street, and but few days elapsed before the 
Company was recruited to the required standard of 
one hundred and fifty-six men. The readiness with 
which men rallied was undoubtedly due in large 
measure to the gentlemanly bearing and personal 
magnetism of the recruiting officer, Mr. Granger, 
whose many estimable qualities as a man won the 
affection of all who came in contact with him; and 
ihis repaid, implanted thus early in the hearts of 
the men, continued unabated to the day of his 

About thirty members of the Battery came from 
"Worcester County, the home of Mr. Granger, thirty 
more from Charlestown, and the same number from 
Marblehead. The remainder were furnished by 
Boston and towns lying within a radius of twenty 
miles of it. 

\ugust 2o was the day fixed upon for the Com- 
pany to go into camp. On the morning of that day, 
about a hundred men assembled at the Eastern 
Railway Station in Boston. At the command, "Fall 
in, Tenth!" we formed line and went on board a train 
standing near to receive us, bound for Lynnfield, 
at that time one of the rendezvouses established 
for the reception of regiments and companies prior 
to their departure for the seat of war. This assem- 
blage of men constituted the first tangible evidence 
that there existed such an organization as the Tenth 
Massachuset ts Battery 

While seated in the cars an opportunity was af- 
forded to get a general impression of the kind of 
men composing the Company. There were a few 
heads silvered with gray. There were middle-aged 
men, and faces upon which the first down of youth 
had scarcely appeared. There were men of all 
trades and men of no trade. Side by side sat farm- 


ers and seamen, blacksmiths and tailors, carpenters 
and teamsters, clerks fresh from the pen or yard- 
stick, teachers, hard-handed laborers, policemen 
and restaurant keepers. All these, with men of va- 
rious other callings, combined to make up a motley 
collection of tastes, interests and prejudices, such 
as war always assembles. But all these differences 
of calling and taste were to be sunk in a common 
unity of purpose and interest. Henceforth we 
should know each other as soldiers and soldiers 
only. While we were getting acquainted the train 
moved on and in due time arrived at Lynnfleld. 

Here those whose duty it was to provide accom- 
modations had nothing ready, thus giving us our 
first lesson in patient waiting, a lesson which sol- 
diers have to learn early and practise long. There 
was the camp, it is true; but it was surrounded by 
sentries, armed with rusty muskets, whose valor we 
did not care to test by trespassing on their beat. 
While waiting outside the lines, a heavy shower 
came up, and we concluded, while hugging the lee 
side of contiguous buildings and becoming drenched 
to the skin, that we were having a fair initiation 
into the experiences of a soldier's life. Sunshine 
again appearing, our prospects brightened mate- 
rially. A company of one of the regiments in camp, 
going away on furlough, vacated its quarters for us. 
These consisted of two rows of tents, known inter- 
changeably by the names of Sibley and Bell Tents; 
the former derived from the name of the inventor, 
the latter given from their resemblance to huge 
bells. They were pitched in two rows of six each, 
with a park between about four rods wide, at the 
head of which stood two wall tents occupied bv the 

These tents, located by themselves near a pleas- 


ant piece of woods, formed a more inviting camp 
than had been anticipated, and we were not long in 
accommodating ourselves to them. Those who had 
been familiar with the culinary art took possession 
of the cook-house that stood near by, and in due 
time were dealing out tin dippers of black toffee 
and slices of bread, thus introducing us to the sim- 
ple fare of army life. 

Supper disposed of, we examined the interior of 
the tents. They were found to be supported by a 
central pole resting on an iron tripod. A plentiful 
supply of straw covered the ground. On this a 
dozen men in each si retched themselves, feet to the 
(entiv, and passed the iirst night, not in slumber, 
but in telling stories and shivering in the chill night 
air. The next day was the Sabbath, and camp life 
Ix'gan in earnest The guard, hemming us in on all 
sides, was at rirst rather chafing to free American 
citizens, but we accepted it as an annoyance insep- 
arable from tlie service into which we had volunta- 
rily entered. Some of us were detailed for guard 
around our own camp, while others went as super- 
numeraries to relieve the regular sentries at the 
central guard-house, and whiled away the hours in 
watching over certain wayward and drunken soldiers 
from the infantry near us, whose ambitious propen- 
sities to beat the guard over the head with a club, 
bite off the lingers of the corporal who remon- 
strated, and divers other offences against law and 
decency, had consigned them to confinement in the 
stall of an old stable, now dignified by the name of 
guard-house. So, in one way and another, we were 
inducted to our new employment. During the week 
our uniforms arrived, and with many jokes on the 
good clothes furnished us, we doffed the garb of civil 
life, and donning the uniform of light artillerymen, 


became genuine soldiers in appearance so far as uni- 
formity of dress could make us so. 

This pleasant camp, however, was not destined 
to be our home long. In a few days a portion of the 
troops encamped with us were ordered to the seat 
of war, and those remaining were to be removed to 
Boxford. So, packing up our effects and getting 
down to the station promptly at nine o clock in the 
morning, according to orders, we were fairly seated 
in the cars by five o'clock in the afternoon, and un- 
der way at sundown. After several hours ride, dur- 
ing which the train had the singular faculty of go- 
ing backAvards as much as forwards, and standing 
si ill more than it did either, we were landed in Box- 
ford about ten o'clock at night, to find the ground 
soaked with rain, and the beans that had been 
stewed for our supper by an advance guard, sour as 
vinegar. While some of the men were striving to 
make themselves comfortable for the remainder of 
the night in the cars, which had been left standing 
near the campground, a voice came ringing through 
the train: "Any of Captain Garlic's men here?"* 
Again and yet again was it repeated in anxious 
tones at every door, although greeted with the jeers 
and execrations of the would-be slumberers within; 
but the captain with the fragrant name seemed to 
think his reputation as a soldier depended on imme- 
diately gathering all his flock under his sheltering 
care, as a hen gathers her chickens under her wings; 
for when some of us left the cars for fresh air with- 
out, before we had fairly touched the ground, the 
same inquiry concerning the whereabouts of Cap- 
tain Garlic's flock assailed us. We sought boxes 
and boards on which to sleep raised from the wet 
ground, and were just dropping off into dreamland 

* A captain in the 40ih Massachusetts infantry. 


when a gentle touch on the shoulder drove us well- 
nigh frantic, folloAved as it was by the same disgust- 
ing inquiry, and we then and there wished the whole 
Garlic clan and all its satellites, present or prospect- 
ive, were in the sunn}' South. Some even gave him 
and his men direct marching orders to the fervid 
heats of a less favored clime. At last the interrog- 
atory ceased, and Ave passed what little remained of 
the night in comparative quiet; but whether the in- 
defatigable captain ever succeeded in collecting his 
truant flock, or found any end to his restless search, 
Ave never kneAA* 

In the morning Camp Stanton Avas established at 
Boxford. Here Ave pitched our tents and remained 
about six Aveeks, changing our location once during 
our stay. On the !>th of September Ave Avere mus- 
tered into the sen ice of the United States by Lieut. 
M. Elder of the regular army, and received one 
month's pay in advance. 

During September the Boston Journal made the 
folloAving notes regarding us: 

[Fridiu/, He/it. 5, 1M2A 
An order was promulgated yesterday that the 10th Mass. Bat- 
tery, Lieut. H. H. Cranger acting commander, should be mus- 
tered into the service Tuesday next, and that they should pro- 
ceed to AA'ashington on Wednesday, Sept. 10. The Battery is full 
and the hoys are anxious to go; and such of them as are on fur- 
lough are requested to note the above arrangement and govern 
themselves accordingly 

[Xrpt. 11, 1862.] 

On the evening of the !>th inst. Mr. Tobias Beck of Charles- 
town was married at Camp Stanton, Boxford, to Miss Sarah Kil- 
gore of Hampden, Me., by Benj. S. Barnes, Esq., J. P. The oc- 
casion brought together a great many of the ladies of Boxford 
and of the friends of the bridegroom and bride. 

The officers of the loth Mass. Battery, of which the bride- 


groom is a member, wore also interested spectators i>f the cere- 
mony. I'.ond's Band volunteered their services and the whole 
party, military included, having formed a square, the ceremony 
was performed under the bright, shining moon. The happy pair 
afterwards received the congratulations of all present ami then 
proceeded under escort to the house of the officiating magistrate 
where they were well entertained. The occasion was one of 
much enjoyment and interest. 

[Thursday, s, /</. //. 1SH.?.] 


The loth Mass. Battery was mustered into the tinted States 
service on Tuesday afternoon (Sept. !M by Lieut. M. Elder. U S. 
Mustering Officer. 

While encamped here that disposition of the com- 
pany to hang together which afterwards became 
proverbial, cropped out quite conspicuously; 
whether in rescuing a comrade from the Philistines 
of the Forty-first Kegiment, among whom he was 
receiving a rough handling, or in taking one from 
the hands of the camp guard into whose power he 
had fallen for running in or out of camp without a 
pass, there was the same tendency displayed to 
stand by one another. Affairs finally came to such 
a pass that "Battery Boys" were allowed to go and 
come at will, with none to molest or make afraid. 
Passes to leave cam]) soon became an obsolete for- 
mality It is true that trains could not always be 
taken with safety at the camp-ground without them, 
owing to the presence of provost guards; but there 
was another station about two miles away, and 
some of the more wary walked as far as Topsfield, a 
distance of six miles, in order not to be summarily 
cut off from their semi-weekly or triweekly visits to 
home and loved ones. 

Daily drill was inaugurated and carried on, all 
things considered, with a fair measure of success. 
One day we received the compliments of the officer 



of the day for proficiency, aud the next, drew down 
upon our defenceless heads the wrath of Col. Jones, 
the unpopular post commander, for setting his au- 
thority at defiance. 

(Jet. 1, J. Henry Sleeper, the newly appointed Cap- 
tain of the Company, arrived. He had been pro- 
moted to this position from a tirst lieutenancy in the 
First Massachusetts Battery By his interference 
we were relieved from camp guard, — a change 
which we heartily appreciated, having never taken 
kindly to it. 

< apt. Jacob Henry Sleeper was a Bostonian by 
birth, son of the Hon. Jacob Sleeper of the Govern- 
or's Council. lie was twenty-three years of age and 
entered the army at the beginning of the war as 1st 
Lieutenant in the Fifth Massachusetts Infantry, 
where he won praise from his superiors for coolness 
and bravery in the first battle of Bull Bun. Almost 
immediately after his time was out he joined Cap- 
tain Porters First Massachusetts Light Battery as 
Lieutenant and gained much credit for dashing 
bravery, coolness under tire and skill as an artiller- 
ist. Thus highly recommended he was appointed 
commander of the Tenth. 

The following letters air self-explanatory: 

Hi-itilijutirtn-x Artillrry liriymlr, 1st Dir Gtli Army ('ur/ix, 
i.' uinit ni'iir lltirrixijn's Luiiiliiiii, Any. .), 186,!. 

Lieut. J. II. Sleeper of Porter's Batier.v "A," Mass. Vol. Arty 
has been under niy command some months. During- that time I 
have observed him in the camp, on the march and on the battle- 
field, and it gives me pleasure to state that on all occasions and 
in all situations lie has acquitted himself as a soldier should. He 
i-i an excellent officer and a good artillerist. 

(Signed) E. R. PLATT. 
I'dptuiit id Artillery, ('o)nd'ij Artillery Brigade. 


Adjutant General's Office. 

Boston, Xri>t. 9, 1*6.2. 
Lieut. J. Henry Sleeper, Porter's Battery, Mass. Vols. 

Lieut., — I am directed by His Excellency the Governor to inform 
you that you have been appointed and commissioned as ('apt. of a 
new Battery now organized in this Commonwealth known and 
designated as the 10th Battery of Mass. Volunteers, and you are 
requested to get leave from your superior Officers and to report 
at once to these Head Quarters, where you will be ordered to 
take command of the new Battery. 

Respectfully Yours, 

(Signed) WM. SCHOULER, 
Adit, (iciierul of Mas*. 

The non-commissioned officers, with the excep- 
tion of the second corporals, were now appointed; 
and our daily drill was carried on with two six- 
pounders, with which we waked the echoes of the 
camp aDd neighborhood at sunrise every day. But 
this peaceful state of affairs could not be expected 
to last forever, and, with the early days of October, 
there came rumors of orders to leave for the South. 



Sept. 11. Charles L. Bisbee, Henry B. Winslow, 
Moses K. Davis, William Buckman, George H. 
Strickland, John A. Stearns, Peter Savory, Jr., 
Henry L. Wlieelock, eight recruits over maximum, 
transferred to Col. Jones, Com — by order of Lieut. M. 
Elder, Mustering Officer. 

Sept. 11. The above eight recruits return to the 
care of the commander of the Tenth Massachusetts 

Sept. 23. George H. Strickland, one of the re- 
cruits, discharged on account of disabilitv. 



Oct. 1, ('apt. J. Henry Sleeper came into camp 
and took command. 

Oct. 3. Charles H. Bisbee, Henry B. Winslow, 
John A. Steams, Moses K. Davis, Peter Savory, Jr., 
William Buckman and Henry L. Wheelork, seven 
recruits, transferred to Fifth Massachusetts Battery 

Oct. 4. Samuel Abell received a surgeon's fur- 
lough Sept. 27, and it was extended to Oct. 4. Not 
being able he did not return to camp. 



October lJ t to 17, 1SCJ. 


The time spent in our own State may be regarded 
as the infancy of our organization. Song and sport 
prevailed, and from the appearance of the camp one 
would hardly have supposed it occupied by a body 
of men assembled with the serious purpose of devot- 
ing themselves to the deadly earnestness of battle. 
But when, at last, positive orders to depart for the 
seat of war came, the spirit of the scene changed. 
Men had run guard and taken furloughs for the last 
time, and all felt that the play of the past few weeks 
must now give place to the stern work and disci- 
pline of active service. Several false alarms were 
at last followed by positive marching orders; and 
October 11, 1862, saw us with well-stuffed knapsacks 
fairly under way. Our march through Boston 
called forth quite enthusiastic demonstrations from 
the citizens, which were continued until our arrival 
at the Old Colony Railway station, where we were 
to take the cars. 

These notices appeared successively in the Boston 
Journal : — 

I Sutiirdrni, Oct. .',, tst;>.] 


The 10th Massachusetts Battery in camp at Boxford have re- 
ceived marching orders for Monday, Oct. <>, and will probably 
reach this city about 1 o'clock. The following is a list of the 


officers: — ('apt.. J. Henry Sleeper; Senior 1st Lieut.. Henry H. 
Granger; Junior 1st Lieut., J. Webb Adams; Senior 2nd Lieut., 
Asa Smith; Junior 2nd Lieut. Thomas R. Armitage; First Ser- 
geant, Otis X. Harrington; Quartermaster Sergeant, S. Augustus 
Alden; chiefs of Pieces with rank of sergeants. George H. Put- 
nam; Philip T. Woodfin; Charles E. rierce; Samuel J. Bradlee; 
Chandler Gould; George F Gould. Gunners with the rank of 
Corporals; Andrew B. Snattuck. Charles "W Doe. John H. Stev- 
ens. George M. Tuwnsend. Joseph II. Currant, Benjamin F 
Parker; Guidon, William II. Firzpatrick; Artificer. Amasa L). 
Bacon; Buglers, Joshua T. Reed, John E. Mugford; Company 
Clerk, Benjamin E. Corlew 

I M mida it Oct. i.J, i,S6'.i.] 


The loth Mass. Battery, Captain Sleeper, now at Boxford will 
certainly leave for the seat of war at lo o'clock tomorrow fore- 
noon. The horses for the battery have all been inspected and 
placed on board the ear. The field pieces will be supplied the 
company on their arrival at Washington. 

[Ort. 1',. 1SH2.] 


The Tenth Massachusetts Battery, Captain J. Henry Sleeper, 
arrived in the city at 1 o'clock this afternoon from Camp Stan- 
ton, Boxford. and marched up State and Washington Street en 
yimti' for the Old Colony and Fall River Railroad Depot. The 
company is composed of fine looking men who are thoroughly 
uniformed and provided with all the equipments necessary until 
they arrive in Washington. The Company received a cheering 
reception and hearty Godspeed from the citizens along the route. 

[W'cdncxday, Ort. 11, 1S<>2.] 

(Special despatch to the Boston Journal.) 

Jrrftrii Citit. -V. ■/. O't. 11. 1XC>>. 
The Tenth Mass. Battery arrived here safely at 8 o'clock this 
morning and left on the New Jersey R. R. at 0.45. 

At the Old Colony station occurred the final leave- 
takings from a few of the wives, parents, and 

friends who had succeeded in eluding the vigilance 
which would have denied them this last privilege. 
There were brave struggles made to appear calm, 
but the tears would come, and as the train moved 
away, the last view of a wife or mother to some, 
was a frantic gesture of the hand and streaming 
eyes that told how great the sacrifice to those who 
must stay at home and wait. 

We arrived at Fall River about dark, and found 
the steamer "State of Maine" in readiness to receive 
us. After unloading our one hundred and ten 
horses from the forward cars, in which they had 
been shipped at Boston, and getting them unwill- 
ingly aboard and safely stored on deck, we took pos- 
session of the ample accommodations of the boat 
and made ourselves as comfortable as circumstances 
would permit. There was little sleep to be had 
that night, and many of us, though ordered to re- 
main below, spent much time on deck, enjoying the 
brilliant starlight and weird phosphorescence of the 
dark waters until morning broke, and the attrac- 
tions of New York harbor, which Ave were then en- 
tering, charmed our gaze. 

It has been remembered of this voyage, by some of 
the comrades, that we drank water from a large ice- 
tank, in which, some, who professed to know 
whereof they spoke, declared that deceased soldiers 
had been packed and brought from Fortress Monroe 
early in the war. It is so much easier, removed 
from the event by a lapse of seventeen years, to 
vouch for the truthfulness of this statement than to 
prove its falsity that we shall pass it by unques- 
tioned, leaving each comrade of the Battery whose 
eye meets the above to supplement the statement for 
himself with any facts in his possession. 

In passing up New York harbor we sailed near 


the steamer "Great Eastern," then anchored there, 
and obtained a very good view of her gigantic pro- 

We were not destined, however, to land at New 
York, but were headed directly for the opposite 
shore, and disembarked at Jersey City, amidst a per- 
fect Babel of apple, peach, and pie women. Here, af- 
ter stowing away the horses so closely that they 
could do but little at kicking ami biting, we again 
took cars, bound for Philadelphia. All day long we 
rolled mi through Xew Jersey, with its brick-red 
soil, its extensive level fields now mostly harvested, 
its fruited orchards ripening in the October sun, and 
its patriotic inhabitants greeting us as Ave rode 
along with hearty tokens of good-will. Tired, hun- 
gry and thirsty, we reached Camden late in the af- 
ternoon, and, crossing the ferry, entered Philadel- 
phia, fittingly named the City of Brotherly Love. 
Nowhere else on the route were such ample prepara- 
tions made for our comfort as here. Ushered first 
to a long row of basins with an abundance of water 
to wasli off the grime of travel, we were then shown 
into a hall filled with tables laden, not with luxuries, 
but what was far more to our taste, plenty of plain, 
wholesome food, and overflowing dippers of hot tea 
and coffee. 

Wait eis were on everv hand as obliging and as- 
siduous in their attentions as at a hotel; and all this 
the Volunteer Pelief Association, composed of citi- 
zens of Philadelphia, furnished from their own pock- 
ets to every regiment and battery that passed 
through their citv during the entire war, whether 
they came at morning, evening, or the midnight 
hours. Warm wen- the praises on the tongue of 
many an old veteran at the front for the noble- 
souled people of Philadelphia, as he called to mind 


the cheering spot in his experience at the Philadel- 
phia Union Refreshment Saloon.* 

When supper was ended, we began our march 
across the city, with such a hand-shaking with old 
and young of both sexes, and such a God-speed from 
all the population, as came from no other city or 
town through which we passed, and this was con- 
tinued until our arrival at the Baltimore depot. 
Could the wives and sweethearts left behind have 
seen the affectionate leave-takings at this place, it 
might have aroused other than patriotic emotions 
in their breasts. We recall at this moment the 
slight figure of Company Tailor Barker as it ap- 
peared extended on the pavement full-length, the 
result of a misstep while making an ambitious at- 
tempt to salute a young lady standing near the pro- 
cession; and the sad picture that he presented in 
camp for some weeks afterwards as he tenderly 
dressed his nose, which had been wounded by con- 
tact with an unfriendly paving-stone at the "Fall of 
Man," rendered him the mark for frequent jests 
from those conversant with the facts. 

By midnight we were under way, the cars con- 
taining the horses having been drawn across the 

* The above institution was organized shortly after the "Cooper 
Shop" was opened. This movement of relieving the hunger and hard- 
ship of the soldiers originated with the women of Philadelphia, who, 
as early as the latter part of April, 1861, when the troops began to 
pass through that city, formed themselves into a committee and col- 
lected and distributed refreshments among them. They were aided 
in the work by the gentlemen, and as the troops increased in numbers 
the necessity of better accommodations was felt. It was then that 
William M. Cooper (firm of Cooper and Pearce), whose wife was one 
of the pioneers in the movement, gave up first a part, then nearly all 
of his establishment, for four years to the purpose of assisting the 

The •'Union Saloon" was established later, but the two worked in 
perfect harmony to the end of the war. They were located near each 
other, and a committee from each worked without friction in arrang- 
ing for the reception of troops. 

See History of the Cooper Shop Volunteer Refreshment Saloon, by 
James Moore, M.D. 


city without change. The dim gray of morning 
found us at Havre-de-Grace, where, in the black 
remnants of the old bridge burned while the mob 
held sway in Baltimore, and in the fires of the picket 
guards stationed along the road, we began to recog- 
nize the first indications of war. Kear this place 
we saw our first persimmon tree loaded with its 
golden fruit, so beautiful to the eye, but so exe- 
crable to the taste at this season of the year. Later 
when the fruit had become fully ripened by the 
frosts, we formed better opinions of it. 

Having arrived at Baltimore, we were greeted by 
waving handkerchiefs and other tokens of welcome, 
and could but contrast the peaceful and apparently 
loyal attitude of the city at this time with its state 
of wild tumult when the Sixth Massachusetts Regi- 
ment passed through a year and a half before. The 
elements of rebellion here reduced to such thorough 
subjection, we accepted as an augury of what would 
ultimately be accomplished throughout the entire 
South. Each car containing a portion of the com- 
pany was drawn across the city by eleven horses in 
tandem, the driver, from the front platform, with 
blast of horn and crack of whip urging his ponder- 
ous team to livelier gait. Having breakfasted at a 
saloon something like that at Philadelphia, we 
waited till long past noon for the Washington train. 
When at last it was provided, we no longer found 
luxurious passenger-cars, but common box-cars, ven- 
tilated by knocking out alternate boards in the 
sides, and furnished with rude plank seats. An en- 
gine drew us a mile or two out of the city, and then 
left us to our fate. Three or four hours afterwards 
just as the sun was setting, a nondescript object 
came puffing and wheezing along the track and at- 
tached itself to our train. It was apparently a ma- 



chine of three stories. The first of these consisted of 
four driving-wheels, about three feet in diameter, 
upon which the whole rested. The second contained 
the boiler; and the third, directly over this, com- 
prised the pilot-house and tender. The driving- 
wheels were moved by pistons which worked verti- 
cally, and the whole structure rattled as if in mo- 
mentary danger of flying apart into its original 
atoms. It maintained its cohesion, however, and 
we began to move along. Dodging his way as best 
he might, and waiting at nearly every station for 
any trains likely to arrive within an hour, our en- 
gineer finally succeeded in rolling us into Washinu- 

Picture Taken About 1896. 


ton about two o'clock Friday morning. Having dis- 
embarked in pitchy darkness and a pouring rain, we 
were ushered into a commodious barn-like building, 
known as the "Soldiers' Kest," and throwing our- 
selves on the floor, were soon sound asleep. 



Oct. 14. Started from Boxford at 11.30 o'clock 
en route for Washington, I). < '., with orders to re- 
port to the Adjutant General. At Boston we took 
a special train in which there were 111 horses 
turned over to us by < apt. McKiin. 

Oct. 17 Arrived in Washington and encamped 
near Bladensbuii; Tollgate about <> o'clock P.M. 



October 11 to Dnvmlivr .1)1, 1SH.2. 



"Everything is a hundred years behind the age 
here," was the general exclamation the next morn- 
ing, as daylight gave us our first view of the sur- 
roundings. The Capitol loomed up grandly with its 
massive proportions, a few hundred yards distant, 
but was so surrounded by wretched Southern hovels 
and dirty beer-shops, instead of the costly dwellings 
and clean streets which would have distinguished 
the locality in a Northern city, that it seemed like a 
precious jewel cast into a basket of rubbish. The 
noble structures reared by the government, which 
in a city otherwise beautiful would be its highest 
adornment, now seemed by contrast like the orna- 
ments of a belle dangling from the unsightly rags of 
a beggar. 

After getting fairly waked up, we made it our first 
business to look after the interests of the poor horses 
that had been boxed up in the cars for two days and 
nights without a mouthful to eat or drink during 
that time. They were sorry-looking creatures in- 
deed, gaunt with hunger, bruised and bitten in their 
quarrels, and evidently pretty well used up. A few 
days of feeding and fresh air, however, brought 
them back to good condition again. 

About nightfall Ave were ordered to our future 
quarters at Camp Barry, named for Gen. Barry, an 
artillery officer.* The camp was situated a mile or 

* Died July 18, 1S7U. 


so from the Capitol at the toll-gate of the Bladens- 
burg pike. The Eleventh Massachusetts Battery, 
already here, greeted us with a cup of coffee all 
around, and furnished shelter for many of us, while 
the rest passed the night on the ground. Many of 
the Battery men will recall an incident which hap- 
pened the next morning while a few were still sleep- 
ing on the ground; but we will refer the general 
reader, for particulars concerning the warm bath 
innocently administered to the ear of our late com- 
rade George L. Clark, to any one of the original mem- 
bers, who made the camp resound with laughter for 
days after, Avhenever the matter was mentioned. 

On the 17th of October we established our camp 
on an eminence of the field in which we had passed 
the night, haying been provided with "A" tents (so 
called from their shape)* which accommodated four 
men each. Having got fairty established in camp, 
the work of organization, begun in Boxford, was 
carried on to completion. The non-commissioned 
officers, already alluded to as appointed at Camp 
Stanton, have been given in the roster. Six other 
corporals, called chiefs of caissons, were appointed 
on our arrival at < amp Barry They were as fol- 

Lewis R. Allard, 

James S. Bailey, Jr., 

William B. Lemon, 

William H. Starkweather, 

Tobias Beck, 

< leorge A. Pease. 
The duties of the first sergeant were mainly ex- 
ecutive, consisting in taking charge of all general 
or special roll-calls, in exercising an oversight of 
stable duties, and in calling for details of men un- 
der the direction of the Officer of the Day or Com- 


inander of the Battery The duties of the quarter- 
master sergeant consisted chiefly in supplying ra- 
tions for the Company and subsistence for the 
horses, upon requisitions signed by the commander 
of the Battery. To each chief of piece was commit- 
ted a body of men called a Detachment, in which 
were a first and second corporal, the former, known 
as gunner, sighting the gun in action and issuing 
the immediate orders to the gun's crew The sec- 
ond corporal had charge of the caisson and its am- 
munition. These detachments were a distribution 
of the Company into six divisions as nearly equal as 
possible, and to each Avas assigned a gun and cais- 

Two detachments with their pieces and caissons 
constituted a Section, which was commanded by a 
lieutenant. The men composing the detachments 
were classified as Cannoneers, Drivers and Spare 
Men. To each driver was committed a pair of 
horses that it was his duty to care for and drive. 
There were three drivers to a piece and three to a 
caisson. A gun's crew included a sergeant, two cor- 
porals, and seven cannoneers. The duties of the 
corporals have already been stated. The duties of 
the cannoneers, who were designated by numbers, 
were as follows: number One sponged the gun and 
rammed home the charge; number Tao inserted the 
charge; number Three thumbed vent, changed the 
direction of the piece by the trail handspike at the 
beck of the gunner, and pricked the cartridge; num- 
ber Four inserted the friction primer with the lan- 
yard attached into the vent, and at the command 
fired the gun; number Fire assisted the gunner at 
the trail in limbering and unlimbering, and carried 
ammunition to number Two; number Nrro* fur- 
nished ammunition to number Five, and number Six 



had charge of the limber, cutting fuses, fitting them 
to shells and delivering the ammunition, one round 
at a time, to number Seven. 

The spare men were to 
take The place of any who 
might become disabled 
in battle or bv disease, 
and also had the care of 
spare horses. 

Besides The six guns 
and caissons There were 
a portable Forge and 
Battery Wagon, which 
constituted a part of The 
regular outfit of the Bat- 
tery Each was drawn 
by six horses. The forge 
was in charge of a black- 
smith called an Arti- 
firtr* who had one as- 
sistant. Their duties 
consisted in doing all the 

shoeing and any other repairs that came within 
their province. 

The battery wagon was in charge of a mechanic 
also styled an artificer. It was filled with carpen- 
ter's Tools and extra equipments of various kinds 
likelv To be needed in the ordinary wear and tear 

of service. 

In addition to the foregoing, three Army Wagons, 
each drawn by four horses, were supplied to carrv 
the forage, rations and camp equipage. Later in 
our experience, when horse-flesh became scarcer, 
each of these was drawn bv six mules, and Messrs. 

Assistant Artificer 

AniMsa D. Bl 

held this position throughout our term of serv- 



Slack, Johnson, and Abbott learned a new tongue, 
which, although mastered with some difficulty, 
eventually became, with the aid of a little of the 
"black snake," a powerful agent in toning down or 
spurring on the recalcitrant mule. 

An Ambulance, drawn by two horses, designed to 
carry the sick and wounded, completed the niutcrir! 
of the Battery Two Buyler*, Joshua T. Heed and 
John E. Mugford, had been appointed to sound the 
calls for the various camp duties and for movements 
in drill, and William H. Fitzpatrick was selected as 
(luidon, or standard bearer. 

All other preliminaries having been properly ar- 
ranged, the horses were distributed to the drivers, 
and taken to the Washington Arsenal to be fitted 
with harnesses and to draw back guns and caissons. 
The former having been accomplished, with no 
trifling amount of opposition on the part of some of 
the animals, they were hitched to an old worn-out 
battery of small brass guns furnished us for drill. 
It may be added that two or three of the horses, 
acting as if conscripted, obstinately refused duty, 
and only yielded the contest with their lives, giving 
way in a few days to the rigors of a discipline to 
which they would not submit. 

The following Monday regular drills began. At 
first the movements were slow and executed at a 
walk; but as they became familiar, we manoeuvred 
with a promptness and precision that would have re- 
flected credit on older batteries. These drills, with 
one or two exceptions, always took place either on 
Capitol Hill or near the Tollhouse at Camp Barry. 

As time wore on, other batteries came and joined 
us, until a large brigade of artillery was assembled 
here. Among them was the Twelfth New York Bat- 
tery, of which Lieut. Adams afterwards had tempo- 


rary command. The mild, clear autumn days, 
which we had improved by four or Ave hours drill a 
day, were beginning to give place to the alternate 
frosts and drenching rains of a Southern winter, 
when we exchanged our U A" tents for the Sibley 
pattern, now provided with conical stoves to set 
in the centre. This caused us to think we were to 
spend the winter here; but in a very few days there 
came rumors that we were to go to Texas. These 
were renewed at short intervals, until Texas became 
the veriest bugbear, for we were bitterly opposed to 
going into any section of the Gulf Department. On 
the 17th of December we received orders to ex- 
change the unserviceable guns we had drilled with 
for a new battery complete in all its equipments. 

The hew guns, known as the Itodman,* were of 
steel, had a three-inch rifled bore, and carried an 
elongated shell of about ten pounds weight. With 
this outfit for active service came fresh batches of 
rumors. The Ninth and Eleventh Massachusetts 
batteries had left ('amp Barry for parts unknown, 
and we should probably go next. This prospect of 
a change was not wholly displeasing to us, for, al- 
though we were not anxious to go to Texas, we ice re 
desirous of leaving the brigade, as it was under the 
charge of a man who had the faculty of accomplish- 
ing the smallest amount of service with the greatest 
amount of inconvenience to the men under his con- 
trol. In his discipline he was a most rigid martinet 
and exacted unflinching obedience to disgusting re- 
quirements. The neighborhood of his headquarters 
was disgraced daily by the presence of victims un- 
dergoing his varied and villanous tortures; in short, 
his love of display, his absurd regulations, an undue 
parade of his "brief authority," and his outrageously 

* la honor of Maj. Gen. Thos. J. Rodman, their inventor. 


severe punishments of trivial offences, caused the 
name of Maj. Munroe to be execrated by all soldiers 
who were ever so unfortunate as to come under the 
dominion of this small-souled officer. 

We have not forgotten in this connection that the 
constraints of military service were yet new to us, 
and that in consequence Ave bore the exactions it 
permitted with less patience than afterwards. Nev- 
ertheless, looking back through our entire term of 
service, it is our calm, deliberate conviction, sus- 
tained by the judgments of history, that the war 
was greatly prolonged, the loss of life much in- 
creased, and the service in many other ways suffered 
material detriment, by the appointment of officers 
morally and intellectually unfit for their positions, 
to whom love and justice, the very foundation princi- 
ples of all lasting control over men, seemed entirely 

But whatever drawbacks the discipline of Camp 
Barry interposed to our happiness as individuals, it 
must be admitted (not, however, as in any way due 
to the management of the Post Commander) that we 
became good soldiers here. The frequent and vig- 
orous drills of our efficient Captain made us, on the 
authority of a no less competent judge than (Jen. 
Barry himself, accomplished as artillerists, and of 
this education we were reasonably proud. 

Leaves of absence were frequently granted to go 
up into the city, and even as far as Alexandria, 
When approved by (leu. Casey 

In the earlier part of our sojourn here it was de- 
cided to build a stable large enough to accommodate 
eight hundred horses, and details of men for this 
purpose from the various batteries then in the brig- 
ade were ordered to report to David 11. Stowell, our 
artificer, who was to have charge of its construction. 


A violent rain-storm and wind threw down the sta- 
bles when only partly finished; but they were after- 
wards carried on to successful completion. As we 
were told there would be an extra allowance of forty 
cents per day made for our labor, we looked upon 
the enterprise as something desirable, especially as 
it exempted us from all camp duties; but as the 
wages expected never came to hand, the question of 
interest to the detail from the Battery afterwards 
was, why not? 

With the arrival of Thanksgh ing there came to 
many of the men boxes freighted with good things 
from home. < apt. Sleeper generously added to the 
occasion a contribution of six turkeys, which, with 
others already purchased, enabled us, so far as eat- 
ables affected the subject, to pass the day in a man- 
ner at least approximating its accustomed dignity 
and importance. 

December loth the bloody battle of Fredericks- 
burg was fought, and we recall at this moment the 
sadness that pervaded our camp on the two succeed- 
ing days, when we saw over across on Tapitol Hill 
the long line of ambulances passing slowly along, 
depositing their suffering loads of human freight, 
from that disastrous field, in the Lincoln hospitals 
just erected here as if in anticipation of this very 

At ("amp Barry the practice of baking our beans 
in the ground in a hole dug and thoroughly heated 
for the purpose was initiated, and this innovation on 
the previous custom of stewing them became so pop- 
ular that it was ever after adopted whenever our 
stay in a camp was long enough to permit it. 

Our situation was now becoming daily more vex- 
atious from continued innovations on former cus- 
toms and the principles of common sense, when the 


long expected and now much desired order to move 
was received. It arrived Christinas day, which this 
year came on Thursday The evening was spent in 
packing up and making all necessary preparations 
for departure on the morrow * 

At this place we took our first lesson in sundering 
tender ties that had grown up between ourselves 
and the little conveniences we had devised and ar- 
ranged to make camp life more cosy and comfort- 
able. The amount of baggage we could take was 
necessarily limited, and such a selection should be 
made as would result only in the "survival of the 
fittest." Many little knick-knacks sent from home 
must be left behind, or in some inconceivable way 
taken along; and this experience was repeated over 
and over again in our subsequent history, more espe- 
cially when about to leave winter-quarters. Xo one 
not a soldier can appreciate the emotions of the sol- 
diers when the time came for them to part with the 
little seven-by-nine huts they had made their homes 
for a few weeks, — structures rude enough at best, 
but to which they were none the less attached, — 
fitted up with bunks, closets, shelves, fireplaces, and 
other such conveniences; intimately associated, too, 
with social pastimes and dreams, and news of home 
and dear ones. These they must leave to go, 
whither? to return — in all probability never; for in 
tlie uncertainties attending the duration of human 
life in active service, that very day might be their 
last on earth. Can it be wondered at, then, that 
like the Indians, as stated by Story, tliey should 
turn and take a last sad look at the roofless houses 
they were leaving behind? 

" The preparation for departure was temporarily enlivened by 
L'apt. Sleeper"* tent taking fire and burning down. 




Oct. 18. Received from Quartermaster Dana, 14 
horses, 3 baggage wagons and 1 ambulance — mak- 
ing in all 125 horses. 

Oct. 19. One horse died from influenza and cold, 
contracted while being transported. 

Nov. 4. Senior 2nd Lieut. Asa Smith arrived in 
camp and reported for duty 

Nov. 5. One horse died from cold, &c. 

Nov. 7. James J. Woodard left camp without 

Nov 8. One horse died from inflammation and 

Nov 11. One horse died from stoppage and one 
horse strayed and never found. 

Nov 15. Private Jonathan E. Childs died at 
Emory Hospital of typhoid fever. Six horses con- 
demned and returned to quartermaster Dana. 

Nov 16. George M. Dixon was carried to Eben- 
ezer Hospital. 

Nov 21. Samuel A bell still remains at Boston, 
sick. Received from Quartermaster Dana 12 horses. 

Nov 23. Alonzo N. Merrill sick in quarters and 
George K. Putnam finger jammed badly 

Nov 24. George K. Putnam sick in quarters. 

Nov. 25. George K. Putnam, A. A. Blandin and 
Franklin Ward sick in quarters. One horse died 
of * * 

Nov 26. George K. Putnam, Charles E. Prince 
and A. N. Merrill sick. 

Nov 27 James Dwight, Charles E. Woodis, J. L. 
W Thayer, S. A. Hanson sick in quarters. George 
M. Dixon sent to Emory Hospital. 

Nov. 28. Franklin Ward and George K. Putnam 


sick in quarters. A. B. Fisher assigned to extra 
duty since Sept. !>, '<!2 (?) by Major Munroe, by re- 
quest of Captain * * 

Nov 20. Prince sick in quarters. 

Nov 30. Prince returned to duty 

Dec. 1. Sergt. Woodtin sent to Post Hospital. 
Corp'l Starkweather sick in quarters. J. J. Wood- 
ard deserted Nov 7, 18(12. 

Dec. 2. Three wagoners, Chas. E. Bruce. Alvin 
Abbott and F A. Chase detailed on extra duty 

Dec. 3. Corp'l Starkweather returned to duty 

Dec. 4. One horse died of inflammation of the 

Dec. 6. Ward, Putnam and Woodfin returned to 

Dec. 7 John W French, Alvin B. Fisher, Chas. 
E. Bruce, Alvin Abbott, F A. Chase and Charles 
Slack detailed on extra duty as per Special Order 
No. 17, Headquarters Camp Barry, from Oct. 17, T>2. 
H. B. Winslow and Franklin Ward sick in quarters. 

Dec. 8. H. B. Winslow returned to duty 

Dec. 10. M. G. Critchett, John Pedrick and R. B. 
Wendall sick in quarters. 

Dec. 11. M. (t. Critchett returned to duty. 

Dec. 12. Chas. X. Packard and Joseph Cross sick- 
in quarters. One horse shot, disease glanders, by 
order of Capt. * * 

Dec. 13. Chas. X. Packard returned to duty 
The Battery, books, quarters, stables «.V:c,, &c, were 
fully inspected by Col. Webb. 

Dec. 14. Chas. E. Bruce relieved from extra duty 
and pay the 12th and Roswell Bemis takes his place 
and pay as ambulance driver and extra duty man 
from Dec. * * Joseph Cross and John Pedrick re- 
turned to duty 

Dec 15. R. B. Wendall returned to duty 


Dec. 19. Franklin Ward sent to Emory Hospital. 
E. B. Wendall and George W Park sick in quarters. 

Dec. 20. Geo. W Park returned to duty. One 
horse died of gravel in foot which caused fever. No. 
1 on inspection report. 

Dec. 21. E. B. Wendall sent to Post Hospital. 

Dec. 23. James Peach sick in quarters. 

Dec. 25. H. B. Winslow, 2nd., sick in quarters. 

Dec. 20. Received 12 horses from Quartermaster 
Dana. Six horses condemned and turned over to 
Quartermaster Dana. Started for Poolsville, Md., 
about 10.30 o'clock. H. B. Winslow and E. B. Wen- 
dall left in hospital at Camp Barry. 



JJircinbrr M. ism. to Jiuir .1',. ISCJ. 



Friday morning, Dec. 26, about 10.30 o'clock, we 
turned our backs on Camp Barry with little reluc- 
tance, and moving up Maryland Avenue past the 
Capitol into Pennsylvania Avenue, thence on 
through Georgetown, we entered the main 
road leading to the upper Potomac. The 
weather had been mild for several days, and 
the roads being dry and hard enabled us to 
move along easily. The tempting persimmon 
trees near the roadside, bending with their 
luscious fruit, now fully ripened by the frost, allured 
the cannoneers to frequent excursions from the 
main body. At noon we halted in a grove near a 
running stream and prepared and ate dinner. Thus 
far the journey seemed more like a holiday trip than 
the advance of a military detachment. 

At 3 P.M. we halted for the day and put our guns 
"In Battery." A stack of unthreshod oats near by, 
for which certificates of indebtedness Avere given to 
the owner, furnished supper for the horses and ex- 
cellent beds for many of us, while others slept be- 
tween the folds of the tarpaulins. These latter 
were large squares of canvas used to cover the guns 
and caissons. They were frequently employed af- 
terwards for a night's shelter when on the march, as 
they afforded protection from storms, and could be 


folded and strapped upon the limbers at short no- 

Passing on through Darnestown, Tenallytown, 
and Kockville, we bivouacked one more night, and 
the next day, Sunday, Dec. 2S, about 11 o'clock A.M., 
arrived at Poolsville. This was a little settlement, 
of strong secession proclivities, on the upper Poto- 
mac, near Edwards Ferry, interesting as the scene 
of frequent guerrilla raids. In the most recent of 
These Maj. White and a party of his followers, who 
belonged in this neighborhood, had surprised and 
< aptured a body of fifty or seventy -five Union cav- 
alry one evening while they were at church in the 
town, the officer in command having neglected to 
leave any one on guard. One of the assailing party 
fell. His grave is still to be seen (1ST!)) in the little 
cemetery near the church.. 

Partly through the influence of a Mr Metzger, the 
postmaster, who, except one Dr. Brace, was the only 
Inion man in the town, more troops were at once 
sent, and we found already encamped here the Four- 
teenth New Hampshire and Thirty-ninth Massachu- 
setts regiments, commanded by Colonels Wilson and 
Davis, respectively "How are you, Boxford?'' was 
the greeting from the latter regiment as soon as we 
were recognized, and it seemed like meeting old 
friends to fall in with those who had been encamped 
with us on the soil of Massachusetts. 

We were now considered to be in the enemy's 
country, and great vigilance was thought necessar}\ 
On the second morning we were aroused at 1 o'clock, 
and turning out in the darkness, hastily harnessed, 
only to find when everything was ready, that it was 
a hoax to see how quickly we could be on hand in an 
emergency Such artifices are frequently resorted 
to by officers when either they or their commands, 
or both, are "green." 


At first we pitched our tents cm a level tract of 
laud outside aud near the town, but it being consid- 
ered by Dr. Brace too flat to be healthy, we moved 
soon afterwards to a rise of ground a few rods dis- 
tant. Here Ave laid out a plan for a permanent 
camp. From the quarters occupied by Gen. Stone's 
troops prior to Ball's Bluff disaster, and from the 
barn-yards and rail fences of the neighboring farm- 
ers, we obtained materials for building a stable; this 
was erected around three sides of a square and 
thatched with straw The walls were constructed 
by setting up rails a foot apart and weaving among 
them huge ropes of straw twisted by hand. Thus 
comfortable quarters were made for the horses. 
This structure was finished towards the last of Jan- 
uary, and occupied the centre of the camp. The 
tents were arranged as at Boxford, six on either 
side, removed from the wings of the stable by a 
street about, two rods wide. Within the square 
stood the harness racks, while in front the Batterv 
was "parked."' 

The weather being pleasant for some days after 
our arrival, our drills were resumed with the cus- 
tomary vigor. In one of these a sham fight was had 
between the Battery and a body of "Scott s Xine 
Hundred" cavalry that had recently encamped near 
by As the contest waxed warm and men became 
excited, Frank Loham, Xo. Two man on the second 
piece, was quite seriously wounded in the face and 
breast by a premature discharge. 

Once in a while the whole or a part of the Bat- 
tery was taken out for target practice. On one of 
these occasions a distant pig-pen was the object 
aimed at, and immediatelv after a well-directed 
shot, the occupant, who, it seemed, was at home, is- 
sued forth very promptly, attended by her family, 


unharmed, but amazingly astonished. On another 
occasion the colors were set up as a target, and the 
staff was cut in halves by a ball from a spherical 
case shot. 

The stormy season came at last, with its accom- 
paniment of mud, and drilling was at an end for a 
time. Through what "Sloughs of Despond" our 
teams wallowed in their quests for fuel ! And what 
a seemingly bottomless bed of liquid mortar was the 
principal street of the desolate little town, where 
luckless pedestrians picked their uncertain way 
from stone to rail, knowing that a single misstep 
would be hazardous! But let us leave the mire of 
the town, and returning to our own well-drained 
camp, get a closer view of a soldier s life in winter- 
quarters. Passing the officers tents, which occup3 r 
an elevated spot slightly removed from the rest of 
the camp, among locust trees, thence, leaving the 
cook-house, the orderly's tent, the saddler's, which 
stand first on the left flank, we will enter one of the 
Sibley tents. In the centre is a circular hearth of 
stone or brick, on which is erected an oven-like 
structure a foot high. On this oven rests the coni- 
cal stove, glowing witli cheerful heat, while before 
it kneels one of the inmates, striving to bake a ban- 
nock of corn meal in an old cracked spider picked up 
somewhere. Around sit the other occupants of the 
tent, on their ticks of straw (a luxury which we left 
at Poolsville) now rolled up and covered with the 
blankets, or upon camp-stools of home manufacture, 
engaged in mending, playing cards, checkers, or 
chess; while yet others are writing home, or reading 
newspapers not three days old. Suddenly the can- 
vas flap is pushed aside, and the broad face, broad 
lips, broad body, and broad feet of an aged negro ap- 
per. His jet-black face is set off by scanty clusters 


of snow-white hair. His loosely hung frame totters 
somewhat on his misshapen legs, whose strength is 
eked out by a stout cane. His features express that 
odd mixture, so common to his class, of profound ig- 
norance, fatherly benevolence, and patronizing in- 
terest, which old age seems to confer. On one arm 
he bears with difficulty a large basket. 

"Good morning, uncle Walter! How do you do?" 
is the kindly greeting on all sides, showing him to 
be no stranger; and a half-dozen hands are stretched 
out to relieve him of his load, and lead him to the 
best stool in the tent. 

"What have you to sell this morning, uncle?" 

"Wal, I brought you ober a few biscuits, gem- 

He removes the clean white napkin, and reveals 
his really tempting supply, still fresh and warm 
from the oven. They are evidently the work of a 
skilful hand. 

"Why, uncle, how is it you always have so much 
better biscuits than any one else?" 

"Wal, I reckon de ole woman knows how to make 
'em good, and I tells her not to cheat de boys, but to 
gib 'em good measure; dey're hungry and need it." 

After buying a plentiful supply of the biscuits we 
allow him to go and peddle his wares through the 
camp, knowing that in every tent he will receive a 
warm welcome, and finally depart with an empty 
basket and heavier purse. 

As February advanced the weather became still 
more inclement, confining us quite closely to the 
tents, and enforcing an amount of leisure that gave 
opportunity for an abundance of grumbling — that 
time-honored prerogative of the soldier. 

February 22d, we turned out in a driving snow- 
storm, that would have done New England credit, 


to fire a national salute of thirty-four guns, in honor 
of the Father of his Country 

The long continued absence of the paymaster, 
whom Ave had not seen since our departure from 
home, was the theme of frequent speculation and 
the source of much of the grumbling. Our food, too, 
was not always of the most appetizing kind, and 
when, on being supplied with flour, Ave, in the sim- 
plicity of our hearts, traded it at the bakery in the 
town for bread, judge of our dismay on being in- 
formed that we had committed a crime of whose 
enormity we could be little aware. We might cook 
the flour ourselves (an easy task without stoves or 
ovens!), or we might hire it cooked, (another easy 
task Avith our pay nearly six months in arrears!), or 
we might leave it undraAvn and allow its value to 
accumulate in that mysterious investment knoAvn as 
the Com pan j/ Fund, — a bourne from Avhence no 
profits ever returned, certainly not to the members 
of the Tenth Massachusetts Battery, and whose un- 
written history would make- entertaining reading, — 
but to swap it off for bread was a heinous offence in- 
deed; and in the interest of the Fund, whose amount 
was to be divided at the end of the Avar, so much per 
capita coming as a kind of endowment, the swap- 
ping should cease. 

The scarcity of tobacco, through the absence of 
its purchasing poAver, acted on the nerves of some; 
and the sIoav progress of the war spread a gloom 
over others, who were ready to make common cause 
with the copperheads in their discussions. There 
Avas probably more downright grumbling in our 
camps at Poolsville than during our entire subse- 
quent experience, Avhen greater hardships had be- 
gotten a spirit of greater patience, and when we had 
become more accustomed to the constraints that 
military service entails. 


But this winter of our discontent was by no means 
devoid of enlivening srenes. Sometimes, when the 
beef known as "salt horse," served out to us for din- 
ner, was extremely unsavory, straightway a bier 
was improvised from a hard-tack box. the remains 
of the poor horse laid thereon in state, and a worn- 
out currycomb or a dilapidated bridle placed beside 
it as appropriate insignia of rank. The whole was 
then borne off in solemn procession to the mournful 
music of a jews-harp and two cracked bugles. The 
cortege in its passage through the camp received nu- 
merous accessions from those anxious to do honor to 
the fallen hero, and the remains, having been car- 
ried to the sink, were consigned to their last resting- 
place and a volley of pistols fired over the grave. 

Then there were other scenes enacted under the 
cover of darkness which the impartial historian 
must not fail to notice. The inhabitants of this 
neighborhood had done their part to bring on the 
war, and now it was simply just that they should 
help feed the soldiers who must carry it on. So rea- 
soned the men who took the trouble to reason at all, 
and the following specimen extracts from a private 
diary show that the premises of many a farmer were 
laid under contribution for the benefit of the sol- 
diers of the Union: 

"Friday night. Jan. 0, a sheep came into camp." 
"On the night of Jan. 20. the army was reinforced by a carcass 

of veal." 
"Night of Feb. :;. a hen-house contributes five fowls and two 

rousing turkeys to our happiness." 

On one of these midnight forays, which a reckless 
sergeant of the guard led in person, he having com- 
municated the general countersign to his entire 
party, quite a commotion was excited. One of his 
select body was tin- Guidon, whose tendency to cm- 


boii-poiiit showed conclusively to those who knew 
him most intimately, that nothing but an intense 
love of good living had enlisted his interest; for al- 
though an urbane gentleman, an accomplished 
knight of the quill, and an expert at cribbage and 
euchre, his comrades always expected him to do the 
ornamental part when any detail was made for 
fatigue duty On this particular occasion it seems 
a flock of sheep was the object of the expedition. 
As soon as the raiders came upon them in the dark- 
ness, naturally enough they cantered away, and 
equally natural was it that their adversaries should 
pursue. This they at once did, and foremost in the 
van was the Guidon, who led off with an impetuos- 
ity rarely equalled and truly surprising; but the 
sheep were more accustomed to this kind of busi- 
ness than he was and seemed to be gaining on him. 
This was too much for the equanimity of the gallant 
color-bearer. In his mind's eye he had already 
made a savory repast off one of them, — had scented 
the delicious odors from broiling chops, — had 
buried his knife deep in a hind-quarter roasted and 
done to a turn by "Black Mary,*' — and now to be 
cheated out of his prey was too much to expect of 
human nature. He draws his revolver and dashes 
forward with renewed determination. His blood is 
fully up, and as he nears the flock he empties at 
least three barrels among them, which appears to re- 
sult in no bodily injury to the sheep, but calls down 
the maledictions of the sergeant on his head for his 
indiscretion. This in a few moments becomes ap- 
parent, for the Are of the pickets is drawn, the Long 
Roll is sounded, and the infantry turned out to repel 
an expected attack, the shots by the Guidon having 
been supposed to be from the enemy. The maraud- 
ers skulked back to camp by the quickest route, 


bringing with them three sheep that had been 
quietly captured by the other members of the 
party; but uo one, outside of a small interested num- 
ber in the Battery, ever knew the cause of all the tu- 
mult in tamp that night, and, so far as can be as- 
certained, it was the final appearance of the Guidon 
in the role of a raider. 

One of the men, an expert in the business, took 
poultry from the premises of Dr. Brace near by, in 
open daylight. He was detected, however, and by 
order of the Captain taken under guard to the house 
to return the fowls, now ready for the pot, and make 
a suitable apology for his offence, which he did. He 
remarked to the Captain in extenuation of his guilt 
that people ought to know better than to padlock a 
door hung with leather hinges. 

Here, too, three or four swine belonging to Tom 
Gott, a neighboring farmer, were sacrificed; but 
these were all paid for by those who indulged in the 
luxury, their offence being too public to let pass un- 

A minstrel troupe comprising nearly a dozen 
members of the Company was organized, and fre- 
quently played in the Captain s mess tent. During 
the winter and spring several concerts were given in 
the Town Hall near by to quite large audiences, 
composed mainly of the officers of the brigade and 
their friends from in and around the town. 

At one time it devolved upon ('apt. Sleeper to in- 
spect the detachment of "Scott's Nine Hundred" 
cavalry, to which reference has already been made. 
As might have been expected by any one who knew 
anything about this body, he reported them to be in 
a poor state of discipline and generally in an un- 
soldierly condition. This was mild in the light of 
the actual facts; but it so enraged the German Cap- 


tain iu command of them, that, stimulated by com- 
missary whiskey, he afterwards rode up to Capt. 
Sleeper's tent, revolver in hand, bent on his destruc- 
tion. Fortunately, however, the Captain was away, 
or the recklessness of the frenzied Teuton might 
have cost one or the other his life; and although it 
is said to be sweet and pleasant to die for one's 
country, it certainly would be no gain to the country 
or glory to posterity to fall a victim to the rage of a 
drunken idiot. 

Spring at last appeared, bringing clearer skies 
and the advent of the long expected paymaster. 
The mud gradually dried up, drills and target prac- 
tice were resumed, and grumbling and despondency 
ceased. Burners of enemies hovering near, suspect- 
ed plans of the citizens to capture our camp by a 
sudden night attack, and the large number of pris- 
oners brought in by the cavalry pickets, caused in- 
creased watchfulness and excitement. The bread 
question was still unsettled and seemed as perverse 
as Banquo's ghost. In some mysterious manner the 
Hour still disappeared daily, and the men continued 
to have bread fresh from the bakery At last a com- 
promise was effected, a large oven drawn from the 
commissarv department, and thenceforward our 
bread was baked in camp. 

By the middle of April the Thirty-ninth Massachu- 
setts and Fourteenth New Hampshire regiments 
were ordered away, and our prospects became a mat- 
ter of interest. The Twenty-third Maine and Tenth 
Vermont regiments, which had been distributed 
along the river at the fords, and the squadron of 
cavalry, constituted, besides our own Company, the 
entire force remaining; seemingly just weak enough, 
so we thought, to tempt a surprise from Mosby and 
his gang the first favorable opportunity. However, 


he did not appear to think so, and everything re- 
mained quiet until the ISth of April, when we struck 
our tents, packed up, bade adieu to Camp Davis, as 
it was called in honor of the Colonel of the Thirty- 
ninth Massachusetts, and moved out of town nearly 
a mile to spend an indefinite season. Our new camp 
(called Heintzelman, in honor of the commander of 
the defences of Washington under whom we then 
were) was located on the premises of one Henry 
Young. An airy awning was built over the picket 
to shelter the horses; trees, both pine and cedar, 
were cut and set about our tents; arbors were built 
in front of some; and, on the whole, Ave seemed likely 
to have quite a desirable summer residence. 

Having got fully established once more, the usual 
routine camp duties were resumed. These were the 
halcyon days of the Battery, when it had reached its 
highest state of proficiency in drill. 

As proof of our expertness an observer might have 
seen the Battery drawn up on the drill-ground on 
Benson's farm, adjoining the camp, some morning, 
unlimbered for action, the cannoneers standing 
about the guns. At a given command they spring at 
them. Each man has his own special part to per- 
form, and this he strictly attends to or confusion 
would ensue. The handspikes, sponge buckets, and 
other implements are stripped off with the utmost 
dispatch; the trail is raised in air, the gun at once 
tipped and poised on its muzzle, freed from the car- 
riage, and dropped on the ground. The wheels are 
next removed and laid beside the axle, and the bat- 
tery lies in pieces on the turf. The cannoneers then 
resume their stations. Again, at the command, 
they spring to the work; the wheels instantly slip to 
their places; by a strong pull altogether four men 
raise the gun with handspikes till it is again poised 


on the muzzle; meanwhile, the carriage has been 
pushed up with elevated trail, and the heavy piece 
falls back promptly with its trunnions in their ap- 
pointed sockets. A few nimble leaps restore the 
implements to their respective places, and the Bat- 
tery is ready for action. When all is completed, if 
the observer has noted the time, he will find that the 
carriages have been taken to pieces, put together 
again, and the motions of loading and firing gone 
through with, in less than a minute. This manoeu- 
vre was once accomplished by the Fourth Detach- 
ment in forty-nine seconds. 

In this camp, as in ( 'amp Davis, occasional inci- 
dents occurred to enliven the monotony of drill. At 
one time we were inspected by a lieutenant from the 
Tenth Vermont Infantry, who evidently knew but 
little of artillery matters, and being under the influ- 
ence of too much "commissary " ventured criticisms 
on no point except our dishes, taking the opportu- 
nity to recommend to us a new improvement, sold 
by a Capt. Dillingham of his regiment, consisting 
of a dipper furnished with a wire bail. He returned 
in transports at our appearance, and, having seen 
double, reported ('apt. Sleeper's Battery of twelve 
guns and three hundred men as in splendid condi- 
tion. We, on the other hand, took the hint about the 
dippers, and from that day forward a tin vessel fitted 
with a wire bail was known among us as a "Dilling- 

The weather becoming quite warm, nearly every 
man appeared under a straw hat, purchased in the 
town at the store of Jesse T. Higgins, one of two 
grocers then located there. 

During the first week in May the battle of Chan- 
cellorsville was fought and lost. Soon afterwards 
the Rebel movement northward began, and our days 


of quiet were broken in upon by frequent rumors of 
a move. The centre section, commanded by Lieut. 
Asa Smith, was sent to Edwards Ferry the 9th of 
May, and its jjuns put. in position to com m ami the 
crossing of the Potomac and the mouth of Coose 
(reek opposite. It was supported by a squadron of 
cavalry under command of (/apt. Closson. 

During its stay there Capt. Sleeper concluded to 
try an experiment, which was, to see how long it 
would require, should any emergency arise de- 
manding it, to hitch in the rest of the Battery and 
join this section at the Ferry The "Boot and Sad- 
dle" call was sounded, the horses taken from the 
picket, harnessed, hitched in, the cannoneers 
mounted, and the two sections driven at rapid speed 
over the more than two miles that intervened, reach- 
ing their destination in just forty-four minutes after 
the bugle call. Satisfactory as the result was iu 
the testing of this particular question, it nevertheless 
came near resulting disastrously; for the centre sec- 
tion, unapprised of the experiment, made up of fear- 
less men, and commanded by one of the same kind, 
when they saw the continuous cloud of dust raised 
bj the approaching column, very naturally surmis- 
ing it to be a squadron of Bebel cavalry dashing 
down upon them, manned the guns, and in another 
instant would have sent their deadly compliments 
among their own brethren when, providentially the.v 
caught a glimpse of the colors, and the disaster was 

Another incident in which this detached section 
played an interesting part has been the subject of 
much pleasantry inside and outside the Company. 
It happened that one Sunday afternoon the cannon- 
eers on lookout at the guns reported a party issuing 
from the woods into an opening some distance 


across the river. The suspected body was at 
once carefully scrutinized through field glasses, 
and declared by some to be Rebel cavalry, 
while this was doubted by others. At all 
events, a field officer of the Tenth Vermont 
Infantry,* who was present, gave orders to 
fire upon the intruders, which was done, and they 
scattered with dispatch. Shortly after the occur- 
rence, perhaps a day or two, the story was reported 
in camp that the shells had been directed at a negro 
funeral; that the mourners were just about to con- 
sign the deceased to his final resting-place when 
thus rudely interrupted. Whether this was or was 
not true still remains a mooted question, but, true or 
false, the author has thought it too good a story to 
be lost to the Company, and therefore has repro- 
duced it in brief. 

One incident more and we leave the Ferry. One 
day, in the absence of Lieut. Smith at the main 
camp, a cavalry picket came galloping at full speed 
to ('apt. ("losson s Tent, informing him that a column 
of Kebel cavalry was approaching. He at once 
went to Serg. Fred Oould, in command of the guns, 
and ordered him to fire upon the advancing column. 
This the sergeant declined to do, not feeling quite so 
sure that it was a hostile party Thereat the val- 
iant ( aptain waxed quite irate, and, laying his hand 
on his sabre, contemplated some deed of violence; 
but the sergeant's delay had warded off disaster, for 
just then the advance of the so-called enemy, which 
was no other than the Second Massachusetts Cav- 
alry, appeared above the banks of the road which 
wound around up the hill into camp. How much 
life was wasted during the war on both sides by just 
such blundering as this might have been, will never 
be known. 

* .Major Chandler. 


One day a. long, lank negro, full six feet six inches 
in height, whom Ave had seen a few times before, 
made his appearance in camp. lie was one of those 
individuals whose legs and arms are of such uncon- 
scionable extent, that, it is impossible to find panta 
loons and sleeves long enough to cover more than 
two-thirds their length. As he took a seat on a 
camp-stool, his legs, coming up grasshopper-like to a 
level with his ebony face, recalled to one's mind, in 
all except color, the quaint portraiture of Ichabod 
Crane, the schoolmaster of Sleepy Hollow Fie 
passed by the name of William Walker. He pro- 
fessed to be a spy, employed by Gen. Hooker on very 
secret service, frequenting the Rebel camps to pick 
up information, and claimed to have saved our camp 
from a surprise, early in the spring, by giving timely 
notice at headquarters. We enter into conversa- 
tion with him, and derive the usual slight amount of 
satisfaction from his answers to our inquiries. 
Every sentence is mysterious and indefinite, and 
winds up with a round guffaw He talks with great 
volubility, telling us he has just come from the en- 
emy's camp, and that w T e must get out of here, as the 
'Rebs" are coming with men enough to eat us all 
up. After this exhibition of wit, he rolls up his eyes 
with intense delight, and watches the effect of his 
remark on his auditors. He was a good-natured 
genius, and Avas never permitted to leave camp until 
he had danced and patted "Juba," Avhich he did in 
true plantation style, himself furnishing the music 
Avith his voice The picture his ungainly figure pre- 
sented on these occasions was ludicrous in the ex- 
treme. We could learn nothing definite from the 
man this time, Avhich was the last we ever saw of 
him. Whether he really was a Union spy, or, on 
the other hand, a Rebel or an impostor, Ave never 


could determine. But whatever his testimony was 
worth, it tended, with other vague rumors which 
came to our ears, to show that some important 
movement was at hand. Xo papers had come from 
Washington for some days, and Ave were left to the 
mercy of Dame Rumor for all the news we obtained, 
which was usually scarce worth repeating. At last 
there came something definite. 

On the morning of June 11, before sunrise, three 
or four cavalrymen, hatless, coatless, and covered 
with dust, came galloping into camp with their 
horses in a reeking sweat. It seems that a band of 
Mosby's cavalry surprised their little camp of forty 
men — located at Seneca, some six miles down the 
river — before they were up, killed four, took seven- 
teen prisoners, and fell to plundering the tents. 
The remainder of the detachment fought desper- 
ately a few moments, but being overpowered, took 
to flight, having killed one and wounded several of 
their assailants. They belonged to the Sixth Michi- 

As soon as the story of the terrified fugitives 
could be learned, ''Boot and Saddle" was sounded, 
everything was hastily packed up, and our little 
force marched breakfastless to higher ground in 
rear of the camp, towards Pools ville, and took posi- 
tion in line of battle, our guns being in front, the 
Tenth Vermont and Twenty-third Maine infantry 
supporting us, and the cavalry on both flanks. In 
rear of all was a stone wall, which was to serve as a 
"last ditch" if worst came to worst. In the excite- 
ment of the scene how Ave strained our eyes up the 
road and longed for the enemy s line to appear! Ever 
and anon, the dust rose in clouds, but revealed only 
galloping orderlies, and excited officers riding to 
and fro with no inconsiderable amount of the pomp 

70 the ti:xth Massachusetts batteky 

and circumstance of war. Col. Jewett, of the Tenth 
Vermont, was in command of this formidable array. 
While we were thus boldly awaiting the onset of the 
Rebels, their band was doubtless trotting leisurely 
back across the river with their booty, chuckling 
over the success of their morning's adventure. 
Could they have seen our martial array, six miles in 
their rear, their enjoyment would have been sensibly 
increased. Some of our force, with vision preter- 
naturally acute, saw an enemy in every bush, and 
one or two averred that a whole troop had passed 
through the woods a quarter of a mile distant and 
turned our flank. Others there were thirsting for 
glorv. One lieutenant of infantrv saw a stirring 
among the bushes in a ravine in front. At once his 
purpose was formed. With a look of pale determin- 
ation and lofty coinage, he unsheathed his sword, 
and alone charged fiercely down the glen. 

"Bright jdeameri his Marie 
And terrilily flashed his eye." 

Tearing apart the shrubbery that held the foe in 
concealment, he dragged hi in to the light, and be- 
held — an astonished hospital nurse in quest of 

Thus ended the ever memorable event known in 
our company as the battle of Benson's Hill, so 
called, from the name of the man on whose farm it 
might have occurred; on which occasion we seemed 
in all but numbers like the King of France, as sung 
by Mother (loose, who with forty thousand men 
marched up a hill and then marched down again. 

We returned to camp at noon; but our troubles 
did not end here. (Jen. Lee was now fairly launched 
on his great invasion of the North, and our isolated 


position seemed one fraught with much danger. 
Now and then the sound of distant cannonading told 
of cavalry contests between opposing armies as both 
were pressing northward, but we could hear noth- 
ing definite about what was actually taking place. 
Four days after the raid at Muddy Branch, or Sen- 
eca, the centre section was summoned from the 
Ferry We threw up rifle-pits on Benson's Hill 
(our first experience in this kind of engineering, 
Avhich paled before our later efforts), and kept every- 
thing packed ready to move at a moment's notice. 
Some of us packed up superfluous clothing and con- 
veniences, and expressed them home by way of 
Adamstown. Xight after night the harnesses were 
placed on the horses, and at 3 o'clock in the morn- 
ing we were turned out, sleepy and cross, to hitch 
them to the pieces in anticipation of an early attack. 
At daybreak the harnesses were taken off. One 
night, about one o clock, an officer rode into camp 
with the tidings that Kebel pickets were in posses- 
sion of our rifle-pits. 

"Ah! then and there was hurrying to and fro" in 
the darkness, and silent mustering and mutterings 
of warriors. "All communication with Washing- 
ton is cut off!" was whispered round. "We are to 
fight desperately if attacked, and fall back on Har- 
per s Ferry " A truly agreeable prospect, that his- 
toric place being more than thirty miles distant! One 
section of the Battery was sent out with a reconnoi- 
tering party, which returned in a half hour report- 
ing a false alarm. It arose, as we ascertained in 
the morning, from three or four cavalrymen who 
had strayed from a detachment of Hooker's army 
and lain down by the wall to sleep. We treated 
them to a good breakfast, and from them received 
our first reliable news of the great invasion. Soon 


after, men from Edwards Ferry reported the Army 
of the Potomac as crossing there. An army tele- 
graph was being stretched past our camp, said to 
connect with Gen. Hooker's headquarters and we 
now felt safe from attack, but seemed likely to be 
swept into the current and borne on to the great bat- 
tle which all felt must soon be fought. The scat- 
tered companies of the infantry regiments that had 
been out at various points on picket were called in, 
and our brigade received orders to be ready to 
march. All our tents and superfluous camp equip- 
age were turned over to the quartermaster to be sent 
to the rear, our personal baggage reduced to the 
smallest possible limit, then stowed in our knap- 
sacks, now not quite as distended as when we left 
Massachusetts. These were then strapped upon the 
pieces and caissons, and having at last received 
marching orders, at 6 o'clock in the afternoon of 
June 24, 1863, we bade adieu, most of us forever, to 
our old camp and the village of Poolsville. 

As we turn in retrospect upon our sojourn here, 
removed from the occurrence by a lapse of so many 
years, there are thoughts which present themselves 
perhaps not unworthy of noting down in passing. 
And first, with regard to our bodily comfort. Those 
of us who were fortunate enough to keep off the sick- 
list underwent no privations worthy of mention 
save absence from our families, which was of course 
inseparable from the nature of the case; and those 
who were seriously sick were at once removed to 
Washington, where good nursing and medical at 
tendance were always to be had. Dr. Child, of the 
Tenth Vermont, was the brigade surgeon, and, so 
far as we know, was competent in his calling. Our 
living was, in the main, good enough. It was not 
what we were accustomed to at home, and very 


properly should not have been. On the other hand, 
many of the men who grumbled loudest and were 
the daintiest, in all probability lived no better be- 
fore their enlistment, and perhaps have not since 
their discharge, than they lived during their six 
months' stay here. We are making no apology for 
the animated hard-tack, or stale beef that was too 
frequently served out to us; but taking a broad and 
dispassionate survey of the whole field, it is our can- 
did conviction that the Company was not badly 
served in the matter of rations, on the whole. We did 
believe, however, and with good reason as we still 
think, that inasmuch as the Battery did not use all 
its allowances, a large surplus had or ought to have 
accumulated in the Company Fund, already men- 
tioned; and this should have been properly ac- 
counted for, and ultimately inured in some manner 
to the benefit of the Company This being the case, 
we do not know how much better we might have 
been served under proper management, and hence a 
foothold is made for the complaint of unjust admin- 
istration in the department of subsistence. 

The disposition to improve our bill of fare at the 
expense of neighboring farm-yards seemed to have 
died out with our departure from Camp Davis. A 
more extended familiarity with the adjacent terri- 
tory, and, as a consequence, a better acquaintance 
with the people, who, although secessionists, ap- 
peared more like human beings than we had be- 
lieved it possible for Kebels to do, had made us 
somewhat more merciful to their effects. And 
again, whether we condemn or approve the charac- 
ter of the government rations furnished us, there 
was certainly a very perceptible increase in the 
pounds avoirdupois of a large portion of the Com- 
pany, whose daily routine may be fairly stated as 


follows, breakfast, sleep, drill; dinner, sleep, drill; 
supper, sleep; — the result of which was a condi- 
tion of body and mind positively antagonistic to 
tiresome raids over fences, fields, and ditches in the 
darkness, and in the uncertain and sometimes dan- 
gerous pursuit of xi><<-ial rations. 

Our living was at times obtained quite indepen- 
dently of the government, by means of the boxes 
from home, that were received with greater or less 
frequency These were always inspected, at head- 
quarters before they came into our possession, and 
all contraband articles, in the line of liquors, con- 
fiscated. This seemed one of the singular anomalies 
of the war, that intoxicants were regarded a 
dangerous indulgence for the private soldier, who, 
in comparison had no responsibility, but the correct 
thing for the commissioned officer, upon whom de- 
volved rcrri/ responsibility Could this state of af- 
fairs have been exactly reversed, or, better still, 
could all liquors, save for hospital uses, have been 
proscribed in the army, we believe the war would 
have been ended long, before it was, and many a 
hearthstone, now desolate, would be gladdened by 
the presence of the unfortunate ones who, in various 
ways, fell innocent victims to this great curse. 

To see the eager crowd gather round the recipient 
of a box and watch the unpacking and unwrapping 
of every article, and each commend as approvingly 
as if the contents were his own, would have rejoiced 
the hearts of the kind friends at home. It was 
downright enjoyment to them. If they belonged to 
the same tent's crew with the owner of the treasure 
they were sure of a closer interview than a simple 
observation gave them; for the war, with its com- 
munity of interest, developed sympathy and large- 
hearted generosity among the rank and file, and 



they shared liberally, especially with those who had 
no one at home to remember them in this pleasant 

With our departure from Poolsville more than 
nine months of our term of service had expired. If 
we had not made our mark in active service the 
fault was not our own. We obeyed orders, we did 
not originate them. It was not unusual for troops 
to be inactive several months after their muster. It 
will be remembered, too, that there was little activ- 
ity in the main army after our arrival at Washing- 
ton. The Army of the Potomac lay inactive nearly 
five months subsequent to the disastrous battle of 
Fredericksburg. But there is no doubt whatever 
about our having been serviceable here, and that 
the presence of our brigade at the upper fords of the 
Potomac did prevent frequent incursions of Rebel 
raiders into this section. 

But there are other reasons for claiming that 
these were valuable months for the Company and 
the government. First, then, there is of necessity 
a broad chasm to be spanned between the citizen 
and the full-fledged soldier. The citizen possesses 
certain rights in whose exercise he is restricted when 
he becomes a soldier. As a citizen he has a voice 
in deciding who shall be his rulers; as a soldier, 
usually none: as a citizen he is justly bound to obey 
all laws intended to promote the general Avelfare, 
since he had a voice in making them; as a soldier he 
is held rigidly accountable for the infringement of 
all military laws, in whose making he had no voice. 
It matters not if they are the mandates of the veri- 
est tyrant in the army, or if they violate every princi- 
ple of reason, common-sense, or justice; the laws of 
the service are inexorable, and its exigencies require 
an unflinching and exact obedience. The existence 

7S tup: tkntii massacihsiotts k.vttkry 

of ;i conscience in the person of the offender is not 
for a moment l«> he considered. \s a citizen Ins 
lime is wholly his own; as a soldier there is not a 
second to which he can surely lay claim. The citi- 
zen calls no man master; the soldier may be com- 
pelled to bow before a man infinitely his inferior in 
every respect, -illustrations of which were very 
frequent during the Avar. In view of these and 
other considerations that misfit be cited, time was 
a very desirable and potent agency in bringing 
about the adaptation of the citizen to the new order 
of things. 

Again, the fact of our proficiency in light artillery 
tactics has already been alluded to, and we only re- 
fer to it here as a second advantage derived in these 
early months. Instances were not wanting, during 
the Kebellion, of batteries being sent to the front, 
under a pressing demand for troops, as soon as they 
received their guns, without this thorough prepara- 
tion. They had the implements of warfare, it is 
true, but were the merest apprentices with them, 
and consequently, when involved in an action, had 
no confidence in themselves and felt comparatively 
helpless. There can be but one result under such 
circumstances, —that of confusion and disaster to 
this particular organization, and, perhaps, through 
it to others. Hence, whenever we reflect upon our 
record at Camp Harry and at I'oolsville in this re- 
spect, it arouses our pride, and we feel that these 
were valuable months in the school of the soldier. If 
the Tenth Massachusetts liatterv was a unit during 
its nearly three years of service, — and it certainly 
was; if the men were subordinate to their superiors, 
■■- and the residents of I'oolsville say they left a 
good impression there in this respect; if t lie Battery 
did its full duty whenever its services were called 


for, — and the official reports do it ample justice on 
tbis head; if its members ever stood up manfully to 
their work, confident in their own strength, fear- 
lessly dealing out death and destruction among the 
enemy, silencing battery after battery, under adver- 
sity defiantly contesting every inch of ground, — and 
we challenge any company in the service, engaged 
the same number of times, to show a better rec- 
ord; if the history of this organization in its entirety 
is one of which its members, its friends, and the 
Commonwealth may justly be proud, — and this 
fact has received recognition on many public occa- 
sions; — the pages of that history were heightened 
in their glorv and brilliancy by sharp general and 
individual discipline in the schools of Camp Barry 
and Poolsville. 

Before taking our leave of this camp, it is proper 
to note that Frederick F Brown and Moses G. 
Critchett bad added their names to the list 
of deserters, the former decamping before the 
Company's arrival at Poolsville, and the lat- 
ter from Camp Ileintzelman. To the credit 
of our organization it may bere be stated that these 
were the first and only original members to desert 
their flag and the cause in which they had volun- 



Dec. 27 Horse died of glanders. 

Dec. 28. One horse died of disease of the liver. 
Arrived at Poolsville about 11 o'clock A.M. 

Dec. 31. Mustered in for pay by Maj. H. M. Trem- 
lett, 39th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers. 



Jan. :!. George II. Innis, Samuel J. Bradlee, E. T. 
Alwoiid and Harmon Newton sick in quarters. 

Jan. 4. Ceorge H. Innis returned to duty. 
Sorg't. (ieo. H. Putnam sick. 

•Tan. •>. William Bawson sick in quarters. Serg't. 
Alden sick in (quarters. 

Jan. (i. Wm. kawsou returned to duty Joseph 
Brooks and John Norton * * * 

Jan. 7 Francis Loham sick in Camp Hospital. 
Serg'ts Alden and Putnam returned to duty 

Jan. 8. Harmon Newton returned to duty. C. 
N. Barker sick in quarters. 

Jan. 0. S. J. Bradlee and Joseph Brooks returned 
to duty. 

Jan. 10. Joseph Cross and W S. Koundy sick in 

Jan. II. James Dwight returned to duty. 

Jan. 12. W S. Koundy returned to duty. 

Jan. 11. C. E. Woodis sick in quarters. 

Jan. 15. Wm. Rawson sick in quarters. 

Jan. 18. John M. Bamsdell sick in quarters. 

Jan. 19. Wm. Bawson returned to duty. Rich- 
ard Martin and A. D. Bacon sick in quarters. 

Jan. 20. Richard Martin returned to duty. John 
W French and James Dwight sick in quarters. 

Jan. 21. James Dwight and John M. Bamsdell re- 
turned to duty Beceived notice of G. M. Dixon's 

Jan. 2o. Amasa D. Bacon returned to duty. Wm. 
Edwards sick in quarters. One bay horse died of 

Jan. 21. Error in a horse made 20 Dec; 7 horses 
were condemned, not 6 as there stated. 

Jan. 25. Chas. E. Woodis, Jos. Cross and Wm. 
Edwards returned to duty. J. L. W Thayer sick in 


Jau. 2(>. J. L. W Thayer returned to duty. 
Joseph Brooks sick in quarters. 

Jan. 27 8. A. Hanson returned to duty 

Jan. 28. Jos. Cross and 8. A. Hanson returned to 

Jan. 29. Harrison Chase returned to quarters. 

Jan. 30. Joseph Cross and -John (Harmon?) New- 
ton returned to light duty 

Jan. 31. Harrison Chase returned to duty 
John (?) Newton, Jos. Cross, John P. Brown and F 
A. Chase sick in quarters. 

Feb. 1. John Pedrick sick in quarters. Tin? 
Battery, books, quarters, stable «K:c., Mere fully in- 
spected by Col. P S. Davis, 39th Massachusetts Beg- 

Feb. 2. James Peach returned to duty One bay 
horse, white faced, ridden by Sergt. Townseud, died 
of lung fever. Harrison Chase and John H. Know- 
land sick in quarters. 

Feb. 3. E. T. Atwood, C. X. Barker, Frank A. 
Chase, and John H. Knowland reported for duty. 
Capt. Sleeper went on furlough. Benj. 11. Phillips' 
sentence having expired he is reported for duty. 

Feb. L Joseph (loss and John Norton reported 
for duty Frank A. Chase sick in quarters. 

Feb. .~>. Frank A. Chase reported for duty John 
Norton reported sick in quarters. 

Feb. (>. Jos. Cross reported sick in quarters. 

Feb. 8. J. P Brown, Jos. Cross and John Ped- 
rick returned to duty Beceived four horses from 
Quartermaster Colonel Bucker at Washington. 
Henry B. Winslow, 2nd., discharged from Emory 
Hospital and returned to duty 

Feb. 9. J. W French being sick is relieved from 
extra duty since Jan. 1st and Chas. E. Bruce is de- 
tailed in his place as Farrier. 


Feb. 10. John P Brown and Jos. Cross reported 
sick in quarters. 

Feb. 11. John F Brown and Jos. Cross reported 
for duty 

Feb. 11*. F. T Atwood reported sick. J. W 
French having his discharge dated Feb. 5th, started 
for Washington and home. 

Feb. 13. Oue bay horse died of congestion of the 

Feb. 14. Joseph Brooks reported for light duty 

Feb. 15. E. T. Atwood sent to General Hospital, 

Feb. IS. Waldo Pierce sick in quarters. ('apt. 
Sleeper returned from furlough. 

Feb. l'J. Harrison Chase reported for duty. 

Feb. 21. Waldo Pierce returned to duty. 

Feb. 22. Washington's Birthday We are hav- 
ing the severest snow storm of the season. Fired a 
salute of 31 guns at 12 o'clock M. 

Feb. 20. William H. Martin placed under arrest 
for disobedience of orders. Frederick F (?) Brown 
not having returned we have dropped him from the 
Report, as a deserter. 

Feb. 27. Norman H. Butterfleld and < '. X. Barker 
reported sick in quarters. Lieut. Smith went on 
furlough of 7 days. 

Feb. 2S. Jos. Brooks reported sick in quarters. 
Battery mustered | for pay) by Capt. Sleeper. 

March 1. X H. Butterlield returned to duty 
Lieut. Adams leave of absence till Wednesday 

March 2. Chas. E. Prince and John C. Frost re- 
ported sick in quarters. 

March 3. Sergt. Chandler Gould reduced to the 
ranks and Corporal L. R. A Hard promoted to Sergt. 
vice Gould removed. One horse shot per order Capt. 


Sleeper, disease glanders. J. P Brown reported 
sick in quarters. 

March 1. John Norton reported for light duty. 
J. L. W Thayer reported sick in quarters. Lieut. 
Adams returned. 

March 5. Nine horses condemned (5 turned iu 
and 1 shot), 50 nose bags and 1 linen wall tent also 
condemned per Col. A. B. Nowell (?) (Jewett) com- 
manding brigade. 

March 6. Chas. E. Prince reported for duty. 
•John H. Knowland reported sick in quarters. 

March 7. Lieut. Asa Smith returned from fur- 
lough and reported for duty yesterday afternoon. J. 
H. Knowland reported for duty 

March 9. S. A. Hanson reported for light duty 
Corporal Shattuck reported for quarters. Received 
from Quartermaster Tompkins 11 horses. 

March 10. W H. Martin pardoned, it satisfacto- 
rily appearing that he is insane. Emil Floytrop re- 
ported sick in quarters, also W II. Martin. 

March 11. Chas. G. Colbath reported for duty 

March 12. John Norton, Emil Floytrop, Corporal 
Shattuck reported for duty 

March 13. One bay horse, Baxter's, shot; disease 
glanders. George \Y Parks sick in quarters. J. 0. 
Frost reported for duty. 

March 11. One bay horse, Martin's, shot; disease 
glanders. Hanson, Pierce (?) and Thayer reported 
to quarters. Corporal Conant (Currant)? started on 
furlough to Boston. 

March 16. Wm. Herring, E. Ashcroft, "Wm. Endi- 
cott and D. P. Stowell reported to quarters. 

March 17 Wm. H. Martin sent to insane hos- 
pital, TVashingon, 1). C C. E. Pierce reported to 

March 18. Hanson reported for stable duty and 
Mugford and Chase reported to quarters. 


Tin: TKXTii massachi'sktts battkky 

March 1!). M afford, Herring, Ashcroft and Stow 
ell reported for duty Alex. W Ilolbrook reported 
lo quarters. One sorrel horse ridden by Merrill, 
shot; disease glanders. 

March 20. Lieut. Adams returned and reported 
for duty last ni^ht. Herring reported for quarters. 
Ilolbrook reported for duty 

March 21. Lieut. Armita.ue started on furlough 
for Washington and Boston yesterday J. W 
Thayer reported for stable duty Hanson, White, 
Newton, reported for quarters. 

March 22. Endicott, Herring, Chase, White, New- 
ton, and Prince reported for duty; Bin$»' reported for 

March 2.'!. Corporal Conant (Currant)? returned 
from furlough. I lam, Thayer and Prince reported 
for quarters. Hiram I* Kinjn reported for duty 

March 2L Brooks, Hanson, Barker and Norton 
sent to General Hospital, Washington, J). C. Ham 
reported for duty Corporal Stevens to quarters. 

March 2(i. Prince and Corporal Stevens returned 
to duty ('apt. Sleeper started for Washington on 

March 27 Received notice of I\. B. Wendall's 
discharge Feb. 24. Prime returned to quarters. 

March .'{(). Prince reported for duty- Lt. Armi- 
taii'e returned and reported for duty 

March l\\. Seru't. Harrington started on 10 days' 
furlough to Boston. Capt. Sleeper returned from 

April 1. Prince and Blaney reported to quarters. 

April 2. Blaney reported for duty 

April '•>. Prince reported for duty. 

April 10. Ser^'t. Harrington reported for duty, 
having returned from furlough. 

April 11. Thayer reported for duty 


April 13. Frank Loham started on furlough for 
15 days on account of disability 

April 11. Kedlield reported to quarters. 

April 1."). Orcutt (?) reported to quarters. 

April If). Redfield reported for dismounted duty. 
Stowell and Pierce (?) reported for quarters. 

April IT. Pierce (?) reported for duty 

April IS. One bay horse died and 2 horses (one 
chestnut and one bay) shot, per order ("apt. Sleeper; 
disease, glanders. 

April lit. Orcutt (?) and Stowell reported for dis- 
mounted duty; Pierce (?) and Chase reported for 

April 20. O K. Woodis taken to ( amp Hospital 
yesterday; II. Chase reported for dismounted duty 

April 22. Pierce (?) Colbath and Stowell reported 
for duty 

April 23. < 'rawford reported to quarters. 

April 21. (rawford reported to duty; Thayer to 

April 2."). White reported for duty, also Thayer 

April 2(i. Cor])! Smith reported to quarters. 

April 27 Oovp'l Smith reported to light duty; 
Parks started for home on 20 days' furlough; John 
C Frost sent to hospital. 

April 2S. C F. Woodis reported for stable duty. 
T O Redfield started for Washington on furlough. 

April 2!». Chas. F. Woodis reported to quarters. 
One black horse died; disease * * '' 

May 2. Leverett Pierce reported to quarters. 
Capt. Sleeper started for Washington on business. 

May 1. Herring and Chase reported sick. Pierce 
I?) and Chase sent to Camp Hospital. 

May .">. Woodis reported for stable duty. Pack- 
ard reported to quarters. 

May 6. Frost and Herring reported for stable 


May 7. Packard reported for duty Hunt re- 
ported for quarters. Received notice of the dis- 
charge «»f Wm. II. Martin, April 22, ls<!3. 

May 9. Colbath reported to quarters. 

May 10. Pierce (?) and Colbath reported for sta- 
ble duty 

May 12. Billings reported for quarters. One 
horse shot per order Sleeper; disease glanders. 
Capt. Sleeper returned from Washington. Redfield 
returned from furlough. Chase reported for stable 

May 13. Billings reported for duty One horse 
died; disease lung fever. Lieut. Adams started for 
Washington on 18 hours furlough. 

May 11. Fifteen horses condemned 111 shot, 1 
turned in) per order Col. A. B. Jewett commanding 

May 15. Samuel Abbott (Abell)? having been 
discharged is dropped from the roll. Lieut. Adams 

May 17 Leroy E, Hunt returned to duty. 

May 19. Received notice of the discharge of 
Joseph Brooks on the 11th inst. for disability 

May 20. Received notice of the discharge of John 
Norton on the 11th inst. for disability Frost and 
Beal sick in quarters. 

May 21. Sergeant Alden started yesterday on IS 
hours leave of absence for Washington. Beal re- 
ported for duty and Corp'l Shattuck to quarters. 

May 22. George H. Nichols reported sick and in 

May 23. Moses G. Oritchett absent without leave. 

May 21. Serg't Alden returned from Washington 

May 27 Dropped Oritchett from the rolls as a 
deserter. Received notice of Samuel A. Hansons 


June 1. Nichols reported for quarters. 

June 2. W llson reported for quarters. Keeeived 
notice of the discharge of E. T. AtAVOod for disability 
May 13, 1863. 

June 3. Received of Capt. Tompkins at Washing- 
ton 23 horses. Wilson reported for duty. 

June 7. J. T. Goodwin reported to quarters. 

June 11. George H. Nichols reported for duty. 

June 15. Serg't Allard, privates Corlew and 
Damrell reported to quarters. Private G. W Parks 
returns from extended sick furlough and reported 
for duty 

June 16. Donnelly reported to quarters. 

June 17. Privates Damrell, Frost and Donnelly, 
and Sergeant Allard reported for duty. Corp'l 
Shattuck and Private Curlew sent to General Hos- 
pital, Washington, D. C. 

June 18. Millett reported to quarters. 

June 19. Millett reported for duty. 

June 20. Privates John Knowland, John Millett, 
Frank A. Chase, John W Bailey reported to quar- 

June 21. Privates Knowland, Millett, Chase and 
Bailey reported for duty Corp'l William H. Stark- 
weather and Private Asa Richardson reported to 

June 22. Private Waldo Pierce reported to quar- 
ters. Corp'l Starkweather reported for duty. 

June 23. Private Waldo Pierce reported for 
June 21. Started for Maryland Heights with 
Battery at 5 o'clock P.M. Camp equipage ordered 
to (be)? abandoned by order of Col. A. B. Jewett, 
com d'g Brigade. 



June >' t to July .}/. isti-l. 











After leaving Poolsville we marched until 10 
o'clock P.M., when, having travelled about six miles, 
we halted for the night, going into park on a little 
knoll near the roadside. This spot will be remem- 
bered by comrades of the Company for the sicken- 
ing stench, tilling the night air, from some animal 
carcasses rotting near bv We unharnessed and 
stretched the picket-rope across the caissons, a plan 
usually adopted in temporary camps. To this the 
horses were hitched, between caissons, soon to be fed 
and groomed; then, spreading the tarpaulins on the 
ground, and arranging our blankets upon them, we 
"turned in," and slept soundly till the shrill bugle 
notes broke our slumbers at half-past two in the 
morning. About 4 o'clock the infantry filed off into 
the road. We soon followed, and when the sun rose 
hot and scorching, and we saw them toiling along 
under their load of musket, knapsack, cartridge-box, 


haversack, and canteen, we considered ourselves — 
required to bear only the two latter articles — espe- 
cially fortunate in belonging to artillery 

At 8 o'clock we stopped for breakfast, munching 
our hard-tack and drinking our coffee with the relish 
which a march is wont to confer. During the day 
we crossed the Monocaey River, passing through 
Licksville, a small settlement on its left bank. In 
the afternoon some one blundered and sent the brig- 
ade off two miles on the wrong road. In attempting 
to make up for this loss the troops became scattered 
for miles along the road, and two or three of our 
horses dropped in their traces. At night, however, 
all came together again, and, thoroughly weary, we 
went into camp at a place called Petersville. As a 
drizzling rain had set in we pitched our tarpaulins 
for the first time with the aid of rails. This day we 
marched little, if any, less than twenty miles. We 
recall the fact that our spirits were not a little 
cheered by the abundance of cherries along the line 
of march, to which we helped ourselves with our ac- 
customed liberality, and this, too, with little com- 
punction, as they generally grew by the roadside 
and seemed to be county property. 

Morning of Friday, June 2(i, broke wet and drip- 
ping, but we early resumed our inarch, and toiling 
on over a rocky road traversed by gullies rushing 
with water, at 9 o'clock entered the mountain region 
and the magnificent scenery of Harper's Ferry 
Passing on through the dirty, desolate little settle- 
ments of Knoxville, Weverton and Sandy Hook, and 
following the narrow road in its winding, with the 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal on one side and the per- 
pendicular rocks of Maryland Heights on the other, 
we came at last opposite the historic town of Har- 
per's Ferry- Set as it is in one of the angles formed 


by the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah 
rivers, and nestling at the foot of grand old moun- 
tains, its houses rising one above another on the 
bank of the former river, in lime of peace it must 
have seemed a gem of beauty; but now, with the 
once splendid bridge of the Baltimore and Ohio 
Road, which crosses the river at this place, half de- 
stroyed, the long armory buildings a row of black- 
ened ruins by the river side, and the whole place de- 
serted and desolate, it seemed singled out as a vie 
tim for the blighting hand of War. 

But we moved on. A long, winding ascent, often 
rugged and in places quite steep, finally brought 
us to the high ground known as Maryland Heights, 
situated opposite the Ferry. Here we found about 
eight thousand troops, representing eleven different 
States, encamped, under the command of Maj. (Jen. 
William H. French, a native of Maryland, who 
served with distinction in the Mexican War.* A 
part of the troops were located in our immediate 
neighborhood, a part on commanding ground to the 
north, while yet others occupied the lofty ridge of 
the Heights that rose above us several hundred feet 
towards the south, Avhich, though often enveloped in 
clouds, was strongly fortified and well provided 
with troops. 

Along the crest of these mountains, which are the 
continuation of the Blue Ridge into Maryland, Ker- 
shaw's and Barksdales brigades, of Stonewall 
Jackson's command, marched the year before and 
captured the place, having forced their way through 
what was thought to be an impassable forest The 
bones of the Rebels slain in the attack on the outer 

* Since writinK tin- aliovo General French has deceased, dying: in 
Washington, in .May, 1NN1. of apoplexy. lie had lint recently heen 
placed on the retired list. 


work were plainly visible, protruding from the shal- 
low graves in which they had been hastily buried by 
friend or foe. 

The morning after we reached the Heights, the 
clouds, which had been disc barging their watery 
contents upon us with unpleasant constancy since 
our arrival, broke away, and promised fair weather 
and a burning sun. We could see along the lofty 
ridge huge guns pointing off over the plains, and the 
white army wagons slowly toiling up its rugged 
sides; in the afternoon, however, dense clouds rolled 
over the mountain and drenched everybody and 
everything with showers of tropical intensity So, 
for every one of live days spent in that locality, we 
were alternately cheered by transient sunshine iu 
the morning, and saturated by copious showers in 
the afternoon. 

On the 2 ( .»th, the Twenty-Third Maine, whose term 
of service had expired, went home rejoicing. It had 
not seen any fighting. It was made up of stalwart 
men, and was quite well drilled in the manual of 
arms, better, perhaps, than any other at Poolsville. 
On the same date, one of "Scott's Nine Hundred," 
shot while picketing on Bolivar Heights, was 
brought into camp, and a Dutch lieutenant and nine- 
teen men were captured. This, of course, was a sen- 
sation for us. It made war seem more of a reality 
than hitherto. Thirty Rebel prisoners were also 
brought in this day One forenoon * Gen. Hooker 
came riding up the Heights on his white horse, t 

* June 2<;tli. 

t"A!l doubt as to the enemy s purposes being now dispelled, (icn. 
Hooker crossed the Potomac near Edwards Ferry, and advanced to 
Frederick, himself visiting liy the way Harper's Ferry. He found 
theie. or rather on .Maryland Heights. C-n. French with 11.000 men, 
whom he very naturally desired to add to his army in the momentous 
battle now pending. Hooker had already drawn from the gar- 

rison at Washington all that Halleck would span- — leaving hut 


This was our lirst and last si^ht of I bat gallant sol- 
dier while the war lasted, as he was relieved on the 
28th, and saw his next active service in command of 
the Eleventh and Twelfth corps, when they were 
sent to Sherman's army. 

11, (MM) effectives under Heintzelman, which was none ton much. But 
having crossed the Potomac, he had very properly inquired by tele- 
graph of Halleck. 'Is there any reason why Maryland Heights should 
not be abandoned after the public stores and property are re- 
moved?' and been answered: 'Maryland Heights have always been re- 
garded as an important point to be held by us. and much expense 
and labor incurred in fortifying them. 1 cannot approve of their 
abandonment except in case of absolute necessity. Hooker at once 

'I have received your telegram in regard to Harper's Ferry. I find 
10,000 men here in condition to take the field. Here, they are of no 
earthly account. They cannot defend a ford of the river; and so far 
as Harper's Ferry is concerned, there is nothing of it. As for the 
fortifications, the work of the troops, they remain when the troops 
are withdrawn. No enemy will ever take possession of them for 
them. This is my opinion. All the public property could have been 
secured to-night, and the troops marched to where they could have 
been of some service Now they are but a bait for the rebels should 
they return. I beg that this may be presented to the Secretary of 
"War and his Excellency the President. 

'Joseph Hooker, Major-General.' 

"In regard to this grave matter of indifference. Hooker was clearly 
in the right; not clearly so in sending this despatch immediately after- 

'Run ihi Hook, June 27, 1X<">:>. 
'Maj. Urn. H. W Hailed-, <_!< iieral-'ut-Vhief 

"My original instructions require me to cover Harper's Ferry and 
V\ ashington. I have now imposed upon me, in addition, an enemy in 
my front of more than my numbers. I beg to be understood, respect- 
fully but firmly, that I am unable to comply with this condition with 
the means at my disposal, and earnestly request that I may at once 
be relieved from the position I occupy. 

'Joseph Hooker, Ma jor-Uciii nil .' 

"The next day brought Col. Hardie 1o Hooker's headquarters at 
Frederick, with instructions relieving Hooker, and devolving the 
command on Gen. Meade, who was therewith advised that he might 
do as he pleased with the Harper's Ferry men. Such a change 

of commanders, for no more urgent reasons, on the very brink of a 
great battle, has few parallels in history. Whatever his faults. 
Hooker was loved and trusted by his soldiers, who knew less of 
Meade, and had less faith in him. Had that army been polled, it 
would have voted to fight the impending battle under Hooker irithoiit 
the aid of French's 11 .001) men. rather than under Meade irith that 
reinforcement." — American Conflict, Vol. II. 


Bumors now began to prevail that the Heights 
and Harper's Ferry were to be evacuated, and soon 
the order came to be ready to move, June 30, at six 
in the morning. We were ready at the time ap- 
pointed, but vainly waited hour after hour for fur- 
ther orders. The heavy artillerymen were busily 
employed in removing siege guns down the moun- 
tain to the canal, where they were loaded on canal 
boats to be sent to Washington; also in removing 
quartermasters' stores, preparing to destroy ammu- 
nition, etc.; so that we knew the evacuation was cer- 
tainly determined upon. During our wait the usual 
showers visited us at short intervals, and we hud- 
dled as best we could under the tarpaulins hastily 
stretched over the guns and caissons. In the height 
of one of these, several explosions occurring in rapid 
succession led us to suppose the work of destruction 
had begun. We afterwards learned that they were 
the result of carelessness. Some one with more zeal 
than discretion struck a percussion shell with an 
axe, intending to destroy it. He accomplished his 
object, but not in accordance with his expectations. 
The shell exploded, communicating fire to a small 
magazine near by, and this in turn exploded, all of 
which resulted in killing eleven and wounding six- 
teen men. They were members of the Fourteenth 
Massachusetts and One Hundred and Fifty-first 
New York heavy artillery 

Shortly after 3 o'clock orders finally came to start, 
and down we went over rocks and through streams 
of water, retracing our course hither, until ; having 
traversed some six or seven miles, Ave went into 
camp for the night, about a mile distant from our 
former stopping-place, near Petersville. It was 
with no feelings of regret that we turned our backs 
on Maryland Heights, for it rained when we ap- 


preached them, il rained as we ascended them, 
rained every day we remained, rained a second del- 
ude when we left; and had not the writer satisfied 
himself to the contrary during a visit to the place in 
July, lS(ii), when he spent a delightfully clear and 
cool night upon the summit with William Endicott, 
he would be ready to affirm that it has rained there 
ever since. 

The night of June 30th was one of the dreariest in 
our whole career. We were new to the rough expe- 
rience of campaigning in all weathers, and various 
circumstances conspired to cast a gloom over our 
prospects. With the arrival of darkness, the rain 
commenced to fall again with fresh violence, and 
our tarpaulins, pitched on the wet ground of a side 
hill, proved a poor protection. Although them- 
selves tolerably impenetrable to water, they did not 
prevent the rain from driving in at the open ends, 
or miniature mill-streams from coursing down the 
slope beneath us. In the midst of this discomfort 
we were called into line to learn that we were to join 
the Army of the Potomac, that (}en. Hooker had 
been relieved and (Jen. Meade appointed in his 
stead. We knew that the IJebel army in unknown 
numbers was sweeping through Maryland, and that, 
as a tierce battle was more or less imminent, a 
change of leaders at this important juncture might 
dampen the ardor of the Fnion army and make it a 
less confident opponent of its old-time antagonist. Tn 
this dark period of its history we were to join that 
army and cast in our lot with it for victory or de- 
feat, for life or death.* 

* Hail Hooker been permitled to lake French's troops from Mary- 
hind Heiyhls, there is ^ood reason for bolievinj; that we should have 
heroine a permanent pari and pared of the Twelfth Corps, as the 
following extract from Swinton s "Army of the Potomac" will show. 
After .speaking of the moves open to Hooker from Frederick, where 
lie had concentrated, he says: 


"When at last we were at liberty to return to our 
quarters we lay down, and, all things considered, 
slept well till morning, at which time we turned out 
steaming, to continue our march. As we moved out 
of the charmed circle of Maryland Heights, the 
clouds broke away and the sun came forth intensely 
hot and scorching. Many of the infantry gave way 
under it. Some were suustruck, and we now longed 
for the clouds as anxiously as before we had looked 
for the sun. Passing through a settlement called 
Middle ( 'reek, and the pretty little village of Jeffer- 
son, at which we tarried awhile at noon, we arrived 
about sundown at the city of Frederick, since made 
famous by Whitti*^-^ ''Barbara Frietchie." The 
city lay in a section of country whose beauty was 
truly charming; and, indeed, the whole of Pleasant 
Valley, — that being the name of the stretch of ter- 
ritory over which we had just passed, — with its 
fresh green fields, and dwellings betokening an air 
of unusual thrift and comfort, having the Blue 
Pidge as a background, presented a picture of rural 
loveliness still distinct on the tablets of memory 
On every side waved fields of grain and other 
crops just yielding to the reaper. The people 
seemed kind and loyal, and the general appearance 
of industry reminded us vividly of our own New 

July 2d was a general drying-day, for the frequent 
rains of the preceding days had not only completely 
soaked the clothing we wore, but had also peue- 

"There is yet evidence that h<' purposed making at least a strong 
demonstration on Fee's line <>f communications. With this view he 
threw nut his left well westward to Middletown, and ordered the 
Twelfth Corps, under General Slocum, to march to Harper's Ferry. 
Here Slocum was to be joined by the garrison of that post, eleven 
thousand strong, under General French, and the united force was to 
menace the Confederate rear by a movement towards Chambers- 


trated the contents of our shoddy knapsacks, so that 
shirts, blouses, jackets, and blankets were to be 
seen stretched upon every available fence or car- 
riage to dry We learned here that the Army of the 
Potomac had been passing through Frederick for 
two days, but instead of pressing on to overtake it, 
we were sent at 3 o'clock P.M., with the Tenth Ver- 
mont Regiment and a company of cavalry, three 
miles from the city to Frederick Junction, a station 
on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, from which a 
short branch extended to the city 

Our business here was to guard the railroad 
bridge across the Monocacy.* A block house 
erected for the same purpose stood near by The 
spot was rather attractive as a whole, and the pros 
pect of ample opportunity to wash and bathe in the 
river was quite gratifying. 

On the morning of July 3d, before we had turned 
out, a faint rumbling of cannon was perceptible to 
the ear. It was the incipient muttering of the third 
day*s battle at Gettysburg. Often during the day 
did we kneel to the ground, and the quick throbbing 
sounds heard at irregular intervals told us the two 
great armies had indeed met, forty miles away, and 
were engaged in deadly struggle for the mastery 

* 'Wor is Meade justly blainablo for not pushing forward at once 
on the heels of his beaten foes. . . His real and grave error dated 
several days back of this. He had, on assuming command, been au- 
thorized to do as he judged best with French's force on Maryland 
Heights, and Couch's in Central Pennsylvania. Had he, on deciding 
to fight Lee as soon as circumstances favored, ordered both these to 
join him at the earliest moment, he would now have been consciously 
master of the situation, and might have blocked Lee's return to Vir- 
ginia. But he gave no such order to Couch; and having at Buttoi- 
held's urgent suggestion withdrawn French's 11,000 men from Mary- 
land Heights, he left 7.000 of them standing idle at Frederick, send- 
ing the residue as train guards to Washington, and actually apolo- 
gized t<> Halleck, on meeting him, for having moved them at all! Had 
Cettysliurg been lost for want of these 11,000 men, his would have 
been a fearful responsibility." — American Conflict, Vol. II. 


This day the rest of Gen. Morris's brigade, to which 
we were attached, came to the Junction and camped 
near us. The morning of the Fourth dawned, with 
the contest still undecided. Our anxiety for the re- 
sult, however, as the day wore on, was in part over- 
come by an intense desire for food. Our hard-tack 
was crawling with weevils, and the meat cooked 
some days before had become equally animated with 
maggots. Our next resort was to the pork-barrel, 
and a slice of raw pork, sandwiched between hard- 
tack from which the tenants had been expelled by 
fire, formed our Fourth of July dinner. This day 
news came that Lee was retreating, and at 6 o'clock 
in the afternoon we received orders to march; but 
before we had gone over half the distance to Fred- 
erick, the order was countermanded, and we re- 
turned to the Junction about 9 o'clock. The next 
day was the Sabbath, and the wildest of reports 
were brought by engineers on passing trains. AVe 
believed only what we pleased of these, but the 
great fact that the Uebel army had been defeated 
and was in full retreat could no longer be doubted. 
Numerous trains came along from Washington, 
laden with fresh troops, and with horses, forage, and 
rations for the army, and we felt that the most en- 
ergetic efforts were being made to crush the enemy 
before he could recross the Potomac In the midst 
of this excitement came news of A^icksburg's surren- 
der, and it seemed as if the war was about to close 
and that the Battery was not likely to get its full 
share of the glory It was but the temporary lifting 
of the clouds before they again shut down under an- 
other dark night of bloodshed and disaster in which 
we were destined to be swept to the front of the 

Several trains, loaded with Rebel prisoners taken 



in the battle, passed along at intervals. Many of 
these men were quilt' talkative and discussed the sit 
nation verv freely and pleasantly; while others, who 
evidently took matters less philosophically, were 
sullen, and either said nothing when addressed or 
growled in monosyllables. We gave them only kind 
words, however. 

On the morning of the oth, (Jen. French caused a 
spy, bearing the name of Richardson, to be hung at 
Frederick, and for example's sake allowed his bodv 
to remain hanging to the tree all day 

The Eighth, Forty-sixth and Fifty-iirst Massachu- 
setts, and tin 1 Seventh 
New York regiments ar- 
rived at the Junction on 
the (>th, and two sections 
of the Battery (the right 
and centre) were stmt up 
to the city to do provost 
duty, with strict orders 
for all ragged and 
patched pantaloons to be 
doffed, and nothing but 
tin' best worn. Scales 
and boots were to be 
brightly polished and 
kept so. All of which 
was done. But when the 
old soldiers of Potomac's 
army passed the men as 
they stood on duty, and 
such expressions as "Bandbox Battery" and other 
derogatory remarks on their gav appearance reached 
the ear, the blood of would-be veterans was roused, 
and scales, which had always played a conspicuous 
part on parade occasions, vanished, never to appear 



again. Just iiuc pair in the whole Company is 
known to have survived this indignant uprising, and 
any comrade wishing to renew his acquaintance 
with that article of ornament is referred to our re- 
spected past artificer, Willard Y dross. 

On the Stli of July marching orders came, and the 
left section, having been relieved by the Twelfth 
,\cw York Battery, which had just arrived from 
Camp Barrv, rejoined the rest of the Company in 
Frederick at 2 P.M. Here we found the Army of 
the Potomac still passing. The troops from Har- 
pers Ferry were to join the Third Corps, — the cele- 
brated fighting troops of Con. Sickles, who, having 
lost a leg at Cettysburg, had left his command and 
was succeeded by Cen. French. We soon found 
em-selves in the midst of the great armv, cheek by 
jowl with the men who fought under McDowell, and 
McClellan, and Pope, and Burnside, and Hooker, as 
principals, and under the more immediate direction 
of such leaders as Sumner and Franklin, Keyes and 
Kearny, lleintzelnum and M< < all. Sedgwick, Reno, 
and Banks in the earlier days of the war, and now 
were fresh from the gory fields of Cettysburg, where 
Reynolds, of precious memory, and Buford, and 
Hancock, and Sickles had immortalized themselves; 
and Ave rejoiced at our good fortune in being thus 

When Ave left Frederick, (apt. Sleeper was 
placed in charge of the entire supply train of the 
Third Corps. The long lines of ammunition and 
forage wagons stretching with their white coverings 
as far as the eye could reach on everv road, pressing 
noisily on in seeming confusion, yet really moving 
harmoniously under a definite svstem without any 
collision; the long, dark-blue columns of infantry, 
their bayonets glistening in the sun, winding down 


across Middletown Valley and up tin* opposite slope 
in advance of the trains; and tin* bodies of troops 
temporarily bivouacking bv the roadside waiting to 
take their proper place in column, or perhaps lunch- 
ing upon hard-tack and coffee after a forced march, 
combined to give us our tirst distinct impressions 
of a large army in motion. 

We were rapidly moving towards the South Moun- 
tain range, and continually met ambulances loaded 
with the wounded from recent cavalry skirmishes in 
the mountain passes. As we moved up out of the 
valley towards the mountains, and cast our eyes 
back over the course we had traversed, a charming 
scene was presented to the view The whole ex- 
panse of Middletown 'Valley lay before us, its fields 
ripe for the harvest, mottled with dark groves of 
fruit and shade trees from which peeped white 
buildings belonging to large estates. In the midst 
stood the modest little hamlet of Middletown and 
the glittering city of Frederick; while over all was 
poured a flood of mellow light from the sun just 
sinking behind the mountains. 

Among many of the older troops we found the 
love of McClellan still strong and deep. How was 
it that, after successive failure and defeat, after hav- 
ing lost the confidence both of the government and 
the people, this man succeeded in implanting such 
imperishable sentiments of love and devotion in his 
soldiers? They declared he had never been 
whipped, that they had driven the Rebels in every 
fight on the Peninsula, and if the (Jeneral could have 
had his own way, Richmond would have been ours 
long since. >.'or could we make the absurdity of 
their views, as they appeared to us, at all plain to 
them by any argument or appeal to facts. Their de- 
votion seemed something inexplicable, and we at- 


tributed it to the tact of the man and the favoring 
circumstances attaching to him as their first com- 

We camped for the night on the slope of the moun- 
tain, near a brick house occupied as headquarters 
by Brig. (Ten. Morris, on a portion of South Moun- 
tain battlefield. Here we lay quietly until 9 P.M. of 
the next day (Thursday, July 9), while the Sixth 
Corps and a numerous body of cavalry filed past. 

Having freighted our haversacks with three days' 
rations, we, too, moved on as part and parcel of the 
Army of the Potomac, considering ourselves now 
fully identified with it, and justly proud, too, of our 
connection. The fear of being sent into the Depart- 
ment of the Gulf was no longer a bugbear to us. 
Our fondest hopes were realized. The future was 
yet to show whether Ave should reflect credit or dis- 
grace upon our distinguished associates. 

It was quite dark when we entered Turner's Gap. 
The road was terribly rough and rugged, which 
made our night march toilsome in the extreme; but 
we labored on until after midnight, when, having 
got through the Gap, we turned into a field on the 
right of the road, and bivouacked for the rest of the 
night. With the first streak of dawn the shrill bu- 
gle summoned us again into readiness for moving. 
Shortly after there came sounds of cannonading in 
our front, which made our pulses beat quick with 
expectation of battle, but we remained quiet; and 
when, about 10 o'clock, the column finally moved on, 
the firing had died away. The road was encum- 
bered with wagon trains belonging to troops in the 
advance, and the weather was quite warm, so that 
we marched no more than five or six miles during 
the day. We passed through the little village of 
Kediesville about 6 o'clock, and camped just beyond, 


on a portion of the Antietam battlefield. But the 
harnesses were hardly off the horses before orders 
were received to be ready to march at once. Hungry 
and tired as we were, it was hard to think of moving 
on before taking the expected rest and refreshment 
on the fresh green knoll where we were in position. 
Nevertheless we were soon ready and awaiting ei- 
ders, which did not come, as so often happened. 
About midnight, as we lay scattered upon the 
ground asleep, orders came to unharness, and we 
passed the rest of the night in comparative quiet, 
disturbed only by the columns of passing infantry 
that went on and camped near Boonesboro', where 
we joined them the next morning (July 11). Boones- 
boro' bore marks of a cavalry brush that occurred 
there the day before. Here we fell in with tin- 
Ninth Massachusetts Battery, — our first interview 
with it since it left Camp Barry It had been se- 
verely handled at Gettysburg, its first fight, losing 
twenty-nine men in killed, wounded, and prisoners. 
This day we remember as the one on which we were 
weaned from the Company cooks, and received our 
rations uncooked, for each man to prepare to his 
own taste. 

Continuing our march leisurely from Boonesboro', 
crossing Beaver and Antietam creeks, we arrived, 
at midnight, at Sampsonville, or Roxbury Mills, in 
or near TVilliamsport. 

The next day was the Sabbath, but all was bustle 
and excitement. A great battle seemed imminent. 
Orderlies were galloping rapidly from point to 
point, and overvthing was in readiness to move at a 
moments notice. The armv was in excellent spir- 
its, and the greatest enthusiasm prevailed. The sol- 
diers felt that they had Lee where he could not es- 
cape. Tfis army was beaten, demoralized, panic 


stricken. "< >ur forces," it was said, ''had it sur- 
rounded in a horse-shoe, and across the opening 
stretched the swollen, impassable Potomac." We 
never afterwards saw men so eager to be led to bat- 
tle.* They "would have fought with, the utmost zeal, 
for they felt that one more decisive blow would end 
the war, at least in Virginia; but matters lingered 

About noon, we, with other batteries, were or- 
dered into position a mile beyond Antietam Bridge, 
liumors of fighting at Hagerstown reached us, but 
still no sound of battle. The afternoon passed with 
several hard showers, and at night we unharnessed. 
Monday came and went with no active operations, 
and Tuesday morning brought no change. Soon it 
began to be rumored that Lee had escaped across 
the river. The report sounded painfully ominous. 
We would not believe il. A^ain, and vet again, it 
came with greater deiiniteness and a persistence 
which marked it true. Disheartened and indignant, 
we advanced at noon, passing se\eral lines of rude 
breastworks throwu up during the past forty-eight 
hours, and camped for the night near St. James Col- 
lege, a Catholic institution, which we found deserted 
and ravaged, having evidently been occupied by the 
IJebel army 

Wednesday morning the army took up its retro- 
grade line of march. We now knew definitely that 
Lee had been permitted to escape across the river, 
and it was proposed to intercept his return to llich- 
mond by keeping continually on his flank, and head- 

" "Question. was the condition of our army after the fight 
was over'.' 

"Anairer. 1 have never seen tin- army so confident of success, in 
most admirable spirits, and so anxious for a fight." — Testimony of 
Muj. (ten. David li. IMrneij before the (Joiiiinittee on the Conduct of the 


ing him off at every pass. But how changed the 
spirits of the army! Hope and enthusiasm, so con- 
spicuously prevalent during the pa*t three days, 
had given place to disgust and indifference. The 
men had been robbed of their prey, as it seemed to 
them, and now, instead of enjoying the laurels they 
had been confidently expecting as victors, they were 
to return into Virginia, to renew their weary 
marches over its dusty plains and through ii s 
miry roads, to combat the foe anew in his 
chosen strongholds. It could not be expected 
that they would be otherwise than dissatis- 
fied; but they had been so thoroughly schooled 
in disappointment that they did not carry their 
disgust beyond the point of giving it very fre- 
quent and emphatic expression: nor was this feeliug 
limited to the rank and file, but was shared also by 
the officers. It is not within the province of this un- 
pretentious work to discuss the wisdom or mistakes 
of the movements immediately subsequent to 
Gettysburg, nor is it necessary. The seal of disap- 
proval has been set upon them by the verdict of his- 
tory. It is an easy matter after an act is performed 
to show wherein it might have been bettered; but 
an ounce of such philosophy before a battle is worth 
a ton afterwards. We shall always believe, how- 
ever, that Gen. Meade did what seemed best to him 
at the time and under the circumstances.* 

It may be permitted the writer to make, as his 
contribution to the fund of post proelium wisdom, a 

* "But neither Loo's army nor his troubles were yet ever. The 
heavy rains following the battle had swelled the Potomac to an mi- 
lordable state; while (Jen. French, who with 7.1 MM I veterans had been 
ieft idle at Frederick during the great events in Pennsylvania, had. 
without orders, sent a cavalry force to Falling Waters and Williams- 
port, which captured the weak guard left by Lee (<> hold his bridge, 
which they forthwith destroyed. Lee's hold on the Maryland bank 
was therefore compulsory, while he collected material, and repaired 


statement made to liim by an ex-Confederate * con- 
nected with Lee's supply train, that the Rebel army 
was all but destitute of ammunition at Williamsport 
and had sent its train back to Staunton for a supply, 
which did not reach them on its return until after 
they had recrossed the Potomac The same author- 
ity further stated that his army was utterly demor- 
alized and without organization, and that the Rebels 
supposed our army refrained from attacking be- 
cause in substantially the same condition. 

Our line of march takes us through a place called 
Wilmington and across a part of Antietam battle- 
field. On our left, a narrow strip of green extend- 
ing back over the hill, half a mile in length, marks 
the limits of a trench in which it is said there are 
three thousand bodies buried. Other patches of 
green, less in extent, indicate still further the rest- 
ing-places of the slain in this great battle. t On the 
hill at our right stands the "Chapel," t whose bat- 
tered walls, together with the many scarred trees 
near it, attest the severity of the conflict, and the ef- 
ficacy of the shooting done, we are told, by the First 

or renewed his bridge. Err this was accomplished, Meade's army 
was before him, strengthened by Erench's division and by part of 
''ouch's militia, which had reported at Gettysburg and joined the 
army at Boonesborn' The V-'th having been spent in getting our 
troops into position, Gen. Meade called a council of his corps com- 
manders to consider the expediency of attacking next morning. The 
council sat long and debated earnestly. (Jens. Howard, Pleasanton, 
and Wadsworth I in place' of Reynolds, killed!, urged and voted to at- 
tack; but Gens. Sedgwick, Slocum. Sykes, French, and Hays (in place 
of Hancock, wounded at Gettysburg), opposed it. (Jen. .Meade having 
heard all. stated that his judgment favored an attack — that he 

came there to fight, and could see no g 1 reason for not fighting. 

Still, he could not take the responsibility of ordering an assault 
against the advice of a majority of his corps commanders — four of 
them ranking officers of the army next himself. At all events, 

he did not take it: so our army stood idle throughout the following 
day, and in the night Lee withdrew across the Potomac."' — American 
Conflict, Vol. II. 

* In April, 1S79 

t All these have since been exhumed and buried in the National 

X Known in history as tbe "Dunker Church." 


Massachusetts and other bat levies, to dislodge the 
enemy from this position. The scattered bones of 
horses that still lav bleaching were the only other 
witnesses left by the farmers to bear testimony to 
the indecisive contest of ten months previous. We 
make these observations while passing, for the army 
does not halt, but moves on, arriving soon after at 
the town of Sharpsburg, through which we pass and 
camp for the night about three miles beyond. This 
town, by whose name the Kebels designate the bat- 
tle of Antietam, because their line was established 
near and in it, also gave evidence of warlike treat- 
ment. It was a low, filthy settlement, showing 
need of the healing arts of Peace, rather than the de- 
stroying tendencies of AVar. 

Resuming our march Thursday morning by way 
of Pleasant Valley, Ave passed through the villages 
of Eohrersville and Brownsville, camping near the 
latter until 5 o'clock P.M. the next day Here, for 
some reason we never understood, but for which w<- 
were afterwards more or less grateful, we were or- 
dered to turn in our knapsacks and do up our effects 
in rolls or "bundles." Although but about six miles 
from Harper's Ferry, Ave did not reach its vicinity 
until midnight. It was raining there still, just as 
when Ave left. We lay along the railroad, passing 
the dreary hours as comfortably as we could, and at 
."> o'clock in the gray of morning crossed the turbid 
Avaters of the Potomac by pontoon, and entered the 
IYrry The town was entirely deserted by its in- 
habitants, and the empty houses and glaring sign- 
boards seemed to stare at us as if ghosts of departed 
happiness and business prosperity X<> faces peered 
from the lonely windows; no smoke curled from the 
cold chimnevs; the shelves of the stores displayed 
no piles of tempting goods; no vehicles save those 


uf the army waked the echoes of its quiet streets: 
everything' stood as it bad been left, the life of the 
place having been suddenly paralyzed by the touch 
of a monster — the monster War. 

Passing on by another bridge which spanned the 
Shenandoah, and winding round by a narrow road 
under the cliffs of Bolivar Heights, we entered Lou- 
don Valley and began our experience in war-swept 
Virginia. It was a beautiful country which we had 
entered. The route lay through forests of oak, 
against which the woodman s axe appeared never to 
have been lifted, and then emerged in the midst of 
fertile holds waving with wheat and other grains. 
On our right si ret (lied the Blue Ridge, like a shel- 
tering wall against the rude blasts of winter, and 
the country seemed fitted to be a garden of plenty. 
The inhabitants were evidently not in harmony with 
the natural beauty around them. The poor in their 
miserable hovels, and with scanty gardens, were 
contented if they could maintain a bare existence 
and keep starvation from the door. The estates of 
the wealthier, while having some show of comfort 
ami plenty, wore a neglected and decaying appear- 
ance', partly because war had stifled all thrift and 
enterprise, and partly owing to the deadening influ- 
ences of slavery 

During our first day in Virginia we marched 
about eleven miles, and the next day seven more, 
camping near an insignificant settlement, known as 
Woodsgrove, amidsl a profusion of blackberries. 
From this place Sergf. Allard and privates Alden, 
Abbott and Y A. Chase were sent, mounted, back to 
Berlin on the Maryland side of the Potomac, with 
requisitions for a supply of mules to take the place 
of the horses on our baggage wagons. While re- 
turning they were captured by guerrillas and taken 


to Belle Isle, Virginia. A detailed account of their 
experience will be found in the Appendix. 

Monday morning, the 20th, we continued our line 
of march, passing through Snickersville, near Snick- 
er s (.4ap, Bloomfleld, and Paris, all small villages, 
and camped at Upperville near Ashby s (Jap, where 
Ave remained until the afternoon of the 22d, leaving 
at 5 o'clock, the light and centre sections advancing 
about six miles and camping at Piedmont. The left 
section having been detailed as rear guard to the 
supply train, was on the road all night in that 
capacity, and the next morning made a rapid march 
of twelve miles to rejoin the Battery. We overtook 
it at mid-day pushing on into Manassas (lap. We 
met a body of cavalry and flying artillery coming 
out of the gap. They had been holding it until the 
army arrived. We were immediately ordered into 
position on one of a series of eminences known as 
Wapping Heights, commanding the road through 
the Pass. It was thought Lee intended to get pos- 
session of these heights, and a battle was momenta- 
rily expected.* But no sooner were our guns in po- 
sition than, wearied with the march of the last 
twenty hours, many of the men fell down beside 
them and slept soundly At sundoAvn Ave began to 

*"(Jen. Meade crossed the Potomac . on the ISth, . moving 

lo Warrenton. This movement being in advance of Lee, who halted 
for some days near Bunker Hill and made a feint of recrossing the 
Potomac, Meade was enabled to seize all the passes through the Bine 
nidge north of the Kappahannoi k, barring the enemy's egress from 
the Shenandoah save by a tedious flank march. 

"Meade, misled by his scouts, had expected to fight a battle in 
Manassas (Jap — or rather on the west side of it — where our cav- 
alry under Kuford found the enemy in force; when the .'!d Corps was 
sent in haste from Ash by s (Jap to Buford's support, and its 1st di- 
vision, (Jen. Hobart Ward, pushed through the Cap. and the Excel 
sior brigade, (Jen. E B. Spinola, made three heroic charges up as 
many steep and difficult ridges dislodging and driving the enemy with 
mutual loss. — (Jen. Spinola being twice wounded. 

"Next morning, our soldiers pushed forward to Front Royal, but 
encountered no enemy. Unknown to us, tin 1 Excelsiors had been 


cast about for something to eat, rations being in ar- 
rears as well as forage. A neighboring cornfield fur- 
nished a meal of green stalks for the horses, and 
from the remains of a cow that had been slaughtered 
by some of the infantry Avho had preceded us, several 
of the Company gleaned meat enough for supper. 
Others, making a raid on a neighboring barn-yard, 
secured a calf and a sheep, which were promptly of- 
fered up as victims to the needs of the present hour. 

In the morning several rapid volleys of musketry 
were heard, and we expected soon to be engaged, but 
the sounds at length died away The dark masses 
of infantry that were encamped on the hills around 
began to file down into the road and retrace their 
steps. Then we knew that the Rebels had gone. Of 
course the sanguine circulated rumors that there 
was but one gap left by which they could escape to 
Richmond, and that, our forces could reach first; but 
we put little confidence in them, and, as it proved, 
these were the last sounds of battle heard in this 
campaign. We soon followed the infantry, and hav- 
ing arrived at Piedmont, where we encamped for the 
night, found the welcome supply trains awaiting us. 

Another day's march took us through the settle- 
ments of Oak Hill and Salem. The latter stood on 
the flattest piece of territory we had yet seen in Vir- 
ginia. It had been quite a flourishing village in its 
day, but now, left in charge of its old men and a few 
faithful blacks, it was fast going to decay We 
bivouacked for the night nearly three miles beyond 
the town, and on the morrow (Sunday) completed 

fighting a brigade of Ewell's men who were holding the (Jap, while 
Rhodes' division, forming the rear guard of Lee's army, marched 
past up the valley, and hid, of course, followed on its footsteps dur- 
ing the night. No enemy remained to fight; but two days were lost 
by Meade getting into and out of the (lap; during which Lee moved 
rapidly southward, passing around our right flank, and appearing in 
our front when our army again looked across the Rappahannock." — 
American Conflict, Vol. II. 



tin* remaining distance of six miles to Warrenton, 
arriving there about 11 o clock A.M., parkine. just 
outside the town. Our halt here was brie!', however, 
for soon an order came for us to e,o on picket at a 
post three miles beyond the town, which we did, 
having a support of tour or five thousand infantry 
accompany us. 

Warrenton is the capital town of Fauquier 
County, and in 1S(!<) was recorded as having a free 
population of <>0o. As we were marched around in- 
stead of through the town, much to the disgust of 
our Vankee curiosity, we could take no note of its in- 
terior. What we could see of its suburbs, however, 
was in its fa vol-, A visit to the place in 1S7'.», under 
more favorable circumstances, enables us to e,ive 
some description of it. It is a "city set on a hill," 
and, therefore, can be seen lor a loiijj, distance. Its 
present population is said to number 'J, 000. It has 
but one business street, perhaps one-fourth of a mile 
in length, which was innocent of all attempts at 
j2radin:u, beiiiii lowest in the centre and the recepta- 
cle of more or less rubbish. There are wretched at- 
tempts at sidewalks in spots, and horse-blocks, or 
their equivalent, are found in front of many of the 
stores and dwellings. Most of ihe buildings on this 
main street are unpretentious structures, many of 
them the typical Southern store, one story hiijh, 
with pitched roof, and a piazza in front seeininjj,lv 
for the shelter of the loungers that are alwavs to be 
found under it. Three or four churches, a court 
house, and a small jail behind the latter, of a some- 
what rickety appearance, seeming hardlv strong 
enough to hold securely the highly civilized tvpe of 
criminal found in the Middle and Eastern States, 
comprise the public building's. The court-house has 
been called "handsome" in its day, but on what 


ground it would be somewhat difficult, at present, to 
tell. Although a two-storied building, it is quite 
low-studded, and a part of its outer wall finished in 
plaster presents evidence that the "scaling down" 
process, of late so popular in some parts of the quon- 
dam Confederacy, is becoming general in its appli- 
cation. The Circuit Court was in session while we 
were here, engaged in trying a negro for the murder 
of a white man at Manassas Junction some weeks 
before. A large crowd, composed of both colors, 
was assembled in and about the court-house, but as 
good-natured and free from excitement as could be 
found anywhere in the North under similar condi- 
tions. The prisoner certainly seemed to be having 
a fair trial. 

The suburbs are by far the most attractive and 
creditable part of the town. There are a number of 
very fine residences on the four or five roads that 
centre in this place. Many of them have been built 
since the war. Spacious and ornamental grounds 
surround them, showing the existence of a refined 
taste and the means of gratifying it, and proving 
rather conclusively that not every Rebel exhausted 
his resources in the interests of the Confederacy, — 
for Warrenton was a stanch Rebel stronghold dur- 
ing the war, and, as we were informed, still deserves 
that reputation. 

A private conversation with some of the colored 
men, however, assured us that they exercise their 
suffrages entirely untrammelled. As we jour- 
neyed on bej'ond the town we met horsemen at short 
intervals, isolated or in pairs, Virginia gentlemen of 
the old school going to "Circuit." This is one of the 
"field days" of the county, when almost every man 
within a radius of twenty miles may be found at 
county headquarters; and from the number of sad- 



died horses picketed along the streets and in vacant 
lots, one might easily imagine either Kilpatriek's or 
Stuart's troopers in possession, were it a time of 
war. Approaching the town later in the day, on our 
homeward journey, we met several of these same 
gentry, also wending their way homeward, mauy of 
whom maintained a very unstable equilibrium in the 
saddle. In brief, during Circuit, liquors flow with 
the utmost freedom, each gentleman of the F. F. Y.'s 
drinking with every one of his acquaintances whom 
he meets, if his capacity is equal to it, But we must 
not linger longer in this representative and interest- 
ing town of the Old Dominion. 

One feature of our march through Virginia thus 
far was the untold abundance of blackberries with 
which we were almost constantly regaled. In 

some sections they liter- 
ally lined the roads and 
overran the fields. It 
was possible for a soldier 
to seat himself in their 
midst, and without once 
changing his location, to 
fill his stomach, or his 
coffee dipper, or both. It 
is to be further noted 
that the fruit was un- 
usually sweet and deli- 
cious, putting our north- 
ern products into the 
shade in this particular. 
To what extent it was in- 
strumental in toning up 
the health and spirits of 

OTIS N. HARRINGTOX the arni . v "innot be esti- 

Orderly Sergeant mated, but that it WJ1S 

eminently beneficial, and warded off a vast amount 
of summer disease, is beyond all question. 


We remained at our post on picket for five days. 
From this camp, First Sergeant Otis X. Harrington, 
who had been ailing for some time with chronic 
diarrhoea, was sent to Washington, the 29th, but 
did not live to reach there, dying on the journey July 
30th. He left his saddle when the army crossed into 
Virginia, saying at the time that the last hope of re- 
covery had left him. The rigors of the campaign to 
this point had so aggravated his disease that his 
courage had deserted him, and his strength nearly 
so, when Ave crossed at Harper's IYrry From this 
time the hardships he underwent multiplied, so that 
when at last it was permitted to send him to the 
hospital he had not sufficient vitality left to read) 
there. He was an efficient officer and a good sol- 
dier, and was much respected by the entire Com- 
pany, which deeply lamented his death. Sergt. 
Ceorge H. Putnam was promoted to fill the vacancy 
on the Sth of August. 

John (' Frost also left us the same (late, and was 
discharged from the service for disability the follow- 
ing September. 

Before Ave left this camp, a large- mail, which had 
been accumulating at Washington for three Aveeks, 
arrived, and opened to us once more the outer world 
from which we had been so completely excluded. 

July 31, Ave moved forward and took post at Sul- 
phur Springs. 

June 26. Battery arrived at Maryland Heights at 
10 o'clock A.M. 

June 27 Gen. French took command of this post 


June 28. Private Charles Slack reported to (quar- 

Juue 2!>. Private Charles Slack reported for 
duty Privates Frank M. Fstee and Warburton re- 
ported to quarters. 

June 30. Privates Estee and Warburton reported 
for duty Started from Maryland Heights for Fred 
eriek < 'ity 

July 1. Arrived at Frederick City at <i o'clock 

July 2. Started from Frederick City at 4 P.M. 
and arrived at Monocacy Junction 6 P.M. 

July 3. Private John T. Goodwin reported for 

July 4. Privates Clark (?) and Urcutt (?) reported 
to quarters. 

July 5. Privates Orcutt (?) and Nowell reported 
to quarters. 

July 7 Privates (lark (?), Orcutt (?) and Nowell 
returned to duty Two sections of this Battery re- 
turned to Frederick City 

July 8. The sections at Frederick Junction 
joined the Battery The Battery started for South 
Mountain to join the Third Army Corps at 2 o'clock. 

July 9. On the march A hah F Southworth and 
S. O. Biehardson appointed teamsters vice Abbott 
and ("base reduced. 

July 10. Camped on Antietam battleground. 

July 12. Quartermaster Serg't S. A. Alden and 
Oorp'l \Y YV Starkweather reduced to the ranks. 
Private \Y G. Rollins appointed Q. M. Sergt. in place 
of Alden reduced to the ranks. Private B. C Clark 
appointed corporal in place of Starkweather. 

July 13. Two horses shot. Disease glanders. 
Three horses abandoned as worthless and worn out. 

July IS. Crossed the Potomac river from Mary- 
land to Virginia. 



July 10. Serg't Allard and privates Alden, Chase 
and Abbott sent to Berlin for horses and mules with 
four horses mounted. 

July 25. Three horses abandoned as worthless 
and worn out. 

July 27 First Serjeant Otis X Harrington and 
private John C Frost reported sick to quarters. 
Captain J Henry Sleeper absent sick at Warrenton 
on surgeon s certificate. 

July 2S. One horse abandoned as worthless and 
worn out. 

July 2!>. First Sergeant Otis X. Harrington and 
private John ( '. Frost sent to Cen'l Hospital, Wash- 
ington, I). C One horse died, disease inflammation 
of the bladder. 

Privates Xorthey, Ellsworth, Kamsdell, Ham, 
Chase, Feach, Innis. Clark (?), Kiekford, King, New 
ton, Parks, Pierce (?) reported to quarters. 



Juhj 31 to Ortnhcr V.I. ISC,.!. 





Sulphur Springs — or YVarrenton Sulphur 
Springs, as they are usually termed to distinguish 
them from the more famous White Sulphur Springs 
in West Virginia — the spot selected for the en- 
campment of the Third Corps, is situated some six 
miles from TVarrenton, on the north bank of the 
Rappahannock River. Before the Avar it had been a 
fashionable watering-place for wealthy planters and 
their families, who frequented it in large numbers 
from the States farther south. The buildings orig- 
inally consisted of two large hotels, one on either 
side of the road, with a capacity of eight hundred 
guests. Both of these were in ruins, having been 
set on fire by shells thrown, we were told, by Union 
troops the summer previous, to dislodge sharpshoot- 
ers. It seems that they were actually thrown bv 
the Rebel army, — perhaps the 21th of August, 
when Sigel's detachment of Pope's army occupied 
the place, as he was heavily shelled by the enemy at 
that time, from the ridge of land across the river. 

The spacious stable, too, that stood near by, was 
completely destroyed. The walls of the larger ho- 
tel and a part of its roof were in tolerably good con- 
dition. It was a four and one-half storied structure. 


A .slat bedstead, minus the slats, still remained in 
nearly every chamber, and a hundred bells hung 
voiceless in the office Kuiming back en echelon 
from either flank of the building were two rows of 
cottages for the accommodation of families. These 
were in a fair state of preservation, as was also the 
bath house with its twenty tubs, and a central foun- 
tain, supplied with water from the springs by means 
of a hydraulic ram. A small upright engine of about 
live horse power, evidently used for pumping water 
and for carrying the shafting to what appeared to 
have been a small wheelwright's shop, was still 
standing. In rear of this hotel was a beautiful 
grove of large trees, which formed what must have 
been a most charming auxiliary to the other natural 
and artificial attractions of the spot. In the early 
history of the watering-place this was a deer park. 
We were informed by a most veracious gentleman 
who at one time lived there, that he himself has 
counted forty-two deer in this enclosure at a time, 
besides monkeys, numerous beautiful birds, and 
other imported objects of animated nature. This 
feature, however, had disappeared before the war 
broke out. From the rear of the hotel the ground 
fell away in an easy descent to the springs, a dis- 
tance of perhaps twenty or twenty-five rods. Over 
one of these springs stood, with uncertain stability, 
a wooden canopy, while encircling it, at a distance 
of eight or ten feet, was erected a wooden bulwark 
three or four feet high, banked outside with earth to 
keep out all surface water. On the seat which 
surrounded this enclosure hundreds of well-to-do 
Southern planters and farmers had sat and sipped 
sulphur water, to many a healing beverage, but to 
our unschooled taste a very unpalatable one. Be- 
yond the springs the ground rises again, and again 


falls away to the Kappahannock. A few rods below 
stood the piers to a bridge then destroyed. The 
road crossing the river at this point leads to Culpep- 
per Court House. It seemed a truly picturesque 
and favored spot, and we looked forward to our stay 
near it with pleasurable anticipations. 

The grounds in the immediate vicinity of the ho- 
tels were appropriated for the headquarters of Maj. 
den. Birney, he having command of the First Divi- 
sion, to which we were then attached. Going on 
past the hotels up the road which leads to Freder- 
icksburg, some four hundred yards, Ave turn into an 
apple orchard on our left, overrun with blackberry 
vines, and on this rise of land locate our camp. 
There was no fruit on the trees, but an abundance 
on the vines, and we almost literally rolled in ber- 
ries for some time. Having cleared up the ground, 
pitched the officers' quarters and the tarpaulins, and 
put up a brush shelter over the horses, but little re- 
mained for us to do, and a reaction set in. Scarcely 
a man in the Company felt strong and vigorous, al- 
though there were but few cases of serious and pro- 
tracted illness. Lying and sitting on the ground to 
the extent we had done were not conducive to a 
healthful bodily condition, and the systems of many 
became so relaxed that the slightest exertion was 
most distasteful. On the 17th of August shelter 
tents were furnished us, and just one week after- 
wards we pitched them, each man selecting a chum 
(or "chicken," as the Marbleheadmen called them), 
to share his quarters. Six streets were laid out, one 
to a detachment, and the camp presented a neat and 
orderly appearance. The tents were supported in 
most cases on ridge-poles averaging five feet from 
the ground, which gave opportunity to build rough 
cots within. This change produced an improved 


healthfulness throughout the Company. Then there 
were bowers of branches built over the tents and 
some of the streets, thus adding very materially to 
our bodily comfort; so that we have always looked 
back upon our camp life at Sulphur Springs as be- 
ing, on the whole, rather delightful. 

The eminence now occupied by ns had at some pe- 
riod or periods in 18»!2 been the theatre of active 
operations, as numerous unexploded shells and frag- 
ments of shells that lay scattered about bore ample 
testimony One of these was accidentally the cause 
of quite a commotion in camp for a few moments. 
It seemed that the brigade on our right had "po- 
liced** their cant]), and swept the rubbish, composed 
mostly of dry grass and twigs, into a hole, excavated 
for the purpose of getting at the red clayey loam for 
chimney-building. Amongst this rubbish was a 
loaded shell. Some time after, the mass was inno- 
cently fired, when the shell exploded, startling the 
whole cam]), but injuring no one. 

Several times in the previous year, during the 
movements prior and immediately subsequent to the 
Second Bull Run battle, the river below us had been 
crossed and recrossed by divisions of either army, 
and on some of these occasions, perhaps the one al- 
ready alluded to, our present position, being occu- 
pied by one party, had been subjected to a heavy ar- 
tillery tire from the other. The position was also a 
good one from which to deal blows, and some quar- 
ter, perhaps the high land across the river, may have 
received an equivalent number of iron compliments 
from it. 

During our stay here Ave were ordered to adopt the 
badge of the Artillery Brigade, Third Corps. It was 
the lozenge worn by the corps, but subdivided into 
four smaller lozenges, two of which were blue, one 


red, and one white, to be worn on the side of the cap. 
So little is known in relation to the origin of the 
corps badges, that the author has thought a para- 
graph on that subject would be of value introduced 
in this connection. 

The idea of a corps badge originated, as far as can 
be ascertained, with (Ten. Kearny. During the 
seven da.vs' battle on the Peninsula he saw the ne- 
cessity of having- some distinctive mark by which 
the officers and men of his division could be recog- 
nized. He therefore directed his officers to wear a 
red patch of diamond shape as a distinguishing 
mark, for the making of which he gave up his own 
red blanket. Not long afterwards the men, of their 
own accord, cut pieces out of their overcoat linings 
to make patches for themselves. At the same time 
Kearny adopted a plain red flag to denote his divi- 
sion headquarters, and Hooker adopted a blue one 
for his headquarters.* At Harrison s Landing, July 
4, 1802, Kearny issued a general order, directing of- 
ficers to wear a red patch of the diamond or lozenge 
shape either on the crown or left side of their cap, 
while the men were to wear theirs in front. From 
this apparently insignificant beginning the idea of 
division and corps badges was developed by Maj. 
(Jen. Butterfield when he was made Chief-of-Staff 
of the Army of the Potomac in 1863. Hooker then 
took up the matter, and, having done away with the 
Grand Divisions, divided the army into seven corps, 
and designated a badge to be worn by each. To the 
First Corps he gave the circle; Second Corps, trefoil; 
Third Corps, diamond; Fifth Corps, Maltese cross; 
Sixth Corps, Greek cross; Eleventh Corps, crescent; 
Twelfth Corps, star. Fach corps was constituted of 

* Sec ] )e IVysler's "Personal and Military History of Philip 
Kearny," from which many of these facts were taken. 



2 N5 DIV. 

3R5 DIV. 


2 N2DIV. 

3 R 5 D I V. 










three divisions. The patch worn by the first divi- 
sion was red, the second white, and the third blue. 
General Orders Xo. 53, issued by Hooker in May, 
1S<>3, and before me as I write, order provost mar- 
shals to arrest as stragglers all troops (except cer- 
tain specified bodies) found without badges, and re- 
Turn them to their commands under guard. 

This scheme of badges, originated by Kearny and 
perfected by Hooker, continued, substantially unal- 
tered, to the close of the war. Tlie system of head- 
quarters flags, inaugurated by McOlellan, was also 
much simplified and improved by Hooker. The ac- 
companying plate shows the badges of the first four 
corps and the artillery brigade of the Third Corps. 

Our camp duties at Sulphur Springs were by no 
means onerous, especially during August Once es- 
tablished, there was very little drill or fatigue duty 
required of us. On the (ith a national Thanksgiving 
was proclaimed bv President Lincoln, in recognition 
of the victories at Oettysburg and Vicksburg, and 
our gratitude took on a deeper tinge on account of 
the appearance of the paymaster with two months' 
pay < ui tlie 15th, the gentlemanly soldier, ( 'apt. Ceo. 
E. Randolph, Chief of Artillery of the Third Corps, 
and commander of Battery K, First Regiment Rhode 
Island Artillery, inspected the Company His bear- 
ing on this occasion, and afterwards whenever we 
came in contact with him, made a favorable impres- 
sion upon us that only strengthened with time, for he 
certainly seemed to us a thorough gentleman and 
soldier. While in the latter capacity he may not 
have excelled either his predecessor in command 
over us, or his successor, as a gentleman in the ad- 
ministration of his functions as Chief of Artillery he 
was unquestionably their superior, and we deplored 
the change which afterwards deprived us of his 


September 7th the corps was reviewed near Beak- 
ton by (Jen. Meade, and made a tine appearance. A 
corps review was a new experience to us, but one 
that became commonplace enough, later. 

September 9th was the anniversary of our muster, 
and ('apt. Sleeper gave us the day to celebrate as 
each should choose, consistently with the require- 
ments of the service. Several received passes to 
visit friends in other regiments, but the greater part 
remained in camp. 

On the 12th the paymaster again made us happy 
by the disbursement of an additional two months' 
pay, and by paying balances to such as had not 
drawn the full amount of clothing annually allowed 
by government, — forty-two dollars' worth. Those 
who suffered deductions from their wages for over- 
draft of their clothing allowance, however, far ex- 
ceeded the number having a balance. 

On the 13th Maj. (Jen. Birney reviewed the First 
Division, which Avas the last parade of this kind in 
which we participated at Sulphur Springs, for now 
heavy movements of cavalry betokened a speed v 
breaking-up of the peace and quietness that had 
reigned so long in both armies. On the loth of Sep- 
tember inarching orders came, — suddenly, as such 
orders usually came. At half-past two in the after- 
noon the orderly delivered his charge, and at "> 
o'clock we were on the move, leaving, according to 
instructions, our tents standing and four or five sick 
men in them. A part of these came on in the bag- 
page wagons the next day The others, after va- 
rious refusals, succeeded in getting passage in some 
division ambulances, well tilled without them. Two 
hours after they left, IJebel guerrillas were roaming 
through the camp. 

The cavalry that we had seen crossing were part 


of a large force destined on a reconnoissance under 
( u-ii. Pleasanton.* Supported by Gen, Warren 
with the Second Corps, they met and pressed bach 
Stuart's cavalry across the Papidan.t The infantry, 
however, were at no time engaged. This movement 
revealed the fact that Lee had depleted his army to 
reinforce Bragg in Tennessee, having sent away 
Longstreet s corps for that purpose, which decided 
(Jen. Meade to assume the offensive at once, and was 
the cause of our sudden departure. We marched 
not more than three miles, probably less, before 
camping for the night in a field of tall weeds on the 
left of the road. We were astir at 4. o clock, and in 
the advance of the corps, supported by the Third Di- 
vision (?), made a march of at least twenty miles, 
camping about s o'clock P.M., on "Bloomingdale 
farm," which was owned, or had been, so said re- 
port, by (Ten. A. P Hill, of the Ilebel army. It was 
a very warm day, and quite a large number of the 
infantry fell out of the ranks, a few dying from be- 
ing overheated. We crossed the Rappahannock and 
Hazel rivers this day, the former at Freeman's Ford. 
At the latter crossing, the battery wagon, not fol- 
lowing the course indicated for it, struck a rock and 
capsized in the river. 

At 5 o'clock on the morning of the 17th we har- 
nessed and hitched in, but did not move out of park 
until 2 P.M., and then to advance only a mile or so, 

:;; September 13. 

t '"Some time after this, about the middle of September, I received 
information which induced me to believe, or which satisfied me, that 
Longstreet's corps, or a portion of it, from (Jen. Lee's army, had 
been detached to the southwest. Immediately upon receiving this 
information, and without waiting for instructions. 1 sent my cavalry 
across the Rappahannock, drove the enemy across the Rapidan, and 
subsequently followed with my whole army, occupying Culpepper 
and the position between the Rappahannock and the Rapidan." — 
Hen. Hemic: Testimony before Committee on the Conduct of the War, Vol. 
I., isi;.-.. 


when we went into position amid a low, scattering 
growth of trees and bushes, Avith Clark's New Jersey 
Battery on our right, and the whole of the Third Di- 
vision in the woods on our left. The roofs and spires 
of the town of Culpepper* were visible something 
more than a mile away It was Army Headquar- 
ters, and a visit to this old-fashioned but substantial 
and interesting town took one through an almost 
continuous sheet of canvas comprising the thou- 
sands of tents and army wagons environing it. Its 
appearance, aside from that occasioned by the pres- 
ence of military intruders, wore such an atmos- 
phere of antiquity, that we readily conjured up the 
shades of its lordly namesake and his associates 
with whom to people it, although it is probable that 
this section of country never came under their ob- 

We remained on picket here a few days, with lit 
tie to disturb us worthy of mention. A part of the 
time was occupied in the erection of board cabins 
for our better protection from the cold, — which by 
night was quite intense for the season and latitude, 
— and from rains that had been unusually copious. 
During this period, too, our three teamsters were or- 
dered to turn in their horses, and received iu return 
three complete teams of six mules each. To see 
these untrained drivers attempt to establish control 
over them was rare sport indeed. A mule is an ani- 
mal which has the peculiar faculty of doing just the 
opposite of what is wanted of him. If he ought to 
move in a straight line he is certain to describe a 
circle, and vice versa; and to run wheels into pitfalls 
and against stumps seems his special delight. The 

* The actual name of the town is Fairfax. It is the capital of 
Culpepper County. But the name of the county has well nigh 
usurped the name of the town. Both are named in honor of English 


management of the mule is a very simple matter 
when he is once trained. With the six mules 
hitched to the pole of their own wagon when in 
camp, on duty, with their mischief-loving propensi- 
ties, sundry entanglements ensue, and a confused 
pile of mule apparently involved inextricably is a 
common sight at such times; but the appearance of 
the driver with his "black-snake," or whip, changes 
the scene amazingly Only one or two cracks of it 
are necessary for them to become disentangled, un- 
aided, and stand, as it were, at a "present" to their 
master. In the mule-driver's code the whip is the 
panacea for all the ills mule disposition is heir to. 
Yet there have been cases where the law of kindness 
has worked its gentle way oven through his thick 
hide and skull. A team becomes manageable as 
soon as there is established a community of feeling 
and mutual understanding between the mules and 
their driver. By certain jerks of the single rein 
which he holds, that is attached to the bit of the 
near lead mule, and by outlandish sounds unintelli- 
gible to outsiders, he makes known his commands, 
and they obey with alacrity Our drivers, after va- 
rious ludicrous mishaps, attained a skill in the con- 
trol of their teams equal to the best "professors" in 
the wagon trains, and to the uninitiated whose eyes 
may see these pages, it remains to be said that a 
six-mule team in the hands of an experienced driver, 
with his single rein can be handled more promptly 
than a six-horse team by far, and, except under fire, 
is more- reliable in other respects. They were of im- 
mense service to both armies in the Rebellion. 

Early in October orders were received at Company 
headquarters to keep eight days* rations on hand. 
The significance of this we did not at the time un- 
derstand fully, but the fact was developed later that 


< ieu. Meade was on the point of pushing his offensive 
operations still further by making a tlank movement 
on Lees position across the Rapidan, as it seemed 
too strong to be carried by a direct assault, when he 
was suddenly brought to a halt in its execution by 
being ordered to send the Eleventh and Twelfth 
Corps (Howard's and Slocum's), under the command 
of Gen. Jos. Hooker, to reinforce the Army of the 
Cumberland. This put Gen. Meade, in turn, on the 
defensive; but, by the arrival of recruits and the re- 
turn of troops sent to keep the peace in New York 
during the draft, towards the middle of October, he 
felt sufficiently strong to again assume the aggres- 
sive. On the 10th he sent Gen. Buford with his cav- 
alry division across the Rapidan to uncover the up- 
per fords preparatory to advancing Newton's First 
and Sedgwick s Sixth corps. Lee, meanwhile, hav 
ing heard of the reduction of our army, was prepar- 
ing for an offensive movement at the same time. He 
felt perfectly competent to cope with our force; and 
it is stated, on no less reliable authority than Gen. 
Longstreet, who may be presumed to know, that 
Lee proposed the audacious measure of a direct 
march on "Washington with his entire army, being 
willing, if necessary, to leave Richmond exposed and 
exchange capitals. This, as might be expected, Jeff. 
Davis would not permit, and the Rebel commander 
was forced to content himself with an attempt to 
turn the right flank of our army, and by crippling it, 
as be hoped to do, keep it near Washington, so that 
more reinforcements might be sent to Bragg. Thus 
it happened, that, whereas Buford crossed the river 
on the 10th, Lee had anticipated him, having crossed 
to the north side on the preceding dav, and by un- 
frequented and circuitous routes gained the right of 
our army before- the movement was suspected. Of 


these facts we, of course, knew nothing until later, so 
that when, about 11 <> clock in the forenoon of Sat- 
urday, October 10th, we received orders to ''harness 
and hitch in as quickly as possible,*' it gave us some- 
thing of a surprise, which was by no means lessened 
by our being immediately ordered into line of battle 
a few rods from camp. The beating of the "Long 
Roll" had already assembled the infantry The re- 
port was that the enemy was flanking us, and an 
attack was imminent on any part of the line; but as 
no enemy appeared immediately, the infantry were 
permitted to return to camp, one company at a time, 
and pack their effects. We did the same by detach- 
ments, and lay there all that day and the decidedly 
cool night which succeeded it, shivering and dozing 
alternately around the tires, until morning of the 
next day, the Sabbath, when, at S o'clock, the column 
was put in motion rearward. The trains had all been 
sent on with the utmost dispatch, and now began 
the memorable race between the two armies. Our 
caissons were put in the lead, and our guns to the 
rear, where the danger was supposed to lie. The 
Hazel River was again crossed, this time by a pon- 
toon, to facilitate the retreat and prevent the re- 
currence of such accidents as befell our battery 
wagon on the advance. The Rappahannock was 
readied after dark, and crossed by fording at Fox's 
Mill Ford,* lucky artillerymen riding over, dry shod, 
on their carriages, whilst the infantry were obliged 
to wade, and their shouts and halloos at one anoth- 
er's mishaps in crossing were heard far into the 
night. We were among the first to cross, going im- 
mediately into park on a low flat of land next the 
river, where we passed the coolest night of the sea- 

'"■ This lord is loss than two miles below Sulphur Springs. 


son thus far.* The frost could be scraped from our 
blankets by hnndfuls the next morning. At 
o'clock we were again under way, but proceeded no 
more than three miles before making a halt near 
Bealeton on Bell Plain, our old review ground. 
Here we passed the rest of the day and succeeding 
night, up to about 3 A.M., of the 13th; then we were 
again turned out and on the move 1 at 5, travelling at 
a moderate speed until we arrived at what is known 
as "Three Mile Station," on the Warrenton Branch 
Railroad. We there heard that the Rebels had 
driven our cavalry out of Warrenton that forenoon. 
From this cause, or on account of other information 
in possession of the corps commander, line of battle 
was at once formed and skirmishers thrown out. 
Meanwhile the Battery had been placed on a very 
commanding hill; but after waiting fully half an 
hour, with no demonstrations from the enemy, we 
moved down into the road again and resumed our 
advance. Shortly after this ("'apt. Sleeper w;is or- 
dered to send a section of his Battery to the front. 
In obedience to this order, the right section moved 

* "My division brought up the rear and left, and we crossed the 
Kappahannock expecting to occupy our old position at Sulphur 
Springs. I was met. however, by an aid to Gen. French, with 

orders to mass my troops at Freeman's Ford, and not take my old 
position at Sulphur Springs. 

"About two o'clock in the afternoon of that day an order readied 
me, stating that the whole army would be prepared to advance; that 
it would rei ross the Rappahannock. 1 held my division in readiness 
until night. I was then upon the right of our army, and little before 
dark the cavalry under (Jen. (Jrcgg, who was stationed at the fords 
formerly held by me, reported that the enemy was there. That was 
beyond the line assigned to me, and I sent a staff otlieer. asking 

instructions. I received orders to be on the alert and ready to receive 
an attack, and hold my command in readiness to move. I remained 
there all night. The enemy crossed within two miles and a half of 
my command, and I did not interrupt them at all. The next morning 
1 received an order to fall back with the rest of the corps, which we 
did, and upon the extreme left of the retreating army marched to 
Greenwich, and then bivouacked." — Maj. (Irn. Hinicii: Ttslimo/ii/ be- 
fore the ( 'ommittrr on lln Conduct of the War, Vol. I., lSlio. 


to the head of the column at a trot. The order of the 
troops in march was now as follows: first, a small 
body of cavalry as advance guard, followed at a few 
rods distance by Gen. French and staff; then came a 
small regiment of infantry; and after it our right 
section, followed by the First Brigade of the First 
Division, Col. Colli* commanding; and this, in turn, 
succeeded in column by the rest of the Battery; then 
came the remainder of the First Division. 

In this order the column had jnst crossed Turkey 
Run, and was marching along less than half a mile 
south of where the road, sloping gently down, de- 
bouches suddenly on Cedar Run and the little settle 
ment of Auburn on its north bank. A continuous 
piece of woods stretched along on our right, but on 
the left was an opening, beyond which also extended 
another tract of woods. Scarcely had the right sec- 
tion reached the position in column assigned it, be 
fore ('apt. Clark, assistant chief of artillery, came 
galloping back to say to Lieut. Grange]', 'Mien. 
French wants your guns immediately at the front." 
The caissons were at once halted, the order to "gal- 
lop" given, and on dashed the pieces, soon meeting 
"Old ^'inkey" las the General was often called on 
account of the emphasis and frequency with which 
he shut his eyes) cantering to the rear, who imme- 
diately ordered them to "go into battery and load 
with canister." But ere this the Rebels, who wore 
posted for the most part in the woods beyond the 
opening, were sending their whizzing compliments at 
the column in unpleasant profusion. The road hero 
was not wide, and was somewhat sunken, and to get 
the two pieces from column "In Battery" was a task 
which under less exciting circumstances might have 
been attended with some difficulty, and, possibly, 
confusion. 11 will be readily judged, then, that un- 


der lire, and that, ton, for the first time, the difficul- 
ties would he greatly enhanced. Nevertheless, the 
tin ns -were unlimbered and put into position with 
commendable promptness and coolness,* with 
barely room enough left between them for the can- 
noneers to execute their duties, and a double dis- 
charge of canister at once sent hurtling down the 
road. "Sock it to them, boys!'* said the (Jeneral, 
who sat on his horse near by, winking with unusual 
vehemence, watching operations. But the "boys" 
needed no second bidding, and vigorously plied the 
woods with their canister and case shot. 

Meanwhile, where was the rest of the Battery? 
The first intimation they had of trouble ahead was 
the general skurry of staff officers to the rear, hur- 
rying on the men and issuing orders to various com- 
manding officers. Our caissons were immediately 
halted, cannoneers, as many as were at hand and 
alert enough, mounted the pieces, the infantry 
opened ranks before us, and away we went at a 
lively gallop towards the scene of the fray, making 
a break through the rail fence, which skirted the 
road, into the open field. Tokens of conflict had ere 
this become manifest to the ear in the familiar boom 
of onr own guns, already mentioned, and the hostile 
hiss of musket-balls about our heads, producing a 
new and decidedly unpleasant sensation. The cen- 
tre section went into battery next the road, and the 
left section siill farther to the left, thus bringing all 
six gnus into line; but no sooner did these latter sec- 
tion* enter the field than the fire of the enemy was 
concentrated upon them, having them within shorter 
range and plain view, especially the left section, 
which was less screened by the scattering under- 

* Tlr«' colonel of the regiment supporting this section afterwards 
said ho thought they were ohl troops, so coolly did they take the 



growth. Before its guns are fairly unlimbered, 
Sergt. Philip T. TV oodfin, chief of the left piece, falls 
from his horse severely wounded by a bullet, which 
enters his upper jaw, knocking in two teeth and 
lodging in his neck. Private Joseph Hooper, Num- 
ber Three man on the same piece, receives a shot 
through his arm shortly after, while another grazes 
him on the hip. Private Alexander Holbrook is 
struck in the breast by a bullet which has passed 
through the lid of the open limber of the fifth piece, 
but which does him no serious injury Two more 
spend themselves, one on the gun, the other on the 
limber chest of the fourth piece; and Lieut. Adams s 
horse plunges wildly with a wound in the leg. But 
all this has happened in less time than it has taken 
to write it. Our turn had now come. From the 
hirst moment we came under fire we were nearly con- 
sumed with the burning desire to get to doing some- 
thing, for the numerous duckings of the head that 
we had executed out of respect to the "Minies" that 
met us Avith rebellious hisses, made us nervous to 
send back our compliments, and this we now do in 
good earnest. It is give as well as take, and everv 
cannoneer is thrilled to the very core at the first 
belch of his own ten-pounder. It is his first blow 
from the shoulder for self-defence and Tnion, and it 
braces him up for the work before him. AYe send 
our shells crashing into the woods with great rapid- 
ity, and while thus engaged, Chief of Artillery Ran- 
dolph rides up behind us as cool as if on review, and 
in a (dear voice, which by its deliberate accents in- 
spires confidence, calls out, "Don't fire so fast, men! 
Wait till you see a flash, then fire at it." But the 
flashes have grown less frequent. 

Meanwhile Col. Collis s First Brigade filed rapidly 
in and took position on our left and left front, pro- 


t<H-t''(l in part bv a rise of ground. After the action 
liad lasted about twenty minutes the tiring- of the 
enemy ceased, as did that of the Battery Then the 
infantry rose, and pouring in a volley, charged with 
a ringing cheer into the woods; but the Rebels had 
retreated before them, and the tight was ended. 
Our foe was said to be a body of Stuart's Cavalry, 
variously estimated at from five hundred to two 
thousand in number.* Now came another new chap- 
ter in our experience. Wounded men hobbled to the 
rear or were carried thither, and a few, half an hour 
since in the full enjoyment of a vigorous manhood, 
lay pale in death. Our two wounded were taken to 
the ambulance train to be cared for. Private 
Hooper underwent the amputation of his arm. 
Sergt. Woodfin never rejoined the Company He 
gradually recovered from his wound, and March 10, 
18<>4, was promoted to a second and afterwards a 
first lieutenancy in the Sixteenth Massachusetts 

For the commendable behavior of the Battery on 
this occasion, mention was made of it in the follow- 
ing Oeneral Order of the division commander: — 

lleuili/iiarti is. First Dirisinti. Third Cor/is. 
Fairfax Station, Ya.. Oct. IS. ISiit 
(Icncriil Order So. !)■',. 

Especial credit is due to the Eirst Ilrigado, Col. Collis. and to 
(he Tenth Massachusetts I lattery ('apt. Sleeper, for their gal- 
lantry in repulsing the enemy's attack on the head of the column 

;5 Eossing five's (he latter figures in his "Civil War in America." 
On what authority, I am unable to state. The following is undoubt- 
edly a good synopsis of the affair: 

".My division had a little fight at Auburn before we reached Crecn- 
wieh. Two brigades of cavalry und ~v Stuart attacked the head of 
my column. The fight lasted about thirty minutes, and resulted in 
a retreat of the enemy, leaving their dead and wounded. I lost about 
fifty in killed and wounded from my leading brigade. Stuart was cut 
off by this repulse at Auburn and bivouacked that night to our right 
within our army." — lien, liirney. Testimony before tin- Committer on 
tin Coinliiet of the War. Vol. I., ISdo. 


at Auburn, and to (>1. Collis for his skill and promptitude in 
making the dispositions ordered. 

By command of Maj. den. Birney. F. BIRXEY, 

Major and Assistant Adjutant-dciieral. 

The course being once more clear, our march was 
resumed and continued with spirit a distance of 
fully six miles, which brought us, in the darkness, at 
9 o'clock, to the little settlement of Greenwich, 
where we bivouacked for the night. Daylight of the 
ensuing morning gave us a better view of our sur- 
roundings. There was one large house located at 
some distance from the road, with quite extensive 
grounds about it. Around the estate the following 
notice was posted : 


Protected by okder of Gfx. Meade. 

The same notice was conspicuously posted on 
nearly every house in the settlement. Later, we 
learned that a Mr. Green, who owned the large 
house, making it his summer residence and living at 
Savannah in the winter, was a man of means and 
influence, and instead of this being a knot of British 
settlers, as at first appeared, the other people living 
here had persuaded the above gentleman to have the 
same safeguard thrown about their premises as his 

As early as ti o'clock A.M., we were again on the 
move, our line of march this day taking us across 
the plains of Manassas and a portion of the old Bull 
Bun battle-ground. Sounds of fighting to our right 
and rear had fallen upon our ears in the early morn- 
ing, but we pursued our journey unmolested, being 
in the advance of the First Division and the Corps 


;is before. At noon the right section went into bat- 
tery in one of the numerous earthworks around 
Manassas Junction, for the protection of the wagon 
train from guerrillas, subsequently making the best 
of its way to the head of the column again. By mid 
afternoon the Third and Sixth corps jostled and 
crowded one another as both in hot haste pressed on 
to reach the desired goal — the heights of ( Vntre- 
ville. We were passing over the trampled fields 
and old corduroys of the first Bull Hun ground and 
about 1 o'clock the head of the column marched into 
and took possession of the earthworks on the rise of 
land between Bull Bun and (Vntreville. The point 
Mas gained, and the Army of the Potomac was now 
in a position to covet rather than avoid an engage- 
nient. Bat no one understood our advantage better 
than (Jen. Lee, who, having failed to intercept our 
communications, as he had fondly hoped, gave up 
the struggle with the close of day 

Before pursuing our own personal narrative fur- 
ther, it will be of general interest to connect our 
movements in this campaign with those of the army 
as a whole, both in respect to their causes and their 
relations to those of the enemy it seems that < ien. 
Meade learned on the morning of the 12th that the 
liebel army had halted at < 1 ulpepper, and thinking 
he might have been too hasty in his retreat, sent 
back the cavalry with the Second, Fifth, and Sixth 
corps to the vicinity of Brandy Station. This was 
the day we spent in waiting near Bealeton for the 
purpose, it would seem, of being within easy aiding 
distance in case Meade offered battle, which he con- 
templated doing at or near Culpepper. But the foe 
did not wait for anv such demonstration, for that 
very day he had commenced another flanking move- 
ment, of which our commander became first ap- 


prised through Gen. Gregg, who was watching the 
upper fords of the Kappahannock, when he was as- 
sailed by Lee's advance, and after a gallant resist- 
ance hurled back across the river, the latter then 
crossing with his army at Sulphur Springs and 
Waterloo, a ford a few miles higher up. Our corps 
at the time was but a short distance down the river, 
and had our isolated situation been known to the 
( onfederate commander, he might easily have 
turned aside and demolished us before aid could 
have come from the other corps. But luckily this 
was not to be. The race between the two veteran 
armies was now pressed with the utmost vigor, Lee 
aiming to strike our line of retreat along the Orange 
and Alexandria Lailroad, and Meade bending everv 
energy to prevent him.* 

(Jen. Stuart hung closely about the skirts of our 
army, picking up stragglers, and it was while 
eagerly pressing on that he encountered the head of 
our corps at Auburn, with the result already given; 

* "My desire was to uive battle in (ion. Lit; hut his movement so 
tar in my riufit satisfied me that lie w;is not jr< >injr t" attack me, and 
that he was moving off to seize the Itappahannook. cut off my 

eniiimnnications. and compel me in move out and attack him to my 
disadvantage. With this view I directed a rein parade movement of 
the army to the line of the Rappahannock, which was accom- 

"I'nder this belief, and bem.^ anxious to <;ive him battle, il not be- 
inu my desire at all to avoid a battle, excepi to avoid it upon his 
terms. I directed the movement of three corps early the next morn- 
iny. amounting lo about :',H.nun men. with which I marched back 
a^ain in the direction of Culpepper with the expectation that if (len. 
Lee was there we would have a ti^lit. 

"O»,.s7/o». When you retired on that retreat to ( 'entieville it was 
not with any view to avoid a battle? 

"Aiisim- ,\oi at all. This matter must be settled by fighting. 

"(Jiiistimi. Your constant object was to brini; on a battle on ad- 
vantageous terms V 

"Anxirir. My object was to maneuver so as to bring my army 
into such a position that when divine,- battle to the enemy I would 
have a reasonable probability of success: and in the event of a dis- 
aster I would have a line of retreat or line of communication open."— 
fltii. Munli.: Trstiiumiy brforr tin <Jtnniii\tt<:i- on thr Vomliirt of tlir War 


but at the close of the engagement it seems that he 
made off to our right instead of our left, as we then 
supposed, towards Catletfs Station, where he found 
himself that night in a critical situation. When in 
Poolsville, Md., in April, 1S70, the writer fell in with 
a member of Stuart's famous troopers who spoke of 
a tight that occurred in this campaign, not far from 
Auburn, that he and his associates always called 
"The battle of the Bull Pen." I lis statement concern- 
ing it was in substance that Stuart unexpectedly 
found himself between two of our corps at dusk, and 
hastily concealed his men in a field hedged in by 
osage orange, and grown up to old held pines; that 
they muffled everything which could rattle, held 
their horses by the bridles, and took every precau- 
tion to remain undiscovered; that the conversation 
of the "Yanks'' 1 as they marched along was plainly 
audible; that man)- of our men who stepped into the 
lot were seized, bound, and threatened with instanl 
death if they attempted to give an alarm; that at 
daylight they pushed their guns up to the edge of the 
bushes and discharged them among our troops who 
were encamped near bv; and that upon being 
charged they retreated as best they could, congrat- 
ulating themselves upon their escape from their se- 
rious dilemma. All this and more was told with a 
very interesting setting of details. Never having 
heard the incident before, it came as new matter 
and was forgotten; but while looking up material for 
this campaign Ave found his story fully corroborated 
in all essential points, and that Stuart did, on that 
very night after his interview wilh the Third Corps, 
hud himself thus involved.* His first resolve was 

~ Ei)ssiny; says between the Third and Second corps, but he is 
wroiifr. as the whole of the former encamped at or near ( Ireenwich 
tliiit nijdit. Swinlon says Sykes's Fifth Corps and Warren's Second, 
which is more probable. 


to abandon bis guns, and get out tbe best way be 
could, hoping to escape under rover of darkness 
with little loss; but this idea he relinquished, and 
bid his forces in a thicket of low pines that are wont 
to spring up from tbe exhausted soil of old fields. 
Finding uncertain what the issue of bis complicated 
situation might be, be lifted out three of bis men 
with muskets and Union uniforms, with instructions 
to drop silently into our passing lines, march awhile, 
then slip out on the other side of the 1 column and 
make haste to Gen. Lee at Warrenton for help. 

At daybreak of the 14th, the crack of skirmishers 
muskets gave token that the requested aid was at 
hand, whereupon the bold cavalry leader opened a 
cannonade upon our astonished forces from the op- 
posite direction, and in the confusion immediately 
subsequent easily made his escape, Warren, very 
naturally, thinking himself to he attacked both in 
front and rear. 

Then Lee pressed Hill and Ewell forward to antic- 
ipate our arrival at Bristow Station, but too late. 
When Hill approached it, our entire army, except 
the Second Corps, had gone by The Third Corps 
brought up the rear of the troops that had passed. 
Hill now eagerlv followed it, picking up stragglers, 
and was preparing to charge, when (.Jen. Warren ap- 
peared upon the scene with the Second Corps and 
somewhat disturbed his calculations. Hill turned 
at once to fight the foe in his rear. Warren, sur- 
prised at finding an enemy in his front, took some 
minutes to get his batteries at work, but ultimately 
succeeded in routing bis opponent, taking six guns 
and about five hundred prisoners, with a loss in his 
corps not exceeding two hundred. 

The roar of this engagement and of the desultory 
fighting that succeeded it came up from behind as 


14-1 Tin: tfxtii MAss.\rnrsi:TTs kattkky 

we closed in upon ( entreville, and after our arrival 
there l lie sounds of strife were still lo be heard, and 
the flashes of the artillery and puffs of smoke could 
be seen in the distance as day darkened into night; 
but the foreground to this piclniv presented a scene 
whose like we never saw before nor since. From far 
out over the plain long lines of army wagons Avere 
to be seen converging on < Vntreville. the drivers 
goading on their mules with the utmost desperation, 
as if in momentary expectation of being overtaken 
and "gobbled" by the enemy Coming in at the same 
time, their columns intermingled with the wagon 
trains, were dense masses of the infantry, with bayo 
nets glistening in the sunset light. In short, the 
whole landscape in our front seemed to be wrigglin 
with every kind of military appurtenance, hastening 
to the high ground we were occupying, where <ien. 
Meade had resolved to give battle. 

In the evening our left section was sent back 
about two miles for duty at one of the fords across 
Bull Bun. Here we found the Third Division of our 
corps drawn up in two lines of battle. The section 
remained all night without molestation except from 
a drenching rain, and in the morning rejoined the 
Battery, when our march was leisurely resumed, Lee 
having given up the pursuit. A further retrograde 
of seven miles took us to a point two miles beyond 
Faii-fax Station, where we halted, and, supported by 
the First Division, went into position behind a low 
breastwork.* Here, in a state of quiet, Ave remained 
until the 10th. (Jen. Sickles arrived in camp the 
evening of the 15th, his first appearance in the army 
since (Jeitysburg. He had suffered the amputation 

* "The next morning I was ordered to the extreme left of the army, 
to cover and hold Fairfax Station against an expected attack of the 
enemy from the left." — din. Hirnn/: Testimony brfon- Cummitln- on 
tin CoiiiIiii-I tif tin: II in- 


of one leg, and the ovation extended him by the vet 
erans of his old corps must have been very flattering 
to his pride, as showing the esteem in which he was 
still held by his former command. One prolonged 
and tumultuous cheer greeted him alonu the lines 
wherever he appeared, and nothing but his disabled 
and weak condition restrained the "Diamonds*" from 
taking him out of his carriage and bearing him aloft 
on their shoulders through the camp. 

Before our departure from this position we were 
called out to witness a spectacle, to us new, sternly 
sad and impressive, — the execution of a deserter. 
lie had deserted more than once, and was also ac- 
cused of giving information to the enemy, whereby 
a wagon train had been captured. He was executed 
in the presence of the whole division, which was 
drawn up around three sides of a rectangle in two 
double ranks, the outer facing inward and the in- 
ner facing outward. Between these the criminal 
was obliged to march, which he did with lowered 
head. The order of the solemn procession was as 
follows: 1st, the provost marshal, mounted; 2d, the 
band, playing Pleyel's Hymn; .'id, twelve armed men, 
who formed obliquely across the open end of the 
rectangle, when the procession had completed its 
round, to guard against any attempt to escape; 4th, 
the coffin, borne by four men; oth, the prisoner and a 
chaplain, with a single guard on either side; Oth, a 
shooting detachment of twelve men, eleven having 
muskets loaded with ball, and the twelfth with 
blank cartridge, but each ignorant as to the posses- 
sor of the latter; 7th, an additional shooting force of 
six men to act in case the twelve failed in the execu- 
tion of their duty. 

After completing the round the prisoner sat on 
an end of his coffin, which was placed in the centre 


of the open side of the rectangle, next his grave. 
The chaplain then made a prayer. After this was 
finished the latter addressed a few words to the con- 
demned, inaudible to us and followed Them with an- 
other brief prayer. The provost marshal then ad- 
vanced, bound the prisoner's eves with a handker- 
chief, read the General Order for the execution, then 
gave the signal for the shooting party to fire, and a 
soul passed to eternity Throwing his arms convul- 
sively into the air, he fell back upon his coffin, but 
made no further movement, and a surgeon who 
stood near, upon examination, declared life to be ex- 
tinct. Thus ended this sad scene. We have been 
particular in our description of it, not so much to re- 
fresh its doleful particulars in the memory of eve- 
witnesses, as to convey an adequate idea of all such 
occasions to their friends. How far men were de- 
terred from desertion by witnessing such tragic 
scenes no one can tell. To no great extent, we 
think, for the chances of evading recapture were at 
least ninety-nine out of a hundred in favor of the de- 
serter, and later in the war it is no exaggeration to 
say that nearly one-fourth of the men on the rolls of 
the Union armies were absent without leave. This 
fact indicates quite conclusively the utter disregard 
of consequences shown by these thousands, many of 
whom were, doubtless, urged on by enemies of the 
government at home, but who, nevertheless, seemed 
ready to assume the responsibilities their conduct 
involved. Little satisfaction is to be gained by 
claiming that this is a smaller per centum of disaf- 
fection than the IJebels could boast of for thou- 
sands of them were forced into service in a cause in 
which from the lirst they had little faith or interest, 
and, as a consequence, took the earliest opportunity 
to abandon it. The record of our own Company in 


this matter, while not perfection, is one of which we 
feel proud, for the "Record of Massachusetts Volun- 
teers" shows but one organization * of equal or 
greater tenure of service that has as small a per- 
centage of deserters to the whole number of enlisted 
men. War is the stern remedy for wrong when all 
other remedies have failed. It knows no pity, no 
leniency; and he who enters upon it must accept its 
hard conditions even if he perish in its grip. 



August 1. Privates Elworth, Ham, Innis, (Mark, 
Ramsdell and Pierce I?) reported for duty 

August 2. ("apt. J. Henry Sleeper returned and 
took command of the Battery 

August 3. Two horses shot; disease glanders; by 
order of ( apt. Sleeper. Five- horses received from 
Qr. Master Artillery Brigade, Lt. Case. 

August 4. Eight horses received from Lieut. Case, 
Artillery Brigade. Privates Pierce (?), Innis and 
Baxter reported to quarters. 

August 5. Privates Peach, Newton, Innis re- 
ported for duty. Private S. J. Brad lee on detached 
service at Headquarters Artillery Brigade. 

August 7 Privates Colbath, Peach and Pierce (?) 
reported to quarters. One black horse died, disease, 
worn out. 

August 8. Received notice of the death of First 
Serg't Otis N. Harrington. He died of Chronic Diar- 
rhea on his way to Mt. Pleasant Hospital, Washing- 
ton, D. 0. Serg't G. H. Putnam promoted First Ser- 
geant, vice Harrington deceased. 

* The Fortieth Infantry. 


August 0. Private Butterfield reported to quar- 
ters. B. If. Phillips reported for duty 

August 10. Privates Xorthey, Chase, Pierce ( ?), 
Thayer and Peaeh reported for duty Private X. II. 
Butterfield reported to quarters. 

August 11. Private A. F Southworth reported to 
quarters, G. L. Clark reported for light duty 

August 12. Private's Southworth, Colbath, Bax- 
ter aud King reported for duty; Stowell reported to 
quarters. Three horses unserviceable. 

August 13. Private C. Could promoted Sergeant. 
Sergeant Woodfin reported to quarters. 

August 14. Private Xorman H. Butterfield re- 
ported for duty 

August 15. One horse died, glanders. Five 
horses unserviceable. 

August 16. Private J. W Thayer report ed to 
quarters; X. H. Butterfield reported for duty 

August 17. One horse, bay, died, disease, glan- 

August 18. Serg't Philip T. Woodfin, Jr., reported 
1o quarters. Private Chas. Chase reported for duty 

August 1!). One horse died; disease, glanders. 

August 20. Private George II. Parks sent to 
Washington, sick, by order of brigade surgeon, Aug. 

August 21. Privates Ping, Newton and ('"base 
reported to quarters. Two horses died; disease 
nasal gleet and glanders. 

August 22. Albert X. A. Maxwell reported to 
• piarters. Four horses dropped from the rolls that 
were sent with Serg't Allard and Privates Abbott, 
A Idea and Chase July 10, '03. 

August 24. Harmon Newton reported f<>r duty 
Two horses died; disease, glanders. 

August 2."). William Allen reported to quarters. 


One horse died that was condemned; disease, glan- 

August 2C>. Three horses shot by order of Capt. 
Birney, A. A. A. General and Vet. Surgeon Third 
Army Corps. 

Auimst 2S. Private Francis Loham returned 
from hospital at Boston. 

August l'!>. Private William Allen reported for 

August 30. Private Hiram P Ring reported for 
duty Received 13 horses from (.'apt. Pierce, A. (,}. 
M.,Y S. A. 

August 31. Private Charles X. Packard reported 
to quarters. The Battery was mustered in for two 
months' (pay) ? this day and inspected by Capt. 
Sleeper. Four horses unserviceable. 

Sept. 1. Three horses sliol ; disease glanders; by 
order of Veterinary Surgeon Third Corps IFdq r's. 

Sept. 2. William II. Bickford, Charles X. Pack- 
ard and Harrison Chase reported for duty 

Sept. 3. Private James L. W Thayer reported for 
duty One horse unserviceable. 

Sept. 1. Private Isaac X. Burroughs and (Hid- 
den reported to quarters. 

Sept. ."). Wni. A. Trefrv reported to quarters. 

Sept. S. Charles E. Osborn reported to quarters. 

Sept. !». Privates Asa L. Gowell and H. Winslow, 
Jr., reported to quarters. Serg't Woodfin reported 
for duty 

Sept. 10. Wm. A. Trefrv reported for duty 

Sept. 11. Ellis A. Friend, 1). W Atkinson, re- 
ported to quarters. H. B. Winslow reported for 

Sept. 13. Wm. A. Trefrv, Elias Ashcroft, Benj. (J. 
Pedrick, H. B. Winslow reported for quarters. 

Sept. 11. Private Wni. A. Trefrv reported for 


Sept. 15. Private Hiram P King and Corp'l 
James S. Bailey, Jr., reported to quarters. Left Sul- 
phur Springs for the held. 

Sept. l(i. Privates J. I). Smith, C K. Osborn sent 
to Hospital, Washington, per order surgeon. Pri- 
vates ( lowed], (Hidden and Corp'l James S. Bailey, 
Jr., left behind sick at Sulphur Springs. 

Sept. 17 Privates Burroughs, Winslow, Atkin- 
son, Pedrick, Friend, Ash croft, Ping, reported for 
duty Four horses shot, disease glanders; by order 
of Surgeon Benson, Third Army Corps Headquar- 

Sept. 18. Three horses unserviceable. Privates 
Gowell and Glidden and Corporal Bailey arrived in 
camp from Sulphur Springs. 

Sept. 10. Corp'l Bailey, privates Gowell, Bur- 
roughs, Friend, Ashcroft and Corp'l Smith reported 
to quarters. 

Sept. 20. Private Ceo. H. Day reported to quar- 

Sept. 21. Private Arthur A. Blandin reported to 

Sept. 22. Privates Maxwell and Chase (?) re- 
ported for light duty Lcrov E. Hunt reported to 
quarters. Ellis A. Friend reported for duty Six 
horses shot; by order Surgeon Benson .">rd Army 
Corps headquarters. Received from Capt. Pierce, 
O. M. IS mules Avith harnesses complete. 

Sept. 2'A. Private John Millett reported to quar- 
ters, Chase (?) ditto. 

Sept. 24. Elias Ashcroft reported for duty 

Sept. 25. Richard Horrigan reported to quar- 

Sept. 20. Isaac X. Burroughs and Arthur A. 
Blandin reported for duty- 
Sept. 27 Joshua T. Heed reported to quarters. 


Sept. 28. Leroy E. Hunt reported for duty. Corp'l 
(lias. W Doe, Private E. Ashcroft, John T. Good- 
win, reported to quarters. 

Sept. 2!). Private Millett, Bugler Heed aud Corp'l 
Doe reported for duty 

Sept. 3(1. John T. Goodwin reported to quarters. 

Oct. 1. Private Waldo Pierce, John T. Goodwin 
reported for duty. 

Oct. 3. Privates (lias. L. Chase, Ceo. H. Day, 
Elias Aslicroft, reported for duty 

Oct. 1. live picked-up horses turned over to the 
Battery by J. Henry Sleeper. 

Oct. <">. Private John C. Frost received notice of 
his discharge at Mt. Pleasant Hospital Sept. 25, 

Oct. 7 < orp'l Ceo. A. Smith reported for duty. 
\Y H. Trefry reported to quarters. 

Oct. S. Fiank A. Chase returned from Camp of 
Parole and reported for duty W H. Trefry re- 
ported for duty X. II. Butteriield and F A. Chase 
reported to quarters. 

Oct. !i. Privates Franklin Ward, S. Augustus Al- 
lien, Geo. W Parks, Benj. E. Corlew and Corp'l An- 
drew B. Shattuck have been dropped from the rolls, 
having been absent some time and their return ex- 
tremely doubtful. Private Bichard Horrigan sent 
to general hospital Washington, D. C. Private X. 
H. Butteriield reported for duty 

Oct. 10. Corp'l James S. Bailey, Jr., and A. L. 
Gowell reported for duty X. H. Butterfield re- 
ported to quarters. 

Oct. 11. Battery left Culpepper, Va., for the field. 

Oct. 13. Serg. Philip T. W lfin, Jr., and Private 

Joseph Hooper dangerously wounded in action near 
Auburn, Va. 

Oct. 11. Serg. Wood fin and Private Hooper sent 
to hospital at Washington, D. 0. 



Oct. IT). l>attery arrived at Fairfax Junction. 

Oct. ](i. One horse, lar^e sorrel shot, by order Dr. 
]>onson, I I'd*] rs Third Army < 'orps, inlanders. 

Oct. IS. Privates AY II. Starkweather, Apthorp, 
Uawson and YVarburton reported to quarters. 



October /.'' tn X'jiciiihtr S. tSij^S. 



(ren. Lee, having thrown forward a light line to 
Bull Rim to mask his purpose, entered upon the de- 
struction of the Orange and Alexandria (now called 
the Midland) Railroad, which had been our sole ar- 
tery of supplies. I'] very rail was removed for miles, 
and having been placed across piles of burning ties 
was rendered temporarily unserviceable. Every 
bridge, too, was thoroughly destroyed, and any 
movement of a nature contemplating the continued 
use of this road must involve some days of waitiui:, 
for it to be restored to its normal condition.* 

(ren. Meade, it is said, felt not a little ashamed 
and somewhat nettled at the part he had played in 
this campaign, and would have ordered an advance 
at once had not a heavy rain rendered Bull Run im- 
passable without pontoons, which were not then at 

* "Lee claims to have taken li.<JOi > prisoners during his dash across 
the Rappahannock; while our raptures were hardly half as many. 
In killed and wounded the losses were nearly equal — not far from 
■">(>u on either side. But the prestige of skill and daring, of audacity 
and success, inured entirely to the Rebel commander, who with an 
inferior force had chased our army almost up to Washington, utterly 
destroyed its main artery of supply, captured the larger number of 
prisoners, destroyed, or caused us to destroy, valuable stores, and 
then returned to his own side of the Rappahannock essentially un- 
harmed; having decidedly the advantage in the only collision that 
marked his retreat." — American Conflict, Vol. II. 

The collision referred to in the above extract was a cavalry fight 
at Buckland's Mills, between Stuart and Kilpatrick. 


hand. He then determined to make a rapid move- 
ment to the left, and before the Rebel commander 
eonld j>'aiii knowledge of his intentions, seize Freder- 
ieksburg and the heights in its rear, with the design 
of pushing operations against Richmond, from that 
point as a base. In this project, however, he was 
negatived by General-in-Chief Halleck, and com- 
pelled to go forward in his recent line of retreat, if 
at all. Accordingly, at 6 o'clock on the morning of 
Monday, October 19th, we left our camp at Fairfax 
Station, and again took up our march towards the 
foe, proceeding along the line of railroad, thus hav- 
ing an excellent opportunity to observe how faith- 
fully the enemy had executed the work of destruc- 
tion on their return. That night we camped at 
Bristow Station, and the next morning crossed the 
battlefield where Warren had had his hardest fight- 
ing. We counted, in passing, fifteen rude head 
boards over the graves of soldiers belonging to the 
Seventh, Fifteenth, and Twenty-sixth North Caro- 
lina, regiments. Then there were other graves tin- 
marked, and the stench from the carcasses of dead 
horses that lay putrefying was sickening. Our 
march this day ended at Greenwich, which we had 
occupied just one week before. 

Wednesday morning, at 7, we were again under 
way, but at 11 A.M. went into camp at Catlett Sta- 
tion. While here we moved camp twice, and were 
inspected by (""apt. Randolph on the 23d, and Capt. 
Sleeper on the 25th. The weather being quite cool, 
Ave made 1 ourselves as comfortable as possible by 
stockading our tents and building fireplaces. 

At this station (October 27th), Lieut. Thos. R. 
Armitage was detached for duty in Battery K, 
Fourth Regiment, F S. Regulars. 

On the 30th, line of march was again resumed 


and continued a distance of about eight miles, when 
a halt was made one mile and a half from Warren- 
ton Junction. November 1st the Battery was again 
inspected by Capt. Sleeper, and the location of our 
camp slightly changed. Our stav here was other- 
wise uneventful, and continued until the 6th, when, 
;it evening, orders came to strap sacks of grain upon 
the caissons. This, in our experience, plainly por- 
tended a move, although some had thought no fur- 
ther movement probable, owing to the lateness of 
the season. But all surmises were now at an end on 
this head, and at 3.30 A.M. of the 7th we were 
aroused by the familiar notes of the reveille, and a 
more ill-natured set of men never tumbled out in the 
darkness to perform the duties which striking camp 
necessarily devolved upon them. Battervmen, to be 
studied in their most favorable aspects, should never 
be seen at so early an hour nor under such inauspi- 
cious circumstances. In the darkness ensued a 
scene difficult to describe, but perfectly familiar to 
artillerymen. Soon huge bonfires were lighted, and 
in their glare men were seen with loads of varying 
description in their hands. Tents were struck, leav- 
ing meroly the skeletons of our late abodes, and 
through the camp resounded a Babel-like hubbub. 
The rattling of harnesses mingled with clivers (and 
drivers') expletives, which were hurled at unruly or 
laggard horses, whose movements on this occasion 
showed, in one respect at least, their kinship to man. 
Loud voices resounded in all directions, sergeants' 
names were bandied from one end of camp to the 
other, and imperious tones of officers mingled with 
the urgent inquiries of puzzled men. "Sergeant 
Townsend send me a detail of three men, immedi- 
ately!" "Sergeant Townsend, have the picket rope 
taken down at once!" "Sergeant Townsend, what 


horse shall I take in place of my lame one?*' "Ser- 
jeant Townseml, what caisson shall I put this tent 
on?" "Serjeant Townseml, where is that detail of 
men I ordered?" "Serjeant Townsend, come and 
•jet tl'.e siiii'ar and coffee for your detachment!" "Ser- 
geant Townsend, have your men fall in for their 
hard-tack!" — are a few of the orders and queries 
that greet the ear of the luckless sergeant of the 
jjuard, who on such occasions is expected to be omni- 
present. The detailed men must be dispatched im- 
mediately, a respectful "yes, sir," returned to every 
order, a horse at once sought out to relieve the lame 
one, the extra tent stowed away on some caisson, a 
corporal found and sent for the coffee and sugar, and 
the widely scattered detachment notified to fall in 
for rations, all in the same breath, or the sergeant 
will be reprimanded for delay in getting his piece 

Amid all this apparent confusion everv thing goes 
on rapidly and orderly, and long before daylight 
every horse is harnessed, every tent packed, every 
wagon loaded, the marching rations distributed, 
breakfast eaten, and all are ready for a start. 

In this movement the army set out in two divi- 
sions, the right wing composed of the Fifth and Sixth 
corps, commanded by (Jen. Sedgwick, leading; fol- 
lowed by the left wing, including the First, Second, 
and Third corps, commanded by (Jen. French. This 
plan put (fen. Birney in command of the latter 
corps, and (leu. Ward, "Uobey," to whom we were 
ordered to report, succeeded to the charge of the 
First Division of this corps. Just as the first 
streaks of dawn lighted the east, we filed out, into 
the road and took position with that division, which, 
as might be expected, had the advance of the left 
wing, the right wing having moved bv another road. 


Having marched rapidly, but quite noiselessly, a dis 
tance of perhaps ten miles, we reached the Rappa- 
hannock at Kelly's Ford about noon, and the troops 
were massed as they came up, behind a low ridge of 
hills, which concealed them from the enemy across 
the river. No tires were permitted, drums and bu- 
gles were hushed, and the greatest quiet observed to 
insure a surprise. But we were* not obliged to wait 
long; orders soon came for us, and we were led by a 
winding road to a commanding position on the left, 
overlooking the Rappahannock and the village of 
Kellysville beyond. The latter lay somewhat to 
our right trout, while directly across, the ground 
gradually rose in plain, unobstructed view, until at 
last a belt of woods, perhaps half a mile distant, 
shut off furl her prospect in this direction. This 
opening and those woods we were instructed to 
watch. While occupied in doing this a succession 
of rattling sounds, which some affirmed to be the fire 1 
of skirmishers, but which others, with equal posi- 
tiveness, declared to emanate from the engineers cm- 
gaged in unloading planks for a pontoon, fell upon 
the ear, coming from our right flank. We could not 
verify either assertion, as the ford at which the 
crossing was to take place was hidden from our 
view by dense woods. 

While engaged in scanning the territorv under our 
special guardianship, we see at first only a few scat- 
tered men hastily driving back into the woods a 
number of cattle that had been grazing in the open- 
ing. Soon after a squad of horsemen, perhaps a 
half-dozen in number, emerge from cover and ride 
towards the village. Presuming them to to be 
Rebel officers, we send a salutation of six howling- 
shells at them, and although we may not have in- 
creased the Confederate mortality by our sextuple 


deputation, we confidently assert that the same num- 
ber of men were never any more completely demor- 
alized and left alive. It Avas truly enjoyable to see 
them scatter. Each man seemed all at once to have 
pressiug business to transact elsewhere, and of such 
a nature that he preferred to go unaccompanied, for 
such was the suddenness of their departure that no 
two fled the same way A small force coining out 
as skirmishers we serve in like manner, and send 
them to cover, a part in the woods and others in 
rifle-pits. They are followed in a few moments by 
a brigade in line of battle. It advances firmly and 
confidently at a double-quick, with bayonets, held at 
charge, glistening in the sun, and evidently intent 
on sweeping our force of infantry, which had by this 
time effected a crossing, back into the river. But 
this is a matter in which we propose to have some 
thing to say, and by the time they have traversed 
half the interval between the woods and the river, 
we are sending our Kchenkl shells among them in 
quick succession. The result is immediate and sur- 
passes our highest anticipations. The line wavers 
for a moment, then breaks and scatters, some return- 
ing to the woods, but the larger portion keeps on 
and seeks refuge either in the rifle-pits or the build- 
ings in Kellysville. On the latter we now train our 
guns. The range being rather short, every shell 
takes effect, as we afterwards ascertain from per- 
sonal observation. 

Thus far we had had the fun all our own way, but 
now our attention is drawn away from the village, 
for while we have been interested in breaking up the 
line of battle and persecuting its fragments, a "Rebel 
battery has emerged from the woods unperceived, 
has taken position, and announces its business in- 
tentions by sending a 12-pound shot over to us. 


Hearing the report, and turning, we see the puff of 
smoke and catch sight of a black speck rising 
against the sky It increases in size until finally it 
drops on the slope in our front and ricochets over 
our heads. In like manner we saw nearly every shot 
fired by the enemy before it reached us. They have 
a perfect range at once. A second shell whistles over 
us, and a third crashes through a fallen tree in our 
rear. We accept their challenge without loss of 
time, and return their greetings with interest. One 
of our shells explodes between their pieces, and in 
the shout that follows, another of their iron globes 
ploughs up the ground between two of our limbers. 
So the fun goes on, but we have the advantage: first, 
in a superior position; and second, in having rifled 
guns — theirs are smooth-bores, — and they are soon 
compelled to withdraw This was the first Rebel 
battery to test our mettle. It was by no means the 
last, however, to tost it, with a similar result. We 
have a "record" in this respect of which we are 
rather proud. Never were our guns silenced or 
driven from position by Rebel artillery 

This adversary disposed of, we turn our battery 
once more on the village and those whom it har- 

At sunset our attention is diverted by distant fir- 
ing up the river, and casting our eyes in that direc- 
tion we see, at a distance of some six miles, the 
smoke of the battle of Rappahannock Station,* 
where tin 1 right wing was successfully combating 

" One uf the most brilliant engagements of the war, in which Gen. 
David A. Russell's Third Brigade of the Sixth Corps, less than six- 
teen hundred strong, slightly aided by two or three other regiments, 
charged over great obstacles and captured a strong line of works on 
the north bank of the river, taking more than sixteen hundred pris- 
oners, four guns, eight battle-flags, two thousand small arms, and 
their pontoon bridge, with a Union loss of about three hundred killed 
and wounded. 


the foe. But what pail have our infantry been tak- 
ing in this fray? 

Without waiting for a pontoon to bo laid, the 
Third Briyade of (Jen. Birney s own division, in com- 
mand of Oen. De Trobriand, and consisting of Ber- 
dan's Sharpshooters, the Fortieth Xcw York, First 
and Twentieth Indiana, Third and Fifth Michigan, 
and One Hundred and Tenth Pennsylvania Infantry, 
waded across the river, the sharpshooters in front, 
charged into the Bebel rifle-pits, capturing Col. 
(lleason, of the Twelfth Virginia, and about five 
hundred men, with a loss on their side of only forty, 
and holding the ground thus taken without further 
serious opposition. The pontoon was soon laid, and 
at dusk the three divisions had crossed and were 
confronting the enemy in force.* At •"> o'clock, P.M., 
we ceased firing, Inning been engaged more or less 
constantly since 2, and after dark crossed over and 
went into park for the night. A llebel shell was 
brought off as a trophy upon one of our limbers, 
where it was found lying between a pair of boots 
that had been strapped to a bundle It had evi- 
dently struck the ground and ricochetting had 
landed there, cutting through all the clothing in a 
bundle and splitting the front of the limber-chest, 
but doing no other damage. It was our good for- 
tune that it was thus well spent when it struck, for 
an exploded limber-chest, with the probabilities con- 
sequent upon it, would have thrown a serious dam- 
per over our first artillery duel. 

Our infantry lay in line of battle all the ensuing 
night, the enemy's skirmishers lying within convers- 
ing distance of our own. At •'> o'clock in the morn- 

* "I cnisscil with one division upon tin- oilier side about - o clock 
and laid the pontoons, and crossed my other two divisions on them, 
l'.y the time I .not across it became dusk.'' --(Int. li'irnnj: Testimony 
hrfurc tin Committee on the Cuinliiel of the War. 


ing of the 8th, theirs were called iu. A dense fog 
filling the atmosphere prevented movements until 
8 or 9 o clock, when, the mists lifting, everything 
was at once put in motion, and passing through the 
little village, nearly every house of which bore 
marks of our shells, we found the enemy had re 
treated. We went through the belt of woods al- 
ready mentioned, in which the Rebels had built com- 
fortable log-huts, evidently expecting they Avere 
housed for the winter, only to have their expecta- 
tions rudely dashed to earth by our advance. 

The two wings of the army now joined forces, and 
forming in lines of battle, the Second Corps on the 
left, the Third in the centre, the Sixth on the right, 
and the First supporting the centre,* advanced 
across an open plain of considerable extent. 
It was a grand sight to see now and then 
from rising ground the long blue lines of 
troops stretching away as far as the eye 
could reach. Their banners, on which the corps 
symbols were distinguishable from afar, wav- 
ing in the breeze, and their arms gleaming in the 
sunlight like polished silver. It was Avar in its 
glory A victorious army in battle array sweeping 
triumphantly over a conquered country, as it were. 
This order of battle was continued as far as the na- 
ture of the country would permit, when the Third 
Corps, in advance of the left wing, proceeded to 
Brandy Station, the enemy retreating before it. 
Here Gen. Birnev was ordered to halt, f We had 

* I do not know the position of the Fifth Corps on this occasion, 
but assume that it was in the line of battle. 

f " We advanced to Brandy Station, and although the enemy were 
in full sight, we halted and remained there. The enemy that night 
moved into Culpepper with their trains, and I am of opinion that if 
I had been permitted to advance . we could have struck the en- 

emy a very severe blow." — <!en. Birney: Testimony before the Commit- 
tee on the Conduct of the War. 


advanced only about eight miles this day, and 
parked north of the railroad, a half-mile distant 
from the station. Here Ave stayed until Tuesday 
morning', when we started once more, but only to 
move a short distance into a belt of pines, which we 
found had recently been occupied as a camp-ground 
by some portion of the Bebel army We took imme- 
diate possession of the deserted tenements, and 
made ourselves as comfortable as the raw, squally 
weather and the means at our command would per- 

This movement of our army was something of a 
surprise to Lee, who was preparing to go into win- 
ter-quarters. His army now numbered about fifty 
thousand men,* while ours aggregated seventy thou- 
sand. Had our advance, after the successes at the 
fords, been a little more prompt, a battle would prob- 
ably have been precipitated, in which the advantage 
of numbers might have achieved for us a decided 
success. But the Fates had decreed otherwise, and 
during the night of the 8th the enemy retreated 
across the Eapidan, leaving us to take quiet posses- 
sion of the region they had occupied. 


Oct 1!>. Battery left Fairfax Station. 

Oct. 21). One dark gray horse died on the road, 

Oct. 21. Arrived at Oatlott Station. 

Oct. 22. Privates Starkweather and Apthorp re- 
port for dutv, Win. H. Trefry reported to quarters. 

!5 '"Total effective of all arms, 4"">,<;i 4." — h'tnir Yearn irith (tenerul 
Lie. Tiiylnr. 


Oct. 23. One horse reclaimed by Lieut. Dauch (?) 
which was one of the horses turned in to the Battery 
(See morning report of Oct. 1, 1863.) Six horses 
shot, b}* order of Dr. Benson. Four horses unserv- 
iceable. Sergeant Chandler Gould reported to 

Oct. 25. Serg't C. Oould and Private F A. Chase 
reported for duty 

( )ct. 26. Wm. IT. Trefry reported for duty Asa L. 
Oowell and Elias Ashcroft reported to quarters. 
Received nine horses from A. Q. Master. 

Oct. 27 Lieut. T R. Armitage detailed on de- 
tached service for duty in Battery K, 1th 1'- S. Ar- 
tillery, per order Gen. French. One horse died of 

Oct. 2S. Elias Ashcroft, Asa L. Gowell, Wm. 
Rawson, reported for duty AVm. H. Trefry to quar- 
ters. Four horses shot by order Dr. Benson, 3rd A. 

Oct. 2!t. Private C. X. Packard and Corp'l John 
II. Stevens reported to quarters. 

Oct. 30. Received five horses from Capt. A. 

A. Q. M., ( atlett Station, Va. 

Oct. 31. Private H. Chase and Corp'l Stevens re- 
ported to quarters. 

Xov 1. Corp'l Pease reported to quarters; Corp'l 
Stevens reported to duty. 

Nov 2. Private H. Warburton reported for duty. 
H. Chase ditto. 

Nov 3. Corp'l Geo. A. Pease reported for duty. 
FL Chase, O. F Glidden reported, to quarters. 

Xov 4. Privates Norman H. Butterfield and Wm. 
A. Trefry sent to AVashington Hospital. 

Xov 5. H. Chase, O. F Glidden reported to quar- 

Xov. 6. C. X. Packard reported to quarters. 



Nov i Lett Warrenton Junction at .>.:><! o'clock 
A.M. Arrived at Kelly's Ford at 12 M. Opened tire 
with the enemy at 2 o'clock. 

Nov S. Arrived at Brandy Station, Va., about 4 
o'clock P.M. 

Xov 10. Moved across the railroad and went into 




ynrcnihrr 11 in Ihmiibrr .>, JN6M. 





Having once become fairly located in camp, we 
began To make more extensive preparations for our 
bodily comfort, in the line of stockades — a branch 
of architecture in which, thus far, we had had al- 
most no experience — and comparatively spacious 
fireplaces communicating with lofty chimneys built 
of wood and lined with the red, clayey soil of Vir- 
ginia. These, in common with the most aristocratic 
F F A' "s, we built outside our dwellings. But as 
rumors of further active operations were rife, we 
were kept on the anxious seat, and many of our 
number made themselves contented in less preten- 
tious abodes until the future should seem more set 
tied. Xor were we in much more uncertainty than 
the (Jeneral commanding, who was anxious to 
achieve some marked success, but who, being a care- 
ful leader, kept his "weather eve" out to guard 
against a "mud march." The paymaster favored lis 
with his presence on the 12th. On the 15th we re- 
ceived orders to hold ourselves in readiness to march 
at a moment's notice, and den. French, accompanied 
by some English officers, reviewed our brigade on 
the 10th. Other than these no events worthy of 


mention occurred until the 2:hl, when the "while 
horse orderly," whom (Aery comrade will at once re- 
call, brought orders to be in readiness to inarch at 
daylight. It was a relief to hear something positive, 
even though it was marching orders, and we 
strapped the usual quantity of grain upon the cais- 
sons, packed up most of our effects, and made all 
other preparations that could be made the night be- 

The bugle summoned us forth at 4 o'clock the next 
morning, when we immediately rolled up our bun- 
dles, struck tents, fed and hitched in the horses, and 
stood in readiness awaiting dawn. But with it 
came rain, and at 7 o'clock we received orders not to 
start, so we held the position until about 1 o'clock, 
when orders came to "unhitch and unharness." Two 
batteries that had left returned to camp. We now 
sought to make ourselves comfortable once more in 
our old quarters, — no easy matter in their drenched 
condition, — and then again, having once bade them 
adieu, there was an indefinable something which 
tended to repel us from them afterwards. A new 
camping ground would have been much more wel- 
come. In this particular case the belief that it was 
a question of but a very short time before we must 
leave them for good, gave force to our repugnance. 

We were not long permitted, however, to philoso- 
phize upon the question, or required to consider the 
comforts or miseries of our situation, for at half-past 
three in the morning of Thursday, November 2(ith, 
Thanksgiving day, we once more received the bugle 
summons announcing another movement about to be 
undertaken. The morning broke clear and cool. 
"Attention, Battery!" was heard at 7 o'clock! 
"Drivers, mount !" followed at. once by the familiar 
command, "By piece from the right —- front into col- 


unin," in the unmistakable staccato of our Captain, 
and we are on the move. We marched past Brandy 
Station, our depot of supplies, and crossing the rail- 
road moved by rather slow stages over a flat country 
in a south-easterly direction. But now our labors 
begin. The roads, scarcely dry from two recent 
storms, soon give way under the constant streams of 
artillery and supply trains that are traversing them, 
so that they arc in a most wretched condition. 
Teams are overhauled at intervals stuck fast in the 
mud, and those act as beacons, Avarning all who come 
after to give their anchorage a wide berth. Cannon- 
eers are in unusually close attendance upon their 
pieces, and conscientious No. S men undergo an 
amount of strain, mental as well as physical, for 
which their extra dollar per month is a paltry re- 

We munched our hard-tack and raw salt pork this 
day with many a longing thought of home and roast 
turkey, yet with a keen relish which our exertions 
of the morning had begotten; but the afternoon had 
greater ones in store for as. The horses' patience 
as well as strength seemed to be giving out, from 
the frequent and severe strains to which they had 
been put, and now when a heavily laden caisson 
sinks more deeply than its wont they sullenly stop. 
Then ensues lusty shouting on the part of the chief 
of section and drivers, emulating his example, bel- 
low forth their "'gee-dap" and use the lash without 
stint. Luckless cannoneers go down into the mire 
and contribute of their muscle to extricate the cais- 
son from the wallow. Bails are sought to use as 
levers or throw before the wheels when a start has 
been made; but it all rests with those six horses. If 
they would only pull together how quickly the dif- 
ficulty would be ended! But while one pair jumps 


impatiently forward, another settles shibbni-nly 
back or remains passive, and eaeli time the caisson 
lias sunk deeper than before: so the struggle eon 
tinues, varied by a turn to the right or the left, un- 
til at last the horses, as if themselves wearied of this 
boys' play, at the word, give a spring together, tak- 
ing the caisson from its miry cushion in a twinkling, 
and move steadily on till another slough repeats the 
scene and extracts so much more vitality from men 
and horses. At last higher ground gave us a harder 
road, and after having been sent two or three miles 
out of our way, Ave came up with the column at 
Jacobs Mill Ford at dark. The infantry of our corps 
crossed at this place.* During this day's march 
Gen. Meade caused a despatch to be read announc- 
ing Grants great victories at Chattanooga and 
Lookout Mountain, and stating that he had taken 
20,000 prisoners. This, by the by, is a good speci- 
men of such despatches. The actual number offi- 
cially reported by Grant was (i,14:2. 

But we were destined to move on and cross the 
river at (iermania Ford, a few miles lower down, 
and being now in the rear, partly through loss of 
time in the mire, and partly from misdirection, we 
were condemned to the misery of waiting for those 
in advance to cross.! \nd it was misery without 
any discount. The column would move on a few 
steps and halt. Thereupon cannoneers would seek 
some tolerably comfortable position on the carriages 

" "Jacobs Ford, the place selected for crossing the river by the 
Third Corps, was impracticable on the opposite bank for artillery, or 
wagons, or even empty ambulances. In fact it was almost impos- 
sible for a horseman to go np on the opposite side of the river with- 
out dismounting. The Third Corps, on reaching the river, had to 
send all the artillery and ambulances to the (Jermania Ford." 
(Sin. Ilirnri/: I'lsliiiinii I/ hrfurr tlir Coiiuiiillii mi tin ('innhirl tif I hi' War. 

f We afterwards learned that Warren's Second Corps, which 
crossed at this Cord, was ahead of us, and must cross first. 



or ground, and just begin to doze, ay lien the column 
would move again, only to stop by the time one was 
fairly awake; and this programme was repeated for 
hours after dark. Our stops were of insufficient du- 
ration, either to cook a pot of coffee or steal a half- 
hour's nap, although intensely aggravated by the 
need of both. The weather, too, had grown quite 
cool and frosty. The woods wore aglow with the 
fires lighted by the troops that had preceded us, to 
keep them comfortable while awaiting their turn to 
cross; and in alternately shivering and dozing 


around these and sluggishly marching a few rods at 
a time, the hours wore drearily away until midnight, 
when we ascertained that since (5 o'clock we had 
traversed a distance of two miles. 

At this time the column came to a halt, which 
seemed likely to continue some time; at least we re- 
solved to take our risks of its thus continuing; and 
the cannoneers at once bestirred themselves to light 
fires and procure water, which luckily flowed from a 
spring near at hand; while the drivers hastened to 


feed their tired horses, putting <>n their nose-bags of 
grain a* they stood harnessed in the road. Every 
man soon had his dipper of coffee smoking on the 
tire, and his rasher of pork or beef impaled on a 
slick and sputtering in the flame. Those, with their 
inevitable hard-tack accompaniment, having been 
dispatched, we piled on wood and lay down to sleep 
on a bed of leaves and in the glow of the tire. Be- 
ing in momentary expectation of a forward sum- 
mons, we hardly dared to unroll our blankets, con- 
taining, as they did, our little all of personal effects, 
that it would take us a few moments to gather up 
again; so Ave made vain efforts to keep warm with- 
out them by "spooning" together; but as the fire 
died down, the pinching cold would rouse us from 
our light slumber, to put on more wood and lie down 
again. So by alternate dozing and trimming the 
fires we succeeded in passing the remainder of what, 
we are confident, all the men considered a most 
wretched night. 

Morning came at last, disclosing the ground cov- 
ered by a white frost; and getting our horses started 
with some difficulty, cold, stiff, cross, and balky as 
Ihey were, we moved on down to the river through 
an immense jam of cavalry, wagons, and batteries. 
On the opposite bank were strong fortifications, in 
which a thousand men might have held a whole 
army at bay; but as our march was unexpected, our 
advance had met with no opposition here, the enemy 
being encamped at some distance from the river. 
Having crossed over bv pontoon, we found a very 
steep hill to be climbed ere we reached the top of 
the south bank. This explained the cause of the te- 
dious delay So steep was the rise that no team was 
sufficient to climb it unaided, and resort must be had 
to "doubling up"; that is, each piece had the "lead" 


and "swing" horses of its caisson added to its own 
strength to surmount the steep, and, having done 
this, four of the piece horses returned with those of 
the caisson to help the latter up. All this consumed 
time, and a great deal of it, and it was high noon 
when the Battery had been thus transferred to plane 
terra firm a once more. But then our advance was 
promptly resumed along the Stevensburg Plank 
Road, into the enemy's country, pursuing this course 
perhaps four miles. Cannonading heard in the dis- 
tance announced to us that the enemy had been 
found, and turning into the woods on our right, in 
the direction of the firing, we rapidly drew nearer 
the scene of battle, advancing at a trot as the sounds 
of strife became more distinct. We are to be hur- 
ried without delay into battle. What an array of 
sensations crowd themselves upon us as we rush 
along! The unknown result, the dread possibili- 
ties, nay, even probabilities, the quick thoughts of 
home and loved ones, the conscious shrinking from 
impending danger, and the antagonizing something 
within, which vet impels us sternly onward, — all 
these raise a tumult in the mind which every soldier 
will remember. What is it that thus spurs us on, our 
breasts bared to the enemy, while all the flesh cries 
out against it? Is it courage? Is it the fear of be- 
ing branded as cowards? Is it mad indifference to 
consequences? Are we buoyed up to the require- 
ments of the situation by the touch of the elbow to 
the right and left, of those who are hurrying on with 
us alike ignorant of consequences? Ah, it is some- 
thing higher and more powerful than all these. It 
is not courage. No man of sane mind ever faced a 
hostile line of battle without flinching. There is no 
manliness in such an act. It is not fear of the 
stigma of cowardice, for the circumstances of the 


hour arc such that the stigma can be easily evaded, 
if any one rare* to deserve it. It is not blind indif- 
ference or rashness, for an occasion of this nature 
begets thonghtfulness and a thonghtfulness born of 
discretion. Moreover, the thoughtful man is not 
rash. Rashness in a v\ ell-balanced mind is more 
likely to involve another in difficulty than the author 
of it. It is not companionship in the hour of dan- 
ger, though that undoubtedly steadies the nerves in 
a measure. The impelling power includes all these. 
It is duty! That it is which says to us, "You volun- 
tarily put your hand to the plough, thus imposing 
upon vourself the responsibility of all the conse- 
quences entailed by that act. One of those conse- 
quences, the risk of your life or limb, is now impend- 
ing. Are you ready to stand by your contract?" 
And the soldier who had not self-respect enough to 
honor such a draft as that deserved to have his name 
branded with eternal disgrace. 

But we will make no longer pause to analyze our 
feelings. Suffice it, if, from any or all considera- 
tions, we can hold ourselves resolutely to the prom- 
ised work of the hour. We were spared the ordeal 
of battle this time, however. After travelling in 
woods some distance, we emerged on the Orange 
Turnpike, two miles east of Robertson's Tavern, in 
whose vicinity a part of AYarren's Second Corps had 
been engaged, and parked near their hospitals. In 
these lay many men dead or wounded. Among the 
former was Lieut, ('ok ITosser, of the Seventy-second 
Pennsylvania Regiment, shot through the head. 
While we lay here, ('apt. "Randolph dispatched an 
aid to (Jen. French to inquire whether he would like 
more artillery, to which answer was sent that he al- 
ready had more than he could get into action. It 
seems he took the wrong road from the ford, and had 


fallen in with a part of E well's corps before he had 
spanned half the distance from the river to the tav- 
ern, where he was to have joined Warren. With 
this body of the enemy he had been engaged during 
the afternoon, but they had now fallen back before 
him. This failure on the part of (Jen. French to 
make an early junction with the Second ( orps at the 
tavern was a serious interference with Gen. Meade's 
plans, as will be shown hereafter. 

On the morning of Saturday the 1'Sth, towards 9 
o'clock, our march was resumed to Robertson's 
Tavern. In this somewhat dilapidated hostelrv 
<!en. Meade had established his headquarters. Just 
to the westward of it a breastwork had been thrown 
up by our forces, which ran across the turnpike at 
right angles, and a countervailing defence of sim- 
ilar character was erected by the Rebels still farther 
on. As the latter had fallen back, neither of these 
was now occupied. Drops of rain had commenced 
to fall as avo left our cam]) in the morning, and had 
now multiplied to such an extent that locomotion 
was becoming decidedly uncomfortable and difficult. 
At noon AA'e Avere again ordered fonvard, marching 
down the pike through the earthworks already men- 
tioned, behind Avhich an occasional dead Rebel Avas 
seen, lying as he fell. The haversack of one of these 
which avc investigated, contained nothing except a 
quart of raw, uncracked corn, and the body Avas 
clothed with an amount of covering inadequate to 
the season. IIoav can one do otherwise than admire 
a devotion to a cause, so intense as to endure these 
tAvo hardships of scanty fare and exposure! We 
must pay this tribute to Rebel patriotism even while 
Ave disapprove of and condemn the convictions 
which prompted it. 

Leaving the pike avc turn to our left into the 


woods, which form a part of the region appropri- 
ately termed the Wilderness. Here we halt for a 
short time, awaiting a supply of rations from the 
train, which was parked across the river at Richards- 
ville, under the protection of our cavalry Having 
obtained these wo plunge on again through the mite, 
and at last emerge from the woods upon a ridge 
which falls away gently before us to a small stream 
known as Mine Kim. The rain had ceased falling 
before mid-afternoon, and a cold wind, starting up 
from the westward, had cleared the face of the heav- 
ens, so that the stars now shone brightly above us. 
When night fairly obscured our movements from the 
enemy Ave put our guns into position, having as a 
supporting force the Sixty-third Pennsylvania \ ol- 
unteers. We are now at the very front. Just before 
us is our outer line of pickets, and along the horizon 
gleam the lights from the camp-fires of the enemy 

At eight o'clock we lay down to get what rest we 
could, fully expecting to take part in a great battle 
the following morning. All night long the busy 
(dick of thousands of axes, heard faintly across the 
valley, told us the enemy were vigorously at work 
on their fortifications. When daylight broke, red 
lines of fresh earth stretching along the opposite 
ridge showed to how good purpose they had labored. 

It was a (dear, quiet Sabbath morning, but no Sab- 
bath bells broke the stillness, summoning us awac 
from the unhallowed pin-suit of Avar to the Avorship 
of Him, the maker of foe as well as friend. Our at- 
tention was early devoted to gelling the guns into a 
better position. Everything still remained quiet, but 
our skirmishers Avere uoav advancing, and the open- 
ing of a general engagement was momentarily ex- 
pected; they succeeded, however, in provoking only 
skirmishing in return. Thus the forenoon wore 


away, and a cold wind springing up, we gathered 
around huge fires to discuss and ponder the scenes 
which might be close at hand. Rumor, with her 
hundred tongues, was a potent agent in keeping the 
discussion animated. Every orderly who gallops 
by, every straggler who comes up from the rear, has 
his contribution of wisdom to add to the general 
fund; for it is in the safe rear, among the "Coffee 
Coolers" and "Company (,)," thai the most marvel- 
lous accounts of battles and authentic reports of 
movements are concocted. Now, Leo is all but sur- 
rounded, and we are waiting for the cavalry to cut 
his only remaining line of communication, when a 
general attack is to take place. Now he has taken 
an almost impregnable position which it will cost 
half our army to cany One man knows that the 
Rebel army is but half ours in number, while an- 
other is equally positive that Longstreet's corps ar- 
rived from East Tennessee during the night, thus 
making them a match for us. So, as the cold in- 
creases, we gather closer about our tires, receive, dis- 
cuss, and dispatch the rumors as the\ come in, and 
await the course of event*. 

In the afternoon more definite information came 
to hand. (Jen. Warren's corps had gone around to 
the enemy's right Hank, and was expected to attack 
at once. Simultaneously with this assault a charge 
was to be made in our front by the First, Third, and 
Sixth corps, under cover of a heavy fire from the ar- 
tillery Our signal to begin Avas to be the booming 
of Warren s guns. The lines of assault were drawn 
up; but what a direful prospect before those who 
were to make it! A half mile over broken, shrubby 
ground, to the Run, and across this over another 
half mile up to the Rebel works, exposed most of the 
wav to direct and cross fires of artillery, and at the 

l<ii Tin: tkxtii .massa( hi sirns i;attkky 

last moment t(» a close, doadlv discharge of mus- 
ketry, was the path before them. AN ell might the 
men grow pale and await the signal with set teeth! 
And soon it came, we thoughl ; a boom of a single 
gun, then another, and another in (jnick succession. 
NYe can see the white smoke rising in clouds over the 
hills. We are ready, but still the signal lingers. 

Not yet had those sounds increased to a crash and 
roar which would indicate the attack really begun. 
Ere long the reports slacken and die away, then are 
heard again, as if our forces were fumbling about 
ascertaining the strength or position of the enemy 
Warren had evidently found some insuperable ob- 
stacle, and night came on without any decisive re- 
sult. The piercing wind grew stronger as the sun 
went down. The ground became solid under our 
feet ; and about the well near us, where all the water 
for the troops in the immediate vicinity was ob- 
tained, a thick mass of ice formed. Our horses were 
kept standing in their harness, and as we lay down 
around the hies, wrapped in all the covering at our 
disposal, we could not but think of the outer pick- 
ets in their lonely pits that bitter night without 
shelter or tire. Some of them were found the next 
day frozen at their posts. 

The morning of the :>0tli dawned sharp and clear. 
This, surely, was to be a day of decisive fighting. 
We were astir at ."> o'clock, and received orders to be 
ready to open lire at eight. Ere this hour arrived 
our skirmishers had been thrown out and were ad- 
vancing, soon after capturing a line of ritiepits.* At 

* "At S <■> cluck, A.M.. according to orders, the artillery mi my line 
opened mi the enemy, and I ordered my infantry to advance. We 
crossed the creek of Mine linn and took the first line of rifle-pits of 
the enemy. The enemy were in great commotion. I think that in 
extending their right they had weakened their centre. 

"At that time, to my astonishment, an aid rode up from (ion. 


the time appointed a gun far to the right belched 
forth the signal. The next took up the note, and so 
from gun to gun, and battery to battery, the wave of 
sound rolled along until the thirty guns of the 
Third Corps added their thunder to the roaring tem- 
pest. Xow we aimed at a salient in the enemy's 
works, now directed our shells into a piece of woods, 
and now sent them crashing through isolated build- 
ings which afforded a probable shelter for Eebel 
sharpshooters. But this tornado provoked no hos- 
tile response from the enemy beyond skirmishing. 
They remained silent, ominously silent, evidently re- 
serving their strength to repel the charge usually 
succeeding such heavy cannonading. In less than 
an hour the tiring ceased, and we were ordered to 
change our guns to a position at our left, vacated by 
Randolphs Battery, whose shells did not reach. 
Skirmishing continued with rattling sound along 
our front, and dead and wounded were- occasionally 
brought to the rear. Among the former was Lieut. 
<'ol. Tripp I?) of Berdan's Sharpshooters. The rest 
of the day wore away with no other events worthy 
of record except the holding of a council of war by 
(Jen. Meade in the little house near us, of whose do- 
ings we were not apprised. Another night, cold 
and blustering, ensued, succeeded by a morning of 
like description, when we woke to find the water in 
the canteens completely frozen. We called it the 
coldest night we had passed in the open air thus far. 
Later in the forenoon there Avere desultorv sounds of 
fighting beyond the woods on our right, ringing 
cheers, and some cannonading. Two divisions of 

Meade, and ordered me to cease the demonstration; that there was 
to be no attack; and I withdrew from the line of the enemy's works 
and resumed my position, the one I held that morning before I made 
the attack." ■- (leu. Minify : Testimony before the Committer on the Con- 
line! of the War. 



our corps that had been sent to aid Warren in his 
anticipated attack on the enemy's right the day be- 
fore, rejoined ns; bnt nothing was done during the 
day beyond strengthening our fortifications. 

Kumors of retreat now began to be whispered 
about, and just before dark orders came to be ready 
to move. When night had fairly closed in we re- 
trimmed the fires, leaving them brightly burning to 
deceive the enemy, noiselessly drew out and directed 
our march toward the river. Toiling on with great 
labor through a thick swamp, from the mire of 
which our caissons were lifted almost bodily by the 
friendly aid of a brigade of infantry, we at last 
reached the Orange Plank Koad. Along this thor- 
oughfare we inarched in the cutting wind quite rap- 
idly a full mile, when we made another turn to the 
left into the Stevensburg Plank Koad. Turning to 
the right from this we pressed on until the river was 
reached. So cold was the weather that cannoneers 
were frequently called upon to relieve the drivers 
who were in danger of freezing on their horses. Cul- 
pepper Mine Ford, where we now recrossed the Rap- 
idan, is some miles below (J-ermania Ford. 

The first streaks of dawn found the Battery on the 
north side of the river, and by broad daylight the 
whole army was safely across, the pontoons being 
then taken up without molestation from the enemy, 
who by this time, probably, had discovered our de- 

After two or three hours' rest, and a cup of hot 
coffee, Ave started on again. The ear was no longer 
greeted with sounds of strife, but was soothed by the 
melodious cooing of the cattle-drivers, or more prop- 

* "December oil. Meade recrossed the Uapidan last night. This 
is a greater relief In us than the enemy has any idea of. I hope the 
campaign is over for the winter." - .1 Hihil War Cirri's Diary, .loins. 


erly, leaders, for the man in charge of the herd went 
ahead instead of behind it, and the cattle always 
yielded to the charm of his voice, even in darkness 
and in forests, with wonderful readiness. Ten 
o'clock that night found the Battery strewn along 
the road quite a distance, as team after team had 
be<m all but hopelessly mired. In this respect it was 
a repetition of our advance. The roads were badly 
cat up and the horses sadly jaded. Moreover, trav- 
eling as we did after dark gave no opportunity to 
select the best course There stands out as a bright 
spot in the memory the aid given as by a body of the 
"Blue Diamonds" personally supervised by (Jen. J. 
B. ( a rr. 

The righi section, finding itself in the rear of a 
long train of cavalry wagons, half of iheni immova- 
ble in the slough, turned aside and bivouacked for 
the night in a bed of mud. The rest of the teams 
'•Mine up as rapidly as they were extricated, and the 
men, thoroughlv exhausted with the fatigues of the 
day, stretched themselves on the drvest hillocks to 
lie found, and were soon lost in slumber 

Thursday morning we got under wav once more, 
and traversed three miles of the muddiest territory, 
as it seemed to us. that the sacred soil could pro- 
duce. It was the territory that lay between us and 
our old camp near Brandy Station, which we had 
now learned was our destination. Never did wayworn 
travellers returning from a pilgrimage greet their 
home with greater enthusiasm than did we our old 
quarters, or what was left of them, for (Jen. Pat- 
ricks provost guard, camped the other side of the 
ridge, had appropriated all our boards, besides other 
conveniences that we had collected. Nevertheless 
it seemed like coming home again. At 9 o'clock 
Fridav night orders came to pack up and hitch in 


immediately, which we did. Signal rockets were 
visible in various directions. It was said we were 
attacked; but shortly after 11 o'clock orders came to 
unhitch and unharness, thus ending the matter. 
What the cause of the scare was we never knew, al- 
though rumor had it that the enemy were attempt- 
ing to cross the river. But this cannot be true, as 
the testimony is concurrent that Lee made no at- 
tempt at pursuit. 

The campaign thus brought to a close was de- 
serving of a much more glorious termination. It 
was admirably conceived, and its failure, while in- 
tensely mortifying to its author, cast no reflection on 
his generalship. Gen. Meade, desirous of achieving 
some further success to the Union arms before the 
closing in of winter, being extremely sensitive to all 
criticisms made respecting the inactivity of the 
army, devised a plan of operations which certainly 
looked feasible, certain contingencies being unpro- 
vided for. But unfortunately, as it often happens, 
contingencies did arise which wrecked the success 
of the movement. He had ascertained that Lee had 
left the lower fords of the llapidan uncovered; that 
his two corps were widely scattered in winter-quar- 
ters, - — Powell's Corps extending from Morton's Ford 
across the country to the vicinity of Orange Oourl 
House, and Hill's distributed from south of that 
point along the Orange & Alexandria Bailroad to 
the neighborhood of Charlottesville. Home miles 
intervened between these corps. Meade's plan was 
to cross at the uncovered fords and advance by the 
Orange plank and Orange turnpike roads, which are 
intersected by roads from Elys, Jacobs Mill, (Jer- 
mania and Culpepper Mine fords, to Orange Court 
House, thus placing his army between the corps of 
the enemy, which he hoped to destrov in detail. It 


was a bold stroke, necessitating a cutting loose from 
his base of supplies, and a nice execution of all the 
details of the movement planned, at the time and in 
the manner for which they Avere planned. The 
Fifth Corps, followed by the First, was to cross at 
Culpepper Mine Ford and proceed to Parker's Store 
oh the Orange Plank Road. The Second was to 
cross at Germania Ford and proceed to Robertsons 
Tavern on the turnpike. The Third, followed by 
the Sixth, was to cross at Jacobs Mill Ford and 
make a junction with the Second at the Tavern, thus 
placing the whole army in close communication on 
the two parallel roads. Meade had calculated that 
as the distance was but about twenty miles, by tak- 
ing an early start on the 2<ith each corns commander 
would appear at the post assigned him at the latest 
by noon of the 27th. But the Third Corps, having 
somewhat farther to march than the others, did not 
reach the river until three hours after the arrival of 
the other corps, through the mistake of Gen. Prince, 
one of its division commanders, who took the wrong 
road. This made a delay, as Gen. Meade, not sure 
how much opposition he should meet, wished all the 
corps to cross at the same time. A second serious 
contingency was the miscalculation on the part of 
the engineers, who underestimated the width of the 
river, causing a delay while they pieced out the pon- 
toon bridges. The steepness of the banks was a 
third obstacle. Those hindrances, already alluded 
to, conspired to bring ultimate failure upon the plan 
which depended for its success on surprising Lee in 

Early on the morning of the 27th the army, which 
should have been across the river the day before, be- 
ing now for the most part on the south bank, under 
the most imperative orders from Gen. Meade, 


pressed forward with greater rapidity Warren 
reached Robertson's Tavern about 1 o'clock P.M., 
where he began skirmishing with the enemy, but 
dared not make a serious attack until joined bv the 
Third Corps. But, unfortunately, this body was 
doomed to be a further stumbling block, for after 
crossing the river, Gen. French took the wrong road, 
which, carrying him too far to the right, in- 
volved him in serious trouble with Johnson's 
Division of Ewell's Corps, and by the time he 
had finished the brush the afternoon was far spent 
and the golden opportunity had passed.* Hill's 
Corps now coming up, the Rebel army fell back and 
took position along the left bank of Mine Run. Lit- 
tle remains to be said not already given. On the 
28th Warren was sent to find the enemy's right, and, 
if he deemed it feasible, to flank and turn it. lie 
completed his observations on the 29th, and reported 
the situation favorable for an attack. At the same 
time Sedgwick found a weak spot in the Confederate 
left that he thought penetrable. Thereupon Gen. 
Meade resolved on a simultaneous attack on both 
wings, but preparations were not complete until too 
late to attack Sunday, hence it was deferred till 
Monday morning with the result already known. 
Lee, suspecting the movement, had so strengthened 
his right, where the attack was to begin, during the 
night, that it was simply madness to think of an as- 
sault upon it. So thought Warren, who was con- 
sidered a skilful engineer; so thought the men of his 
command ;t so decided Gen. Meade, who rode rap- 

* Accenting to Mr. Greeley, ho seems to have played at cross pur- 
poses with tin' implicit commands of his superior. Sec American Con- 
flict, p. 4IH). Vol. II. 

-J- "Iioeognizing that the task now hefnre them was of the charac- 
ter of a forlorn hope, knowing well that no man could here count on 
escaping death, tho soldiers, without sign of shrinking from the sac- 


idly over to the left to satisfy himself. It was a 
great grief to the latter to have a campaign from 
which he had hoped so much end without success, 
but any further move looking to a dislodgment of 
Lee would entail a still further advance into the 
enemy s country; and this, with our supply trains 
across the river, and the rations of the army now 
nearly exhausted, was not to be thought of in the 
hostile month of December. He therefore decided 
To sacrifice himself, if necessary, rather than con- 
tinue operations longer, and issued the orders for 
withdrawal. He would now have marched to the 
heights of Fredericksburg to camp for the winter, 
but was again negatived in the project by Halleck. 


Xov. 12. Serg't G. F < lould and privates H. New 
ton, Charles Slack, T. Ellworth, reported to quar- 
ters. Bugler Reed at hospital. 

Nov 13. Privates Charles Slack, Thomas Ell- 
worth, Hiram Warburton reported for duty. 

Xov 14. Private H. Newton and Serg't Gould (?) 
reported for duty. 

Xov 15. Five horses unserviceable. Three 
horses si jot by order of Dr. Benson Third Corps 

Xov 16. Received 8 horses from Capt. L. H. 
Pierce, Warrenton Junction, Va. 

Xov. 17. One horse died, one horse condemned 
and shot, by order Inspector General. 

rifiee. were seen quietly pinning on the breast of their blouses of blue, 
slips of paper on which each had written his name." — Swinton's 
<.'niii[t(iiytiis of the Army of the I'otomac. 


Nov IS. Corporal Currant and privates McAllis- 
ter, Maxwell and Oolbath, reported to quarters. 

Nov 19. Corporal (arrant and Private Colbath 
report for duty 

Nov I'D. Ten horses condemned and turned over 
to (apt. L. II. Pierce A. (,). Seven horses received 
from (apt. Pierce. Privates Maxwell and MacAllis- 
ter report for duty YV II. Fit/.patrick started to 
nindit on a ten days' leave of absence to Boston. 

Nov 22. Bugler Joshua T Peed went to Wash- 
ington Hospital. 

Nov 24. Daniel Ma< Allister and Wm. C Don- 
nelly reported to quarters. Orders to move which 
were countermanded. 

Nov 25. Alex. W Holbrook reported to quarters. 

Nov 2(5. Left Brandy Station for (Jermania Ford 
at daylight, via Jacobs Mill Ford. United about 
two miles this side of the Ford about midnight and 
stopped until daylight. 

Nov 27 Moved on at daylight and crossed (Jer- 
mania Ford at 11.30 A.M. Arrived near Kobertson s 
Tavern at 4 o'clock and stopped all ni^lit. One 
mule died on the march. 

Nov 2S. At 2 o'clock P.M. moved to the left and 
front of our line and reported to Oeneral Birnev, 
First Division, Third A. O 

Nov 2!). Went into position and remained all 
day and ni^lit 

Nov 30. At S o'clock opened on the enemy's 
works 2200 yards distant and continued (firing) 
about half an hour, usinjj; about 200 rounds. Two 
P.M. relieved Battery F, 1st K. I. Arty 

Dec. 1. Moved from the front just after dark for 
Culpepper Ford. Marched all nijjht. 

Dec. 2. Arrived at Culpepper Ford about o 
o'clock and halted. About 10 moved on and 



marched until within four miles of Brandy Station 
and stopped for the night. 

Deo. 3. At daylight marched to our old camp 
ground at Brandy Station. Arrived there about 
9.30 A.M. Ten horses unserviceable. 



hcccinhir ). isi;.;. to Mn.u ■>. isi;' h 





The attention of the army was now occupied in 
settling itself comfortably in winter-quarters about 
Rrandy Station. For miles in all directions sprang 
up ihe tented villages and cities, as regiments, bri- 
gades, or divisions pitched (heir while canvas or 
built their more substantial log cabins. There were 
the aristocratic establishments for army, corps, or 
division headquarters, with spacious surroundings, 
enclosed in many cases by a hedge of pine, and hav- 
ing- tastefully arched entrances. Apart from these 
were the camps of the troops laid oul in regular 
streets, one to a company, a row of tonls Hanking 
either side, and not far away hospital ami commis- 
sary tents were erected. Sutlers opened their 
stores, exchanging homeopathic doses of goods for 
allopathic quantities of greenbacks. Tents of ihe 
Christian Commission, too, were to be found near 
large centres. The wagon trains were drawn up in 
long lines, and near them shellers for the protection 
of the mules were erected. Rut the most unique 
cam]') in the whole army was that built and occu- 
pied by the Engineer Corps. These were the pio- 
neers of the armv Their duties consisted in con- 


structing roads where needed, corduroying impassa- 
ble places over which I lie army must move, laying 
pontoon bridges, taking up the same, and all work 
of kindred nature. They were not called upon to 
tight except in self-defence, and became very expert 
in the duties of their department. They gave their 
mechanical and inventive skill full play in the con- 
struction of their officers' quarters, which were mar- 
vels of their kind, ofttimes of two stories, with many 
angles and much ornament, fashioned out of the 
straight cedar, which being undressed, gave the set- 
tlement a rustic appearance truly unique and pleas- 
ing. Even the quarters of the rank and file were re- 
markably ornate, and as cosy and convenient within 
as they were attractive without. Their streets were 
corduroyed, and they even boasted sidewalks simi- 
larly constructed. .V comprehensive photograph of 
their camp at Brandy Station, in the winter of 1863- 
01, would be a valuable feature in any history of 
the army to which this corps belonged. 

In erecting our own quarters for the winter, we 
made no lofty endeavors of the above nature, but 
satisfied ourselves with the simplest construction 
consistent with keeping comfortable. In a former 
chapter the fact was mentioned of our being fur- 
nished with shelter-tents, but no description of these 
was given. They were pieces of drilling about four 
feet square, so light that an ordinary rain would eas- 
ily drive through them. They were provided with 
buttons and button-holes on three sides. Four of 
these pieces, buttoned together and pitched over a 
rectanglar enclosure of logs built "cob fashion" four 
or five feet high, and suitably provided with bunks, 
doors, and fireplaces, made on the whole a comfort- 
able abiding-place, and one sufficiently roomy to ac- 
commodate the "regular boarders," but would not 


admit of much company at the same time. The 
more fastidious or ingenious added to the internal 
convenience by improvised floors, tables, cupboards, 
peys, etc., so far as the limited space would permit. 

Our neighbors in tliis camp were Battery B, hirst 
New Jersey Begiment, on our left, and Battery K, 
Fourth Regulars, Battery I'], First Rhode Island 
Regiment and the Fourth Maine Battery, consecu- 
tively, on our right, with (Jen. Patrick and his prov- 
ost guard already alluded to, in the rear. On a. lit 
tie knoll at our left-front, in a cluster of pines, stood 
Artillery Brigade Headquarters, while a full half- 
mile farther, in plain view, stood a large, square, 
white house, occupied by Ueu. French as Corps 

Life in winter camp was pretty much the same 
throughout the army Tales of battle told by com- 
rades from other regiments, who called to renew old 
acquaintances, beguiled a part of the time. Some 
of the men engaged in an exteusive correspondence, 
or read every book that came before them, whether 
trashy or sensible. Many played at cards, and in 
these and other ways showed a spirit of contentment 
unknown to them a year before, when they had expe- 
rienced little of the wear and tear of the service, 
and were less disciplined in making the best of 
things. A few pored over new or neglected studies, 
and the old yet ever fresh questions of Matter and 
Spirit, (Jood and Evil, and Ultimate Atoms, were 
favorite themes with some of a more philosophic 
turn of mind. 

Drills and inspections were not lost sight of in 
this period. A review of the Artillery Brigade of 
our corps took place under the observation of (ien- 
erals Meade, French, and Hunt, December 23d, and 
again by (Jen. French, February 2:td. February 


(ith, orders came to pack up, and the next morning 
Ave hitched in, momentarily expecting to depart, but 
on what errand we then knew not. It seems that 
Gen. Butler, believing Richmond had been stripped 
of its garrison to strengthen Pickett's force in North 
Carolina, planned a cavalry expedition against it up 
the Peninsula under (len. Wistar, while as a diver- 
sion in his favor Gen. Sedgwick, then temporarily in 
command of the army, threw across the Rapidan 
two divisions of cavalry and two of the Second Corps 
to occupy the attention of Lee's army. As a pre- 
cautionary measure for the safety of the troops thus 
thrown forward, we were ordered to be in readiness. 
It is scarcely necessary to add that the expedition 
came to naught; having .found its way blocked at 
Bottom's Bridge, the troops returned to their start 
irig-point, their fortune almost identical with that of 
the British troops sent to Salem a hundred years be- 
fore, who, as Trumbull puts it, — 

without loss of time or men, 
Yeor'd round for Boston back again. 
And found so well their projects thrive. 
That every soul got home alive." 

But the Army of the Potomac suffered a useless 
sacrifice of two hundred and fifty lives. 

Wednesday, March 1C>, a corps review was had by 
Gen. French, accompanied by Gen. Sedgwick, near 
the residence of that uncompromising loyalist John 
Minor Botts. The gentleman himself came out to 
see the parade, and, while waiting for "Headquar- 
ters" to arrive, several of us engaged him in inter- 
esting conversation. He related to us some of his 
experiences when taken to Castle Thunder early in 
the war, and described the battles that had taken 
place on his farm. He was one of the few men in 
the Old Dominion whom neither argument nor in- 


timidation could swerve from an unyielding devo- 
tion to the Union. 

On the 2d of March, Maj. (Jen. Grant having been 
previously nominated to the grade of lieutenant- 
general, was confirmed in this rank by the Senate, 
and on the 10th assigned, by special order of Pres- 
ident Lincoln, to the command of all the Armies of 
the United States; and soon came the tidings that 
his headquarters were to be with the Army of the 
Potomac. Then followed a rumor that the army was 
to be reorganized, and this report soon took the form 
of reality, for we now learned that the Third Corps 
was doomed, — dismal news indeed. Xext to the 
attachment men feel for their own company or regi- 
ment comes that Avhich they feel for their corps. 
All the active service Ave had yet seen had been in 
the Third Corps, and its earlier history and tradi- 
tions from the Peninsula to Gettysburg had become 
a part of our pride, and we did not care to identify 
ourselves with any other. If such was our feeling 
in the matter, how much more intense must have 
been that of the troops longer in its membership, 
Avhose very blood and sinew were incorporated with 
the imperishable name it had Avon under Gen. 
Sickles. The authorities paid deference to this feel- 
ing by allowing the "Diamond" badge to be retained 
after the troops were merged in other corps. 

The First Corps Avas consolidated into two divi- 
sions and added to the Fifth. The first and second 
divisions of the Third Corps were added to the Sec- 
ond, and the third division to the Sixth Corps. I5y 
this reorganization Major Generals Sykes, French, 
and Xewton, and Brigadier Generals Kenly, Spinola, 
and Meredith, Avere relieved and sent elsewhere 
Gen. "NY infield S. Hancock now resumed command of 
the Second Corps, having been absent from it since 

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Gettysburg; Geu. Gouverneur K. Warren was placed 
in charge of the Fifth; and Gen. John Sedgwick, the 
Sixth. Gen. Hunt, Chief of Artillery of the Army, 
having left ('apt. Sleeper to elect which corps he 
would go iuto, much to our gratification the latter 
selected the Second. Battery K chose the same lot, 
so that with it, and the red and white Diamonds un- 
der Birney, for company, we became tolerably recon- 
ciled to the new situation. 

In accordance with our expectations, but much to 
our disgust, this consolidation necessitated another 
change of camp before commencing active opera- 
tions. Tt took place Friday, April 8. That day we 
bade a final adieu to our blazing fireplaces and roof- 
less stockades, and removed to Stevensburg, — a 
desolate little town five miles distant, around which 
the Second Corps was encamped, — and pitching our 
shelters on the wet ground began to rough it again. 
Next day there came a cold, drenching rain-storm 
against which our thin tents were but slight pro- 
tection. ( 'ontinuing as it did all that da}' and night, 
when Sunday morning dawned not a man in cam]) 
could boast a dry stitch of clothing; but when the 
sun appeared the camp was transformed, as at Fred- 
erick, into a vast clothes-yard. In a day or two we 
fixed up our quarters more comfortably The re- 
turn of good weather brought renewed activity In- 
spections and brigade, division, or corps reviews fol- 
lowed in quick succession. We washed our car- 
riages, polished the harnesses, and made prepara- 
tions for the grand corps review to take place on the 
plain below us; and Friday the 22d it came. On our 
way to participate in it we passed through the set- 
tlement of Stevensburg. It bore sad marks of deso- 
lation. The houses were battered and crumbling; 
some of them were occupied with goods belonging 


to the commissary department. The streets were 
filled with soldiers and mule teams. Now and then 
a few negro women were seen lounging about a 
house otherwise deserted, and the hazard features 
of some poor white woman, here and there to he ob- 
served peering from a window, betrayed in some de- 
cree the suffering that Virginia was undergoing. 

As we left cam]) at 9 o'clock we could see the 1 out- 
lines of infantry wending their serpentine course 
from distant camps to the review ground, and bands 
accompanying the different columns filled the air 
with martial melody. Having arrived at the place 
designated, the infantry were drawn up in four lines 
of a division each, while the batteries were formed 
in two lines. After some delay (rem Grant ap- 
peared, riding across the field with a numerous staff. 
Gen. Meade rode forward to receive him, and con- 
ducted him to a knoll which commanded a view of 
the entire corps; then the former took position on 
the left of the General-in-Chief, while Gen. Hancock 
sat at his right. In their rear were Sedgwick, War 
ren, Sheridan, and a numerous array of staff officers. 
The signal is given. The music strikes up, and the 
first division advances, first by the right flank, then 
the head of the division wheels to the left, passing 
the position of the reviewers in column of compan- 
ies, the officers and color-bearers saluting when 
abreast of the Lieutenant General. The other three 
divisions follow in like manner. While awaiting the 
turn of the artillery, onr position had been such as 
to give us an excellent view of the column as it 
moved along, with its continuous mass of glittering 
bayonets, and the steady tram]* of its stalwart men. 
Some of the flags were new and beautiful, but most 
of them were rent and torn, often showing the 
merest tatters of the original standard cHmnnn to 


the staff. After a division had got well past the 
Lieutenant General, it was marched back to camp; 
and before the second division had wholly 
marched in review, we could see the head of 
the column just winding into camp on the 
hills a mile distant. The infantry having 
passed, our turn came. With drivers erect on 
their horses, and cannoneers with folded arms sit- 
ting in their appointed places on the chests, we 
wheeled into column to march before Lieut. Gen. 
Grant, of whom we now get our first near view. He 
seemed quite plainly attired, to us, who perhaps had 
a magnified notion of how the General-in-Chief of 
all the armies should look. He raised his hat as we 
passed, a recognition extended to each separate or- 
ganization on such parades. Having marched by in 
battery front, each man feeling a personal responsi- 
bility of impressing the General favorably, the Cap- 
tain breaks from the right into column and we gal- 
lop back to camp. 

While at Stevensburg an event occurred in our 
newly adopted corps which, being the first of the 
kind we had witnessed, made a lasting impression 
upon us. This was a hanging scene that took place 
on the plain below our camp and in full view. The 
criminal was a member of a regiment in the second 
division. As our Company was not ordered out to 
witness the execution, most of the men kept aloof or 
viewed it from camp. 

The friends of the accused, who deemed the sen- 
tence of the court-martial too severe for the offence, 
sought the interposition of President Lincoln; but 
that great and good man thought it best not to inter- 
fere. Xo one can tell the struggle which this deci- 
sion cost him. He had exercised the pardoning 
power to such an extent hitherto that he was 


charged in many quarters with seriously impairing 
tlie efficiency of the army, and now, under the new 
military administration, he was striving to make his 
pen say \es when every impulse of his great heart 
said no. 

Battery drills, section drills, standing gun drills, 
inspections, etc., engrossed much of our time and at- 
tention in pleasant weather, as we lay in hourly an- 
ticipation of marching orders, and soon they came. 

At this time the question of forming a regimental 
organization of the light batteries from Massachu- 
setts was under consideration. Had it been carried 
through it was expected that Captain Martin of the 
Third Battery would have been made the colonel and 
Captain Sleeper the lieutenant colonel of the regi- 
ment. The following letters are interesting in this 
connection: — 

Headquarters Art'y, .ird Amu/ Corps, December .to, isti.l. 
To His Excellency. John A. Andrew, 
Governor of Massachusetts. 
tS'//',— I learn, and hope correctly, that the independent Batteries 
of your state are to be organized as a regiment and field officers 
appointed, and write to ask you to consider favorably the claim 
to promotion of Captain J. Henry Sleeper, loth Mass. Battery. 

lie has served \mder me since his connection with the Army 
of the Potomac and lias taken a high stand as a Battery com- 
mander and placed his Battery among the best in the Army. 

I am sure from my knowledge of Captain Sleeper's merits that 
he will fill the office and perform the duties of any grade among 
the field officers of the proposed Regiment with honor to him- 
self and credit to the state. I shall consider his promotion as an 
act of justice to a meritorious ottic-er, as a promotive of the in- 
terest of the service and as a personal favor to 

Your Ob't Serv't, 

('apt. 1st R. T. Artillery, Chief of Art'y. .ird Army Corps. 

This letter bears the following endorsements. 


It gives me great pleasure to fully confirm Captain Randolph. 
Chief of Artillery s high testimony regarding the military serv- 


ires of Capt. Sleeper, and to earnestly recommend him for pro- 
motion in the Artillery arm in -which he has frequently distin- 
guished himself. 

L Signed] WM. H. FRENCH, 

Maj. Gen. Tols. 

Office (if Judoe Adraeafe 
Heaihiiiarters A. 0. P.. Jan'.n 1st. 1Si;' h 
Capt. Sleeper served under my command for nearly a year and 
it gives me pleasure to record my opinion that he is a most able 
and meritorious officer, one whose promotion -would he of advan- 
tage to the service. 

I niosi cordially recommend him to the favorable notice of his 
Excellency the (iovernor of Massachusetts. 

[Signed] E. K. PLATT, 

(.'apt. d L' s. Artillerii Major and Jiidije Adrneutc, A. 0. I'. 

Art' a Head Quarters, Jan'ij 1st, lsii). 
I concur with the recommendations of Col. Piatt, whose imme- 
diate order ('apt. Sleeper has served. The want of field officers 
for the Artillery is much felt in the Army and the service of both 
Capt. Martin and Capt. Sleeper would be valuable as such and 
I -would recommend them both for promotion. Several brigades 
of Artillery of the Army are now under Captains. 

[Signed | HI'.XUY ,T. HUNT, 

Brig. Gen'l, 3rd Army Carps. 

Head (iiftrt'is 1st Dir.. 3rd Corps. Jan'y 7, IHii'i. 
To His Excellency, John A. Andrew. 
(iovernor of Massachusetts. 
Gnrrrnur, — I concur fully in all that the Chief of Artillery of 
this Corj is. Col. Piatt, and (ienerals Hunt and French say con- 
cerning Capt. Sleeper. Kith Mass. Battery. 

He has served immediately under my command in several en- 
gagements and I consider him as an officer eminently worthy of 
promotion, and trust that he will receive it in the proposed re- 
organization of the batteries from your state. I remain 

Your Ob't Serv't, 

[Signed] D. B. BIRXEY, 

Major General. 



Dec. 4. Privates Win. Eudieott and Henry Orcutt 
reported to quarters. Eleven horses unserviceable. 
Sergeant (.'has. E. Pierce appointed Orderly Ser 
geant, vice Sergeant Geo. H. Putnam relieved. 

Dec. 5. CorpM John H. Stevens and Hunt re- 
ported to quarters. One horse died last night. Pri- 
vate Samuel J. Bradlee received his discharge by Or- 
der 534 from the War Dep't. W IT. Fitzpatrick re- 
turned from furlough. 

Dec. 7. Three horses shot by order Inspector 
General 3rd Corps. 

Dec. 8. One horse died, worn out. Corp'l John 
II. Stevens and privates Endicott and Orcutt re- 
ported for duty. Waldo Pierce reported to quar- 
ters. Corp'l Luther L. Estabrook is promoted Cor- 
poral (Gunner)? to date from Nov 1st, 1863, vice 
Shattuck dropped from the rolls. 

Dec. 9. One horse unserviceable. John Hams- 
dell reported to quarters. 

Dec. 10. Corp'ls Win. B. Lemnion and John IT. 
Stevens reported to quarters. 

Dec. 12. Wm. E. Endicott appointed Lance Ser- 
geant, ('apt. J. Henry Sleeper absent in Boston on 
furlough for 15 days. 

Dec. 13. Corp'ls Currant and George A. Smitl) re- 
ported to quarters. 

Dec. 14. Corp'ls Currant and Stevens reported 
for duty 

Dec. 15. Corp'l Smith and Private Hunt reported 
for duty Harmon Newton to quarters. Serg't 
Putnam left on 15 days furlough for Lewiston ; John 
F Baxter for Boston on 10 days furlough. Be- 


ceived from Capt. Pierce 12 horses; turned over to 
him 7 horses. 

Dec. 16. H. Xewton reported for duty. John H. 
Stevens reported to quarters. 

Dec. 18. Corp'ls Stevens and Smith report for 
duty; John Pamsdell, duty Harmon New ton, re- 
ported to quarters. 

Dec. 19. Privates Alex. Holbrook reported to 
quarters. Harmon Newton reported for duty 

Dec. 20. Private Harmon Newton reported to 

Dec. 21. Private Thomas Elhvorth reported to 

Dec 22. Harmon Newton reported for quarters. 

Dec. 2:!. Thomas Elhvorth reported for duty. 
•John Pamsdell reported to quarters. 

Dec 24. John Uamsdell reported to quarters. 
Thomas Elhvorth, do., Frank Lohain duty. 

Dec. 2."). Reported to quarters, Sam'l Paine 
aud Albert N. A. Maxwell. 

Dec. 2(5. Privates Paine and Maxwell reported 
for duty 

Dec. 27. Privates Paine and Maxwell reported to 

Dec. 2S. Privates Paine and Ellworth reported 
for duty John F Baxter absent without leave. 

Dec. 29. Corp'l Geo. A. Smith reported to quar- 
ters, ('apt. J. Henry Sleeper returned from Bos- 

Dec. 30. Private Albert N. A. Maxwell for duty. 

Dec. 31. Sergeant George H. Putnam absent 
without leave. Arrived in camp at 1 P.M. 


Jan. 1. Lieut. Henry H. Granger started for 
Brattleboro, Yt., on 15 days furlough. John Baxter 
returned from furlough and reported for duty. 


Jau. 4. Privates Jacob B. Sulhani, Henry L. 
Ewell and leveret t J. Wilson permanently trans 
ferred to this Battery for the purpose of re-enlist- 
ment agreeable to Special Order No. - H'dq r's 3rd 
Army Corps. Francis Loham reported to quarters. 

Jan. 5. Privates Jacob B. Sulhani, Henry L. 
Ewell, and Everett J. Wilson -were re-enlisted by 
Lieut. Asa Smith for Tenth Mass. Battery for 3 years 
from Jan. 4, 1S<>4. Mustered out and re-mustered 
into the C S. Vols, service this 5th day Jan'y 1804. 

Jau. 0. Private John Bamsdell and Francis Lo- 
ham reported for duty Four horses unserviceable. 

Jan. 7. Corp'l John H. Stevens and Leroy E. 
Hunt reported to quarters. Privates Sulhani, Ewell 
and Wilson, re-enlisted veteran volunteers, started 
on 35 days furlough. 

Jan. 8. Corp'l Stevens reported for duty 

Jan. 9. Received this P.M. from Brig. Cen'l. 
Devens as recruits privates Michael B. O'Neil, Win. 
M. Bastablo, James Kay, T. (P)? Hill, John Nesbit. 

Jan. 10. Private John W Bailey received fur- 
lough for 10 days to visit Canton, Mass. Capt. J. 
Henry Sleeper received leave of absence to go to 
Baltimore, Md. 

Jan. 11. Two horses turned over to ('apt. L. 11. 
Pierce A. A. (>. Leroy E. Hunt reported for duty 

Jau. 12. One horse died; disease, glanders. 

Jan. 13. Capt. J. Henry Sleeper returned from 


Jan. 10. Lieut. Henry H. Granger returned from 
furlough. Cue horse shot, by order Inspector (len'l. 

Jan. 17 Privates Nesbitt and Maxwell and Arti- 
ficer Stowell reported to quarters. 

Jan. P.). Privates Nesbitt and Maxwell reported 
for duty Corporal Currant and Private Hill re- 
ported for duty 


Jan. 20. Private Maxwell reported to quarters. 

Jan. 21. Serg't George H. Putnam reported to 

Jan. 22. Private John W Bailey returned from 
furlough and reported for duty. 

Jan. 23. Sergeant Geo. H. Putnam, Corp'l Cur- 
rant, Artificer Stowell reported for duty Private 
Richard Horrigan discharged Jan. 2, 1861 

Jan. 21. Win. A. Trefry returned from hospital 
and reported for duly 

Jan. 25. Arthur A. Blandin reported to quarters. 
Pierce T. Hill reported for duty Received S horses 
from Lieut. Case, A. A. Q. M., and turned over 15 
horses to Capt. L. H. Pierce. 

Jan. 2(>. Pierce T. Hill reported to quarters. 
Two horses shot, by order Dr. Benson, Vet. Surg. 3rd 
Army Corps. Capt. J. Henry Sleeper starts on leave 
of absence for Baltimore. 

Jan. 27. Arthur A. Blandin reported for duty, 
J. S. Cross to quarters. 

Jan. 28. Joseph Gross and James Dwight re- 
ported for duty M. B. O'Xeil reported to quarters. 
Received 13 recruits from Brig. Geiv'l Devens, Long 
Island, Boston Harbor. Lieut. J. Webb Adams 
started for Boston on leave of absence for 15 days. 

Jan. 29. Private Pierce T. Hill reported for 
duty Capt. J. Henry Sleeper returned from leave 
of absence. 

Jan. 30. Private R. G. Gilley reported to quar- 
ters. Alex. W Holbrook reported for duty. Re- 
eeived 6 mules from Lieut. R. K. Case. 

Jan. 31. Private Richard G. Gilley reported for 

Feb. 1. Received one mule from Rufus K. Case. 
Feb. 2. Corp'ls Geo. A. Smith, Win. B. Lemmon 
and Privates Maxwell and Waldo Pierce sent to gen- 


eral hospital, Washington, I). C Corp'l B. F l'*"'- 
ker started on 10 days furlough for Boston. 

Fob. 3. Privates John Xesbitt and Thomas W 
Strand reported to quarters. 

lYb. 4. Lieut. II. II. Granger and Private Chas. 
L. Chase reported to quarters. 

lYb. .*>. Private ("has. L. Chase reported for duty 
Privates Peal, Brown, Smith (?) and McAllister re- 
ported to quarters. 

lYb. <i. Privates Xesbitt, O'Neil, Pierce. Smith (?) 
and McAllister reported for duty M. Sawyer re- 
ported to quarters. 

Feb. 7 Privates A. W Smith and Ceo. A. Pierce 
reported to hospital. 

Feb. 9. Private Ceo. K. Putnam reported to quar- 
ters. Two horses shot by order Dr. Benson, 3rd 
Corps Headquarters. 

Feb. 10. T. W Strand reported for duty. Gold- 
smith and Neagle reported to quarters. O. P 
Brown reported for duty. Received twenty-five (25) 
recruits from depot Long Island, B. H. through Brig. 
Gen'l Devens. 

Feb. 11. Privates Geo. K. Putnam, Michael Saw- 
yer reported for duty. Everett J. Wilson returned 
from furlough and reported for duty. 

Feb. 12. Private II. C. Wright reported to quar- 
ters; P E. Xeagle to duty. Lieut. J. Webb Adams 
and Private Jacob Sulham returned from furlough 
and reported for duty. 

Feb. 13. Privates Schwartz, M. M. Pierce and 
Starkweather reported to quarters; Privates Wright 
and Beale for duty. Turned over to ("apt. J. Strong 
3 horses and one mule. Corp'l B. F Parker returned 
from furlough and reported for duty 

Feb. 14. Corp'l A. B. Parker and John Snelling 
reported to quarters. 


Feb. 15. Corp'ls A. B. Parker and Goldsmith and 
privates A. W Smith, Schwartz and Snelling re- 
ported for duty 

Feb. 16. Private M. M. Pierce reported for dirty 
Privates Wright and Hunt reported to quarters. 
Private P E. Xeagle started to Boston on furlough 
for 10 days. 

Feb. 17 Lieut. Asa Smith started on furlough 
for 15 days and Private Chas. E. Bruce for 10 days. 

Feb. IS. Privates J. E. Carter, J. L. Schwartz and 
Charles Thompson reported to quarters. 

Feb. 11). Privates Thompson, John T. Goodwin 
and J. 1* Brown reported to quarters. 

Feb. 20. Privates X. H. Butterfleld, Lewis B. Al- 
lard, Alvin Abbott, ('has. E. Osborne, Joseph A. 
Hooper, James 1). Smith, Josh. T. Peed dropped 
from the rolls of this Battery agreeable to Gen. Or- 
ders No. o, Art v Headquarters, Army of the Poto- 
mac, Oct. 1, lsi;:{. Beceived 5 horses from ('apt. E. 
J. Strong. J. I* Brown and J. L. Schwartz reported 
for duty 

Feb. 21. Private John T. Goodwin reported to 
quarters. Private J. S. Bailey started on 10 days' 

Feb. 22. Private Asa L. Gowell reported to quar- 
ters. Mears Orcutt and B. C. Wright reported for 

Feb. 23. Privates John Nesbitt and Bichard Mar- 
1 in. reported to quarters. F IL Monroe sent on de- 
tached scrviic to Artillery Brigade Headquarters. 

Feb. 25. George W Stetson reported to quarters. 

Feb. 20. Privates Leroy E. Hunt and Bichard 
Martin reported for duty, Alvin Thompson to quar- 

Feb. 27 Private Thompson reported for duty. 
Privates A. C. White, Francis Mins and Alonzo N. 
Merrill reported to quarters. 


Feb. L'S Receive notice of the death of Private 
Albert . X. A. Maxwell who died at Carver (ieneral 
Hospital, Washington, Feb. 20, 1804. Privates Car- 
ter, G. W- Stetson, F Mins and A. Merrill reported 
for duty Received five enlisted men from draft 
rendezvous, Long Island. 

Feb. 20. Privates Ellis A. Friend and J. \V 
Thayer reported to quarters. 

March 1. Privates E. A. Foster, T. E. Carter, E. 
B. Mnllett, reported to quarters, P E. Xeagle and 
Henry L. Ewell absent sick on surgeon's certificate. 

March 2. Privates White, Friend and Thayer re- 
ported for duty 

March 3. Privates White, Adams, Hooper and 
Wright reported to quarters. 

March 4. Privates White and Wright reported 
for duty Alonzo X. Merrill reported to quarters. 
Lieut. Smith and Corp'l James S. Bailey, Jr., re- 
turned from furlough. Private Michael O'Xeil 
placed under confinement in quarters and charges 
preferred by Capt. Sleeper. 

March 5. Received notice of death of George II. 
Pice in Art'y Brig. Hospital. Private William E. 
Xorthey on detached service at Brigade Hospital. 
Two horses shot by order Dr. Benson, Aet. Surgeon. 
Q. M. Sergeant William G. Boll ins discharged from 
the service per S. ('). No. 57 War Dept. Mustered 
into the U S. service as a Second Lieutenant Tenth 
Mass. Battery, March 3rd, 1S04. F Mins and Ed- 
wards (?) reported to quarters. Received notice of 
discharge of Joseph A. Hooper, dropped from the 

March 0. Serg't Townsend reported to quarters. 
Privates Schwartz, Thompson, Thresher and Ed- 
wards reported for duty 

March 7. Private Win. II. Fitzpatrick appointed 


Q. M. Serg't March '5, 1861. Privates Jos. Sheridan, 
M. Campbell, Judson Stevens, and Chas. Thompson 
reported to quarters. Artificer D. R. Stowell on 
furlough of 10 days. 

March 8. Privates Jos. Sheridan, F Mins, and A. 
E. Wright reported to duty "Win. Rawson and Geo. 
W Stetson reported to quarters. One mule received 
from ('apt. E. J. Strong, A. G. 

March 0. Lieut. Wm. G. Rollins went to Boston, 
Mass., on 10 days* leave. Serg't Geo. M. Townsend 
and Private Rawson reported to quarters. 

March 10. Serg't Geo. M. Town send and Private 
Thresher reported to quarters. One horse died of 
inflammation of bowels. 

March 11. Privates L. W Adams and Judson 
Stevens reported for duty Jos. Sheridan and R. C 
Wright to quarters. Private Charles Slack went on 
10 days furlough. 

March 12. Serg't Geo. M. Townsend, Privates 
Foster, Geo. AN' Stetson, E. ] ). Thresher and R. C 
Wright reported for duty. Capt. Sleeper absent on 
leave. Lieut. 11. II. Granger reported for duty 
Privates James I). Smith and Geo. W Parks re- 
ported for duty from Convalescent Camp. They 
were previously dropped from the rolls in accord- 
ance with General Orders No. 3, Art y H'dq'rs A. (). 

March l-'i. Received three recruits from Draft 
Rendezvous, Long Island, Boston Harbor. John T. 
Goodwin, Asa L. Gowell reported for duty. Henry 
Orcutt and S. Johnson reported to quarters. 

March 1-1. Corp'l Frank M. Howes, Michael 
Ha lev, W Moran reported to quarters. 

March 15. James L. Schwartz, W Moran, A. X. 
Merrill, S. H. Johnson reported for duty. James 
Dwight ex. 

l'o i ; 

Tin-; tkxtii Massachusetts hattkky 

March 1<>. John 'I' Goodwin reported to duty 

March 17. Corp. Frank M. Howes, W II. Stark- 
weather and (X Thompson reported for duty 

March IS. rrivates John Xesbit, James 1>. Smith 
reported to duty, Francis Mins, L. Ham, John Mil- 
lett and J. E. Mugford reported to quarters. 

March P.). Lieut. Win. (i. Rollins and Artificer D. 
K. Stowell returned from leave. Two horses shot 
and four condemned by Major Yanderberg. Francis 
Mins reported to duty Horace B. Beals reported 
sick. Serg't P T. Woodfin discharged for promo- 
tion by S. (). No. li:i War Dept. 

March 20. L. Ham and H. B. Beals reported to 
duty Michael B. O'Xeil released from arrest. 

March 21. Michael Haley reported for duty 
Francis Loham and II. B. Beals reported to quar- 
ters. Two horses sliot, by order of Maj. Yander- 

March 22. Corp. Burnham C (dark reported to 

March 2.'>. Bugler John E. Mugford reported for 
duty. James Peach, M. M. Pierce and Asa Richard- 
son reported to quarters. 

March 24. Jos. Sheridan sent to General Hos- 
pital, Washington. 

March 2.*">. Corp'l B. (' Clark and II. B. Beals re- 
ported for duty Artificer A. I). Bacon, W Y (iross 
and F A. Mason reported to quarters. 

March 2(5. Asa Richardson reported to duty, L. 
F. Hunt reported to quarters. Charles Slack ab- 
sent without leave. 

March 27. James Peach and A. I). Bacon re- 
ported to duty also P T. Hill and Michael (amp- 

March 2S. F A. Mason reported to duty; J. W 
Wilson reported to quarters. 


March 29. M. M. Pierce, W Y Gross, L, E. 
Hunt reported to duty Private John Pedrick went 
on furlough of 10 days. 

March 30. Joseph W Harden, Wm. Moran, Win. 
E. Hooper, Michael Haley, Pierce T. Hill, Jas. L. 
Schwartz, John Handlin, M. B. O'Xeil, T. A. Carter, 
M. M. Bastable, A. W Smith, J. Sanderson, J. H. 
Carr, E. C Wright, M. Campbell, temporarily trans- 
ferred to Battery K 4th V. S. Art y, per S. O. No. 13 
Art'y Headquarters, Army of Potomac. 

March 31. Jonas W Wilson and L. W Adams 
reported to quarters. Charles Slack returned from 

April 1. Private Francis Loham reported to 
duty. Private P Gallagher, Corp. J. H. Stevens re- 
ported to quarters. 

April 2. Privates Alex. W Holbrook and Fran- 
cis Loham reported to quarters. Four horses 
turned in to Capt. E. J. Strong, sixteen horses re- 
ceived from Lieut. B. K. Case. Private Frank A. 
Monroe reported for duty from detached service. 

April 3. Privates Francis Loham and Alex. W 
Holbrook reported for duty Artificer David B. 
Stowell reported to quarters. 

April 1. Artificer D. R. Stowell reported for 

April .*>. James DAvight and P Gallagher re- 
ported to duty Artificer I). E. Stowell reported to 
quarters. Serg't Geo. H. Putnam went on three 
days leave to appear before Colored Bureau, Wash- 
ington, I). C. 

April 7. Serg't George F Gould went on 10 days 
furlough to Boston. J. W Wilson reported to 
quarters. Lance Serg't James S. Bailey promoted 
to sergeant and Lance Corp. Francis M. Howes to 
Corp. to date Mar. 19, '04. Lance Serg't George H. 
Day promoted to Serg't to date March 1, 18G4. 


April 8. Xorman PI. Butterfield and ('has E. Os- 
borne reported for duty from Convalescent Camp. 
They were previously dropped from the rolls under 
provision of <>. O. No. 3, Art'y HMqrs A. (). P sc- 
ries 1SG3. One horse shot by order ( 'apt. J. H. 
Sleeper, the stiver (?) water having run out thereby 
rendering him perfectly useless. Eemoved from 
Brandy Station to 2nd Corps near Stevensburg, Ya. 

April 9. Joseph Cross reported to quarters. 
Serg't Geo. H. Putnam returned from furlough. 
John Millett and James I). Smith reported to quar- 

April 10. Artificer D. R Stowell and Joseph 
Cross reported to quarters. Sergeants Geo. H. Put- 
nam and James S. Bailey reduced to the ranks. 
Corp'ls A. B. Parker and C. W Doe promoted ser- 
geants. Private Asa Richardson promoted Corp. 
and C. E. Osborne promoted Lance Corporal vice 
Lance Corporal J. H. Knowland reduced to the 
ranks. One horse received from Lieut. Case. 

April 12. John Pedrick reported from furlough. 

April 13. A. A. Blandin, Artif. A. I). Bacon, Geo. 
H. Putnam and A. B. Spooner reported to quarters. 

April 11. J. P Brown, E. D. Thresher reported 
to quarters. 

April 15. S. H. Johnson and A. A. Blandin de- 
tailed to wagon train. 

April 16. J. Ellworth, D. McAllister, L. W 
Adams, A. F. South worth reported to quarters. 
Nine horses condemned by Lieut. Rhodes, Inspector. 
Franklin A. Maeomber joined recruits (?). 

April 17 John F Baxter, John Nesbitt, John II. 
Knowland reported to quarters. L. >V Adams, A. 
D. Bacon reported to duty. 

April 18. Artificer D. R. Stowell, J. P Brown 
and A. B. Spooner reported to duty- 


April 19. Bugler J. E. Mugford, C. Chase re- 
ported to duty; also J. F. Baxter. 

April 20. E. D. Thresher reported to quarters; 
J. E. Mugford to duty John Millett, .lames Peach 
sent to General Hospital, Washington, U. C. 

April 21. H. Orcutt, John Ramsdell, (). YYhee- 
lock, J. T. Goodwin reported to ([uarters. 

April 22. Corp. B. C (lark reported to quarters. 
Henry L. Ewell returned to the Battery from absent 

April 28. James Elhvorth, Dan' 1 McAllister, H. 
Orcutt, John Ramsdell reported to duty. James 
Kay, James S. Bailey to quarters. 

April 24. John H. Knowland, Chas. Chase re- 
ported to duty John Ramsdell and R. G. Gilley re- 
ported to quarters. 

April 2.~>. Oliver AVheelock, < orp. B, C (lark 
and James Kay report to duty. E. F Damrell and 
Ceo. W Parks repelled to quarters. 

April 20. E. F Damrell reported to duty YV 
E. Xorthey on detached service at Artillery Brigade 
Headquarters, 2nd A. C, as orderly with horse and 

April 27 John Ramsdell, James 8. Bailey, Jr., 
reported to duty. Chas. E. Prince reported excused. 
A. A. Blandin, extra or daily duty as teamster since 
Mar. 1, 1804. 

April 28. Four horses received from Capt. W IT. 
D. Cochrane, A. A. Q. M. 

April 29. Patrick E. Xeagle reported deserter. 
Received a furlough for 10 days to go to Boston Feb. 
10, 1804. Feb. 29, received affidavit of X L. Shaw, 
M. D., Mass. Charitable Eye and Ear Infirmary, Bos- 
ton, that he was under treatment and ordered him 
to remain for a few days longer. He has not since 
returned. Dropped as a deserter. 



April 30. Charles E. Prince sent to ( J-en'l Hos- 
pital, Washington, ]>. C. John Goodwin, James D. 
Smith reported to duty Henry Jones excused. 

May 1. Eichard G. Gilley reported to duty Al- 
vin Thompson to quarters. 

May 2. John F Baxter and John W Bailey re- 
ported to quarters. Henry Jones reported to 



May ,!-.><), lSHj. 









It was with something of a thrill that, in the af- 
ternoon of Mav .'id, we heard orders for drill coun- 
termanded by those foreshadowing a march at dark. 
We did not shrink from the prospect as did some of 
the older soldiers, who had been scarred and bat- 
tered in the months gone by There was that about 
it which made all unwilling to be left behind. We 
wanted to haye a part in the great campaign soon 
to begin. We wished to banish every trace of 
"band-box" from the Battery and make a record as 
famous as that of Picketts company from Pennsyl- 
vania. We had seen just fighting enough to be- 
lieve our organization composed of men who lacked 
only the opportunity to show that neither Massa- 
chusetts nor any other state had sons who would 
contend more manfully in the cause. (Jen. Meade's 
address to the army, informing them of the move- 
ment about to begin, enforcing the tremendous is- 
sues involved and urging to heroic sacrifices for 
country and home, was read at evening roll-call to 
a hushed audience who felt that for them those 


earnest words were weighty with meaning, (/apt. 
Sleeper also addressed a few words to the men, stat- 
ing the probable magnitude of the campaign before 
us, and impressing upon us the necessity of remain- 
ing at our posts. Whatever might befall individ- 
uals, we were to stand fast, ready for any order. 

The advance to the Kapidan was to be made in 
two columns. The right column, consisting of the 
Fifth and Sixth corps, was to cross at (xermania 
Ford,* and the Second at Ely s, six miles farther 
down. Grant's plant was to cross the river below 
Lee's army and by a sudden movement turn his 
right flank, then, by fierce battles, beat and destroy 
his army.? In case this plan failed, hi* alterna- 
tive was to force him back by left-flank marches, 
and by this flank movement to follow him to Kich- 
mond.§ At eight o'clock, our artillery moved 
out of camp, and after advancing about four miles, 
parked in company with the rest of the artillery 
brigade and an extensive wagon train, awaiting the 
arrival of the infantry and its passage of the river. 
"While we lay here, in momentary expectation of 
starting along, each man attempting to catch a nap 
in a position as comfortable as the uncertainties of 
the situation would permit, whether curled up on 

: ' : Also called <i< rmainitt, this being the original name. So named 
from a colony of Germans that came over during the reign of Queen 
Anne. They settled here and were employed in working the mines 
of the neighborhood. Near here, too, stood the residence of Col. 
Spottswood, Governor of Virginia, early in the last century, after 
whom Spottsylvania County was named, the tsi/lraitia being the Latin- 
ized meaning of troorfx. 

f (Iniiit and hh Vampuii/iix. Copper. 

JThat this plan was not altogether unreasonable, appears from 
the disparity in the strength of the two armies, Lee's rolls showing as 
present for duty a force of 5l*,02(! men — foot, horse, and artillery, 
while Meade's, including Bumside's corps, U n independent command, 
numbered at this time not far from l-Ul.000 men of all arms — Sain- 
ton s Ctniipiiit/iin of tin- Army of tin- I'olomac. 

§ (! rant iind /ii.s- Campaigns. (J op pre,. 


the limber chests or at full length on the ground be- 
tween the carriages, — at midnight we were startled 
from our drowsy state and brought to our feet by a 
roar and din, which, growing nearer every move- 
ment, made a crash as if the entire artillery brigade 
and the whole wagon and ambulance trains were 
dashing along at headlong gallop; and, indeed, such 
would have been the case had not the drivers 
sprung to their horses bridles just in season to pre- 
vent it, for the sudden commotion seemed to ani- 
mate them with a common impulse of rushing 
madly off. We afterwards learned that the tumult 
was started by a mule team, which, taking fright, 
ran furiously away, dragging its clattering wagon 
after it through the midst of the trains and batter- 
ies. The darkness and lateness of the hour, and the 
drowsiness of the men, made a combination of cir- 
cumstances favorable for a general and disastrous 
stampede, that would have been a portentous omen 
with which to begin the spring campaign. As it 
was, the result proved quite serious. One lieuten- 
ant was mortally injured, and a dozen men more or 
less severely hurt, but, luckily for us, including 
none of our Company A piece and caisson from 
the Sixth .Maine Battery broke away and disap- 
peared in the darkness, not to reappear until day- 

Wednesday morning, May 4th, at ~> o clock, we 
resumed our march, following the almost intermin- 
able columns of infantry across the Kapidan. The 
Second Corps was now 27,000* strong. We joined 
Birney's Division of our old corps, and crossed the 
river at 10 A.M. Gen. Hancock was under instruc- 
tions to march directly to Cliancellorsville, and by 
o'clock the infantry advance had reached that des- 

* I'rivul' 1 lHier tu tlic author from (Jen. Hancock. 


filiation, preceded, however, by Gregg's division of 
cavalry, which was thrown out. easterly towards 
Fredericksburg, and southerly towards Todd's Tav- 
ern. We reached Chancellorsville about :> !\M., and 
placed our guns in earthworks constructed a year 

It is a fact by no means insignificant for us to no- 
tice, that in the movement making to turn the en- 
emy's right, to Hancock and his corps was given the 
most responsible place. This was undoubtedly due 
in large measure to the confidence Gen. Meade put 
in his many soldierly qualities, conspicuous among 
which was an implicit obedience of orders. With 
him to hear was to obey * It might naturally be 
expected that if the first part of Grant's plan for the 
campaign succeeded, Lee would fall upon and at- 
tempt to overwhelm the left wing of our army, with 
a view 7 to re-establishing his line of communication 
southward; and ultimate^, this was in substance 
what he did attempt to do, and that, too, with such 
spirit and determination that reinforcements were 
dispatched to Hancock until at one time he was in 
command of fully one-half of the entire army 
While the original plan of the campaign failed of 
execution, the sequel proved "Hancock the Superb'' 
to be the right man in the right place. 

It soon becoming apparent to us that no further 
movement of the Corps was contemplated this day, 
we devoted oar leisure before sunset, in common 
with hundreds of others, to inspecting the topogra- 
phy of this most interesting battlefield, together 

* Hancock may be characterized as the ideal of a xohlirr; gifted 
with a magnetic presence and a superb personal gallantry, he was 
one of these lordly leaders who upon the actual field of battle rule 
[he hearts ol troops with a potent and irresistible mastery. — Swin- 
lon's V<i»>i>tii(/iis uf lite Army of tin I'otomac. 


with the vestiges of the contest still visible. There 
was the old liue of works hastily thrown up by the 
Third Corps. Old soldiers point out the spots 
where the leaden and iron storm fell hottest. The 
spectral outlines of shattered brick walls mark 
what was once the Chancellor House, used early in 
the battle as a hospital. It will be remembered 
that it was while leaning against one of its columns 
that (Jen. Hooker was stunned by a shell which 
struck the pillar. Around it for some distance the 
ground was strewn with broken muskets, cartridge- 
boxes, belts, belt-plates, canteens, scraps of cloth- 
ing, etc, taken from the wounded or left by the fly- 
ing; but the saddest spectacle of all was in the 
woods on our right. We counted within an area 
of less than ten rods square, fifty skulls upon the 
surface of the ground. The graves in which the re- 
mains had been buried were so shallow that the 
bodies were scarcely below the general level in most 
cases; and the little soil thrown over them had 
either been washed off by rains or scraped away bv 
animals, so that the bodies were lying about in all 
states of dismemberment. There were legs still 
cased in the army blue, and shoes yet tilled with the 
foot. This want of proper attention to the slain of 
an enemy is perhaps to be palliated on the ground 
that the Rebels had an immense number of their 
own dead to bury,* and that the digging of even a 
shallow grave in the woods, in earth thickly matted 
with roots and stones, is a difficult task, even for 
friendly hands. Some members of a New York reg- 
iment found the unburied remains of one of their 
sergeants, identifying them by the clothing and the 
false teeth which he wore, and gave them a Chris- 

* Loss of the Iti.'bels, 10,:!S1 in killed and wounded. —Lee: Report 
of ( 'Itancr-Horxrille. 


tian burial, lint as nightfall now approached \\'t' 
concluded mil' observations and returned to camp. 
In the evening (leu. Hancock received orders to 
move at ."> A.M., Thursday morning, to Shady Grove 
Church, a place considerably south of the Orange 
Plank Road and well around Lees flank, and to ex- 
tend his right towards the Fifth Corps at Parkers 
st:»ro on the same road.* After a good night's rest, 
the last quiet one we were destined to have for some 
time, at the appointed hour we were 1 astir, joining 
IJirney's division as before; and taking up our 
march south-easterly, we pursue that course for a 
time along a plank road, then turning abruptly to 
the right, we change our direction to south-westerly, 
arriving towards noon at Todd's Tavern, an unpre- 
tentious structure one story and a half in height, 
with no merits, architectural or otherwise, to war- 
rant its becoming a conspicuous landmark in the 
history of this campaign. Here a halt had been or- 
dered. Batteries were parked in luxuriant fields 
(luxuriant when contrasted with portions of coun- 
try over which we moved). The infantry, having 
stacked arms, were stretched upon the ground; and, 
in short, all — generals and soldiers alike — lay 
carelessly about in the shade (for the day was quite 
warm), apparently as light-hearted as if they had no 
part in War's mission. Put suddenly all is activity 
The General issues from the Tavern, leaps quickly 
into his saddle, gives a few rapid orders to staff offi- 
cers dispatching them to the various divisions; and 
in a brief space of time the corps is in line again and 
moving promptly back the road we came.t This 

♦This road has already been alluded to in the Mine Hun chapter. 
It runs & mi. Tally parallel to the Orange Turnpike at this point, but 
is farther smith. 

v I have be..n credibly informed, since writing the above that (Jen. 
Hancock, hearing evidences of a sharp conflict in progress, and be- 


course, however, we pursue only a short distance 
before bearing to the left, on what is known as the 
Brock Boad. But before following the Corps fur- 
ther in this direction it will be interesting to make 
pause for a moment to note briefly the state of af- 
fairs calling for this retrograde: 

"My advance" [says (Jen. Hancock] "was about two miles 
beyond Todd's tavern, when, at '•> A.M., I received a despatch 
from the Major-< Jeneral commanding the Army of the Potomac 
rn halt at the tavern as the enemy had been discovered on the 
Wilderness Pike. Two hours later I was directed to move my 
command up the Bmrk Boad to its intersection with the Orange 
Plank Boad." 

It happened that while we bivouacked at Chan- 
cellorsville the evening of the day previous, War- 
ren s corps, in advance of the right wing, had 
camped at Wilderness Tavern, situated at the junc- 
tion of the Stevensburg Plank lioad with the 
Orange, or, as we have just seen it termed, the 
Wilderness Pike. Ewell's corps, that part of Lee's 
army nearest the Bapidan, and his advance wing, 
was marching over the same pike to meet our army, 
and halted that night not above three miles from 
Warren s position, at Kobertson's Tavern, already 
mentioned in the chapter on Mine Bun. Each com- 
mander was ignorant of the vicinage of the other, 
partly due to the fact that our cavalry, which had 
been in advance during most of the afternoon, had 
been withdrawn and sent across to Parker's store, 
on the Plank Boad. When Warren, therefore, at- 
tempted to resume his march, early Thursday morn- 
ing, he found the enemy confronting him. Grant 
and Meade, both believing it to be the rear guard of 
Lee, who, they thought, must have retreated and 
left a divison merely to cover the movement, gave 

Moving his services were required in that direction, was already well 
on the way when orders to that effect met him from Gen. Meade. 


Warren orders to brush it out of his track. This he 
at once began to do, and at tirst carried everything 
before lain, but tlie other divisions of Ewell's corps 
coining up, assumed the offensive and gave Warren 
a rough handling for a time, inflicting a loss upon 
him of about three thousand men. It Avas now suf- 
iiciently manifest that the Kebel army was present 
in force and meant business, and although (J rant 
would have much preferred not to fight in the Wil- 
derness, he nevertheless decided to accept the gage 
of battle here thrown down, and, suspending the 
plan of marches decreed the day before, proceeded 
to concentrate the whole army for that purpose. 
This change of plan it was which caused us to turn 
in our tracks at Todd's Tavern.* 

We pass along the road quite promptly at first. 
There are nearly ten miles intervening between us 

* "The held where the lirsl rencontre of the armies hart taken place, 
anil where it was now ilecreeil the battle should lie fought, was that 
region known as 'The Wilderness. It is impossible to conceive a field 
worse adapted to the movements of a grand army. The whole face 
of the country is thickly wooded, with only an occasional opening, 
and intersected by a few narrow wood roads. The region rests on a 
bed of mineral rocks, and, for above a hundred years, extensive mining 
has here been carried on. To feed the mines, the timber of the country 
for many miles had been cut down, and in its place there had arisen a 
dense undergrowth of low-limbed and scraggy pines, stiff and bris- 
tling, chincapins, scrub-oaks, and hazel. It is a region of gloom and 
(he shadow of death. Maneuvering here was necessarily out of the 
• jiiestion. and only Indian tactics (old. The troops could only receive 
direction by a poinl of the compass; for not only were the lines of 
battle entirely hidden from the sight of the commander, but no of- 
licer could see ton tiles on each side of him. Artillery was wholly 
iuled out of use; (he massive concentration of three hundred guns 
slood silent, and only an occasional piece or section could lie brought 
inlo [day in the roadsides. Cavalry was still more useless. But in 
that horrid thicket then' lurked two hundred thousand men, and 
through it lurid lires played; and though no array of battle could be 
seen, there came out of its depths the crackle and roll of musketry 
like the noisy boiling of some hell-caldron, that told the dread story of 
death. Such was the field of the battle ol' the Wilderness; and lien- 
eral (Irani appointed that at five o'clock of the morning (he tight 
should be renewed. Combinations or grand tactics there were none; 
the order of bailie was simple, and was to all the corps -Attack all 
along the line." — Siriiitrnt's < 'iini/iait/iix <>[ the Ay mil of tlir 1'ntwnnr. 


nnd the right wing. Moreover, Hill's corps was 
pressing down the Plank Eoad, striving to gain its 
intersection with the Brock Eoad before our arrival. 
If he succeeds, our army is divided and there is hard 
fighting ahead. In anticipation of this contin- 
gency. Gen. Meade had sent Gen. Getty with a divi- 
sion of The Sixth Corps to hold this important posi- 
tion till the Second Corps came up. This he was 
doing right manfully, under a steadily increasing- 
pressure from the enemy, when, toward 3 o'clock, 
the welcome cheer of our advance announced to him 
that help was at hand. From this time until nearly 
half past four was spent by the infantry in getting 
into position, and fortifying in the woods along the 
Brock Boad. Then began that terrible roar of mus- 
ketry occasioned by Hancock receiving orders to ad- 
vance upon Hill and drive him back on the Plank 
Poad beyond Parkers store. 

About 4 o'clock, a few minutes before the attack 
already referred to began, the Tenth was ordered 
into position in a ploughed field, along a low ridge 
locally known as Poplar Xeck Pidge. It appeared 
to be the only < leariug in the neighborhood.* We 
were on the extreme left of the line, supported by 
Barlows division of infantry But artillerists in 
this battle were at a liberal discount. In the at- 
tack on the Plank Bead one section of Bicketts' 

* The following extract is from Gen. Hancock s official report: 
"Barlow's division with the exception of Frank's brigade, 
held the left of my line and was thrown forward on some high clear 
ground in front of the Brock Road. This elevated ground com- 
manded the country for some distance to the right and left, covering 
the Fredericksburg and Orange Court House railroad in front. Ow- 
ing to the dense forest which covered my front, this was the only 
point on my line where artillery could have an effective range, and I 
therefore directed that all of the batteries of my command, save 
1 >ow's Sixth Maine Battery, and one section of Ricketts' 'F' Co., 
First Pennsylvania Artillery, should be placed in position there, sup- 
ported by Barlow ,* division, and forming the extreme left of the line 
of battle of the army." 

220 Tin-: tkxtie massaciusi: rrs p.atvkky 

Battery (the one referred to in the noles) was moved 
along in rear of Birnev s infantry as they advanced, 
and (hiring the light suffered severely in men and 
horses. At one lime it Avas captured, but was af- 
terwards retaken and then withdrawn, being re- 
placed by a section of Imw's Sixth Maine Battery 
With these exceptions, and that of our own brief 
engagement, yet to mention, the Second Corps artil- 
lery took no part in this terrible battle. It may be 
stated as a fact, curious in the history of battles, 
that although there were nearly three hundred 
guns on the field, only about tweut.y were used,'"" 
such being the nature of the country in which the 
battle was fought. 

After dark our position was changed a little to 
the right, where we remained till dawn. It was not 
permitted to unharness the horses that night, and 
we slept as we could, with one ear open for any 
alarm. So calm was the night it seemed impossi- 
ble to believe that thousands of men lay within rifle- 
shot, ready to engage in deadly conflict at break of 
day The only sound that readied the ear was the 
rumbling of ambulances, which rolled almost cease- 
lessly along during those dismal hours, giving us a 
tolerablv definite idea of the severity of the after- 
noons fighting. t At early dawn we were back 
again in the ploughed field, but at 7 o'clock moved 
to a position still farther to the left, near two white 
cottages. Fully two hours before this, the morn- 
ing stillness had been broken by a tremendous crash 
beyond the woods at our right, and this crash was 
continued in a prolonged roar. The reports from 
tens of thousands of muskets blended into a single 

'*<!ra>it and hts ( '(iini>(ii(/ns. Co/i/irc. 

t Hancock continued his unavailing efforts to drive Hill, till eight 
o'clock, when night shutting down on the darkling woods, ended the 
si niggle - Sit in tun's 'I'lielri Dcc'mirv Jiatths. 


sound like that of a mighty cataract, and this was 
greatly intensified by the reverberations consequent 
upon the filing' taking' place in the woods. (len. 
Hancock s own corps was strengthened on this 
eventful morning by the addition of three other di- 
visions, so that he then held command of more than 
half of the army For four long hours did this tor- 
rent of sound continue without even momentary ces- 
sation. The result was that Hancock had driven 
and routed the enemy s right, comprising two divi- 
sions of Hill's corps, a mile and a half; an advance, 
however, which he did not maintain, being driven 
hack to his line on the Brock Road two hours after- 

In addition to the light batteries, some heavy 
siege guns were brought up and put in position on 
the ridge (dose bv one of the cottages mentioned. It 
was a pitiful sight to see the anguish and terror of 
the women and children, who still clung to their 
homes. What could they do? Where could they 
go? They could not remain, for the enemv was 
likely to make their houses a mark for his shells; 
and go somewhere they must, (.lathering up, there- 
fore, a few articles of clothing, they departed, sob- 
bing bitterlv How much miserv of this descrip- 
tion was entailed bv the war! 

Before our position, and parallel with it, lav a 
narrow valley Through this ran the railroad al- 
ready alluded to in the notes. l.evond the valley, 
which was more or less sprinkled with shrubbery 
and small trees, was another crest, well wooded, but 
open on the hither slope. Through this opening 
ran a road down by our left to the Brock Road. Our 
distance from this (dear slope was about eight hun- 
dred yards. We were ordered to keep our eyes 
vigilantly in that direction, lest the enemy should 


plant a battery there or make an advance from 
that quarter But having done this some time, our 
vigils relax, and we lie scattered about, in the shade, 
some asleep, some chatting upon various topics or 
guessing at the whereabouts of a Rebel battery, the 
whistle of whose shots is so distinctly heard in our 
direct front, and whom they are engaged with, when 
suddenly a puff of smoke issues from the edge of the 
woods on the slope at the left of the road, and simul- 
taneously a shell bursts low directly between two 
of our guns. 

There must have been a comical sight presented 
to the view of the Rebel officer in charge of that bat- 
tery, if at the moment his glass was levelled on us, 
for a livelier getting up and scrambling for posts 
could not be imagined. Shell after shell came 
whizzing over us, plunging into the woods in our 
rear, or exploding above us, scattering their frag- 
ments with a horrible sound that made the flesh 
creep. They had us in perfect range from the first 
shot. One of their missiles took off the head of an 
orderly as he sat on his horse. 

But whatever amusement our appearance may 
have caused at the outset, it certainly was of brief 
continuance, and soon gave way to an earnestness 
to which we are sure the aforesaid officer would 
bear convincing testimony. The moments that we 
waited for the hist round seemed long, for we stood 
out on the bald ridge, a conspicuous mark; but our 
Uirn came at last, and now our six "Rodmans," 
opening their iron throats, send back greetings two 
to one, and soon "dust" them out of their position. 
The whole affair did not occupy twenty-five min- 
utes. We expended about seventy rounds of ammu- 
nition during its continuance.* Our pickets who 

* (ii'ii. Hancock was unapprised of this little interchange, as the 
following extract from a private letter to the writer goes to show: — 

were thrown out along through the valley, when 
they came in at night, reported that we dismounted 
one of the Rebel guns. This concluded our part in 
the fighting of the battle, — a small part, it is true, 
but nevertheless well done. No one regretted 
more than ourselves that we were compelled to so 
much inactivity while the hard fighting was in 

The struggle continued with more or less des- 
peration during the day At 4 o'clock Lee as- 
saulted the Second Corps with the greater part of 
Longstreet s and Hill's corps a second time; but af- 
ter gaining a temporary advantage, he was repulsed 
with considerable loss.* The next morning (Sat 
urday, May 7th), Ave threw up earthworks, but 
aside from skirmishing, which continued more or 
less during the forenoon, the day was comparatively 
quiet. lioth armies were willing to be assailed, but 
each had suffered too severely to assume the offen- 
sive. During the day the Battery was separated, 
the left section resinning position in the ploughed 
field, near an Irishman's cabin. Al night the sec- 
tions came together again and went down on the 
fiat, back of the ridge to pass the night.* 

Morning of the Nth dawned warm and smoky. It 
AA'as the Sabbat h, but its holy associations were lost 
sight of in the unceasing activities of Avar, and an- 

"The ball cries of Itii-ketts and Dow were the only ones closely en- 
gaged on my lines during the battle of the 'Wilderness. Some of the 
corns batteries posted on the high clear ground on the left may (during 
the two days contest) have thrown a few shells over our lines and 
into the forest where the enemy was supposed 1<> be; but if so, that 
was all they could do. owing to the dense woods which concealed our 
troops as well as the enemy.'' 

* The loss of the Second Corps in the Wilderness, not including the 
Fourteenth Indiana Regiment, was :'.,7<il. Of these .'>.">'.! were miss- 
ing: the rest killed or wounded. — HniK-m-k's Official h'eport. 

f The losses of the Union army in this battle are put at 20,000, 
including killed, wounded, and missing, and those of the enemy, by 
their own statements, as at least S.OOO. — American Conflict. (Incley. 




other movement was projected, having for its object 
tlie ]»tissin<i' around Lee's right flank by a march to 
t lie left, and placing our army at Spottsylvania 
Court House between him and Richmond. This 
was the first in that continued series of moves by 
the left flank which did not end until the Rebellion 
collapsed at Appomattox. It was a surprise to the 
army for the prediction was general that Crant 
wouid now retreat across the Rapidan. That 
wasn't ( J rant. 

The Fifth Corps was in the van, having left the 
lines and the Wilderness, and started at !> o'clock 
the evening previous, with directions to move to the 
Court House by the Brock Road.* "Maj. (Jen. 

* As .-in illnslralion (if Hie part chance sometimes plays iti ordering 
(he fate of battles. Ceii. Lee. takin- note of the fact that our army 

Hancock, commanding Second Corps, will move to 
Todd's Tavern, following Fifth Corps closely," is a 
verbatim extract from Gen. Meade's order of march, 
distinctly outlining the next course irr were to pur- 
sue. ( >wing to delays experienced by the Fifth 
Corps we did not march until about !l o ''clock A.M. 
of the Sabbath, again accompanying Birnev's divi- 
sion. The morning was decidedly hot, and under 
a broiling sun we set forward at a quick pace to 
Todd's Tavern. Many a poor fellow dropped by the 
roadside on this ton-mile march, utterly overcome 
by the heat or fatigue The tiring hoav heard in 
our front told us that the enemy had been found in 
that direction, and at that very moment our advance 
might be in pressing need of suppori. Reaching 
the tavern about noon, we hardly recognized the 
spot, so great were the changes wrought in its ap- 
pearance during the past three days. Only the day 
before a severe cavalry contest had taken place here 
between the forces of Cregg and Fitz-Hugh Leo. 
This was an important point for the Union army to 
control, as here, what is known as the Catharpin 
Load enters the Brock Load from the westward. 
The promising growths of wheat and corn were 
trampled in the dust, and fences were laid low in all 

Although by (Jen. Meade s order of march this 
was our destination, the positive indications of act 
ive work farther to the left led us to believe our 
services would be required in that direction ere 

was with<lra\viiit;. but nut knowing whither, instructed lien. K. II. 

Anderson, who had succeeded to the command of Lon^sti I's corps 

after the fall of the latter, to draw out of position after nightfall and 
hold himself in readiness to march to Spot tsylvania Court House in 
the morning: but finding no suitable place to camp on account of the 
burning woods, h< began hist man-h that niijht simultaneously with the 
Fifth Corps. 


long; but owing to the large number of troops that 
were passing nvri' this road, — it being the thor- 
oughfare for the lighting part of the entire army, — 
and more especially because (Jen. Meade feared an 
attack on the rear of the column, the Second Corps, 
now having the left of the line, held fast at Todd's.* 
dust at dusk, while we were unharnessing, and ad- 
dressing ourselves to preparations for supper, a 
lively succession of musketry volleys broke out in 
our front, and in a moment Gens. Grant and Han- 
cock were spurring down in that direction to get at 
its meaning. A line of cavalry was at once de- 
ployed to the rear to check skulkers. We hastily 
replaced the harnesses, and stood awaiting orders 
to advance in the direction of the fighting. The 
wounded men, a few of whom came by us to the 
rear, and the familiar music of stray minies, by no 
means permitted our interest in the occasion to flag. 
But after awhile it became evident that our serv- 
ices were not to be needed, and the horses were un- 
harnessed, for the first time in three days, and thor- 
oughly groomed. t 

During the succeeding night, a detail of our in- 
fantry were engaged in throwing up intrenchments, 

" Except Gibbon's, which was sent forward towards 
Spottsylvania Court House in the afternoon. 

-j- 'At ">..'■><> P.M.. when Col. Miles was returning from his reconnois- 
sance towards Corbin's Bridge, he was attacked by Mahono's brigade 
nl Hill's corps, which was then inarching towards Spottsylvania 
( ourt Holisc As soon as the firing commenced on Col. Miles's front, 
1 directed Gen. Barlow to send a brigade to his support. The re- 
maining troops were held in readiness to march in the same direction 
if required. About this time I was informed that the enemy's in- 
fantry was also advancing on the Brock Boad to attack my right. I 
therefore directed that Col. Miles should retire slowlv toward my 
main line of battle at Todd's Tavern. This movement was executed 
with great skill and success by that officer, who, while accomplishing 
it. repelled two spirited attacks of the enemy, inflicting severe loss 
upon hnn. After the second repulse of the enemv. I withdrew Miles s 
command inside of the intrenchments at Todd's Tavern." — HanrucV* 
Offii-nil ltrport. 

into which we moved the next morning early, 
strengthening - , to some extent, those along the bat- 
tery front. At 7.30 we joined the Red Diamonds 
once more, and moved down the Brock Road still 
further to the left, but at noon were ordered back 
to the tavern. It was with no slight degree of sat 
isf action, however, that we turned our backs upon 
this dust-covered spot for the last time at 3 P.M., for, 
owing to the excessive travel over the road, the sur- 
face was reduced to an impalpable powder, which 
with the slightest movement tilled the air, and had 
deposited a stratum upon us that made us grayer 
than the grayest of the "Johnnies." 

We direct our course along the Brock Road for 
nearly a mile and a half, then turning abruptly to 
the right, proceed southerly for three-quarters of a 
mile, issuing from the woods at what was known as 
Widow Talley's farm. By order of (Jen. Birney Ave 
milimbered on some high ground, and shelled a 
Rebel wagon train whose course along a road paral- 
lel to our own we could trace by the long line of 
dust rising above the trees. We made no long stop 
here, but moved on moderately, and crossing the Po 
River, bivouacked near the road for the night, un- 
aware of our close proximity to the enemy But 
our lines were, in fact, a short distance from those 
of the Rebels, for < Jen. Hancock had been ordered 1o 
<ross the Po with the hope of capturing a part of 
the above wagon train. It was for this reason that 
the Second Corps, still holding the left of the Union 
line, was pressed thus far forward. Night came on, 
however, before full dispositions were made, and at 
dawn of the 10th it was too late, as the train had 
gone by Nevertheless, Cen. Hancock continued 
his forward demonstration. The plan of placing 
the army at Spottsylvania Court House between Lee 


and Richmond had Tailed,* and now the two antago- 
nists once nunc confronted each other in long ex- 
tended lines of battle. 

The morning was ushered in by heavy cannonad- 
ing, both sides seeming glad of the opportunity to 
thunder their defiance at one another through these 
noisy and destructive implements of war which had 
been compelled to remain silent in the recent death- 
grapple. Our centre section was temporarily de- 
tached, and engaged for a time Avith the enemy's ar- 
tillery Despatches were read at the head of the re- 
spective organizations, announcing that Gen. Sher- 
man was driving Joe Johnston before him, and that 
Gen. Butler, having beaten Beauregard, had gut 
between him and Richmond, thus having Peters- 
burg at his mercy Jt was with a comfortable feel- 
ing, that matters were going well all round, that we 
received orders about 11 A.M. to adnnicc, as we then 
supposed, across the Po,t not knowing at the time 
that we were already on the south side of it. It 
turned out, however, that we were being withdrawn 
across it, in compliance with an order Gen. Han- 
cock had received to send two divisions to aid in an 
attack to be made by the Sixth and Fifth corps upon 
fortifications in front of the latter. In conformity 
with this order, the divisions of Gibbon and Birney 
were retired, — we, of course, being inseparable 
from the latter. We marched leisurely along across 

* The cavalry escort of Gen. Meade blocked Warren's way an hour 
and a halt" at Todd's Tavern, and two miles beyond he was retarded 
by waiting three hours for Merritt's cavalry to clear his way. They 
gave it up about C> A.M. of the 10th, and .not out of his way. But 
these delays had given Longstreet's column, under Anderson, time 
lo arrive and head him off. which they did at Alsop's Farm. — War- 
mi: \ olcs on tin liiipiihin CaDipaii/n. 

f At this crossing we notice,!, for the first time, pontoon-boats cov- 
ered with canvas, instead of being entirely constructed of w 1, — a 

change which made transportation, and tile labor of (he nontoniers 



Graves' Farm, down over the pontoon, closely 
following the infantry, when a few rattling shots, 
soon increasing to a tierce volley, broke out alarm- 
ingly near. It was an attach on the rear of the re- 
tiring divisions. "Double-quick!" comes the or- 
der; the cannoneers mount, and the horses are 
urged on with increased speed. The roar of battle 
is before us as we hasten. Crash goes a shell 
through the trees, immediately followed bv another 



that explodes oxer ns. Thicker and thicker they 
come. We are in full range of a Rebel battery, and 
wheel into an opening on our left to unlimber for 
action. We are eager to commence firing. Bnt a 
dire contingency now appears, — the enemy are not 
within our range. Nothing remains 1o be done, 
then, but to get out of this place as lively as may be. 
The caissons are ordered to stand fast while the 
pieces pass on down across a little run, and soon 
come to a halt in a hollow. 


But we have not escaped this time unseat lied, for 
a rallied piece of shell, on its errand of death, shat- 
tered the lower jaw of the off swing horse on the 
fourth Detachment caisson, and another passed di- 
rectly through the lower part of the abdomen of the 
driver, inflicting a mortal wound from which he fell 
from his saddle ami expired in less than five min- 
utes. "Tell them I died doing my duty," were the 
last words of Emerson B. Mullett, the first man in 
the < ompanv to be killed in battle. Wrapped in his 
blanket he was laid in a grave hastily made by his 
comrades, and a simple inscription on a smooth pine 
board, taken from a cracker box, was put at his 
head, marking the last resting-place of one of the 
first martyrs to Freedom and Union at the battle 
of Po River. 

A wheel of the Fourth Detachment caisson was 
demolished soon afterwards, making it necessary to 
mount a spare one under somewhat trying circum- 

Our stay in a place of comparative safety is of 
short duration, for soon we are moving rapidly by a 
road in the rear, and at last emerge on another part 
of the line, and take position on high ground — a 
former cornfield — in rear of Pritchett's house, near 
which we passed when we came up from the pon- 
toon. The situation is a good one, for it not only 
commands the approaches from the river, but has in 
complete range the slope on the opposite side. Why 
we are detached from Birney's division, which has 
gone on, and put in this position, a brief explanation 
will show After the withdrawal of Gibbon and 
Birney the division of Barlow only remained across 
the Po, and as the enemy showed a disposition to at- 
tack it in its isolated position, Hancock was ordered 
to withdraw that also; but thereby lianas a laroe 


part of this very Battle of the Po. Two brigades of 
the divison were drawn from the enemy's front, by 
skilful handling, without molestation from the en- 
emy. But, encouraged by what seemed like a forced 
retreat, Hill's troops fierceky assailed the other two 
remaining, who, nevertheless, checked their assail- 
ants in several stubborn stands, finally retiring 
across the river, and taking up the pontoon.* 

It was to aid in covering the crossing of this di- 
vision, then, that we were assigned our present lo- 
cation. We take in the long, dark lines of our 
forces, as they lie along the opposite slope, the 
smoke and dust from the batteries, t and the flashes 
from the muskets. A column of Union troops is 
marching towards the river when a Bebel battery 
opening upon them, shatters them, and they take 
refuge lower down the slope, where they re-form 
and resume their inarch under its shelter. We now 
train our guns on this battery and open fire, but 
scarcely have we done so ere an orderly rides up 
with orders to cease firing, as our shots endanger 
Union troops.t Then conies a season of mortal 
agony for us, long drawn out. The Bebel battery 
opens, exploding its first shell on our left flank, 
whose fragments sweep through our guns, taking 
down the two lead-horses on the piece of the Sec- 
ond Detachment. Another disables two more, one 
of them the iron-gray of Lieut. Granger, and 
wounds private Augustus C. White, lead driver on 
the First Detachment piece, in the leg. Private 
John T. Goodwin, pole driver, is also wounded 

* During the heat of the contest the woods between these troops 
and the river took fire, .so that they were compelled to fight a fierce 
foe in their front and the fire in their rear. But notwithstanding 
this complication they held the enemy in check. 

t The Second Corps lost its first gun in this battle, it having be- 
come hopelessly sunk in a marsh. 

t The opposing lines at this point were very close. 

slightly To this grim kind of music we are com- 
pelled to dance attendance in our exposed position, 
with positive instructions against letting our Kod- 
mans "talk back." The horses are soon ordered 
down behind the hill, tor greater security; but we 
cannoneers lie flat on the ground and watcdi that 
battery, hugging the bosom of mother earth with a 
display of affection never realized before, as a puff 
of smoke is seen to issue from those distant woods, 
and we await with suspended breath the succeed- 
ing moment to elapse, whose termination may lay 
some of us by the side of Mullett. A heavy plunge 
close beside us announces that the shell has come, 
and we are sprinkled with the flying gravel. An- 
other puff, and an explosion overhead fills the air 
with hurtling missiles of death. What shall we do? 
We are dying a thousand deaths a minute, so in- 
tense is our feeling under this suspense. We 
finally receive the welcome orders to draw back 
down behind the crest ; but this comparatively bliss- 
ful seclusion lasts only a few minutes ere we are or- 
dered back again, and again we commence firing 
with the same result as before. A second time we 
retire, by orders, and by orders are restored to the 
post a third and final time. The last brigade was 
now across, and at this moment Gen. Barlow, at the 
head of his division, came over the hill past our 
guns. This elicited fresh attention from the Bebel 
battery, at which the General ordered his color- 
bearer to lower the headquarters flag. "Why don't 
this batterx open fire on them?'* said the General, 
addressing no one in particular. He was speedily 
informed that we were acting under orders. Noth- 
ing would have pleased us better or relieved us so 
much as an opportunity to measure mettle with this 
persistent antagonist. Tenth Batterynien saw war 


iu muck worse aspects man}' times afterwards, and 
were exposed to greater dangers, but never in their 
term of service did they suffer such an hour of soul- 
harrowing' agony as that spent on the eminence 
overlooking the Po, back of Pritchett's house. We 
were marched from place to place during the after- 
noon, once going into battery on the right of the 
Fifth Corps, remaining, however, but a short time. 
The batteries could not seem to be used to advan- 
tage, and were finally ordered to the rear, where we 
parked near the ambulance train for the night. 

It will be seen from the above narration, that the 
battle of the Po was participated in on the Union 
side by troops of the Second Corps only, and chiefly 
Barlow s division. But there was still severer fight- 
ing down the lines front of the Fifth Corps, for the 
possession of Laurel Hill. In the desperate and 
bloody but fruitless charges made to gain possession 
of it, the Second ( 'orps lost very heavily on this same 
10th of May At <> o'clock, a charge was made by 
Iavo brigades of the Sixth Corps, one of which was 
Cen. Russell's, which did such glorious Avork at Rap- 
pahannock Station. They carried the first line of 
works, taking !MM) prisoners and several guns; but, 
being unsupported, fell back after dark, leaving the 
guns on the field. We did not hear until the next 
day of the fall of that gallant soldier, Gen. Sedg- 
wick. He was killed on the 9th, by a Rebel sharp- 
shooter, while giving directions for strengthening 
the works in his front. 

During the following day (Wednesday), compara- 
tive quiet reigned along the lines. The weather 
was warm and muggy, and the shoAver which came 
up in the afternoon, Avhile very refreshing and much 
needed, was not without its disagreeable aspects to 
those having to make themselves comfortable on 


the ground. But Fortune had dec-reed that we 
should not be troubled at present with any threat 
efforts in this latter respect. We had just un- 
harnessed, and were- making preparations to pass 
the night as comfortably as circumstances allowed, 
when orders to move were received. For < J rant, 
having apparently relinquished the idea of crush- 
ing out Lee's army by superiority of numbers, had 
now resolved to use a little strategy * A point had 
been found in the right-centre of the enemy's line, 
that was considered a favorable place against 
which to make a suddeu sally The night of the 11- 
12th was selected as the time for the enterprise, and 
Hancock's corps as the assaulting force. At 11 
o'clock the Battery was on the move, for the corps 
was shifting over from the right to a point opposite 
the place designated for attack. By this time a 
drizzling rain had set in, and then followed such a 
march! Toiling and stumbling on in the darkness 
through the mud and the woods, over roots and 
stumps, into puddles and pitfalls, crowded by gun- 
carriages and jostled by horsemen in the narrow 
cart paths, about 2 o'clock we reached a clearing, 
and halted for orders. Here, in the rain and mud, 
dirty, sticky, and by no means sweet-tempered, we 
wore away the time till daylight, looking longingly 
towards the East. Dawn at last appeared gray and 
foggy, and at the same time cannonading was 
heard, showing the attack in progress. As soon as 
objects were distinctly outlined we were ordered 
forward, and started off over roads newly cut 
through the forests, and partially corduroyed, till 
at last we emerged on a high, open hill which com- 

* "Shortly before the opening of the Kapidan campaign, Gen. 
Meade, in conversation with the lieutenant-general, was telling him 
lliat he proposed lo maneuver thus and so; whereupon Gen. Grant 
slopped him at the word 'maneuver,' and said, 'Oh! I nrrir mnnru- 
ill.'" -A nil a llf tin I'otoiimr. Kiriilion. 


nianded a limited view of the Rebel works when 
the fog had lifted. We were at the ''Stevens 
House" (or ''Deserted House," as we called it) where 
Ave placed our guns "In Battery" and here came 
Generals Grant and Meade with their staffs and 
viewed through held glasses the progress of the at- 
tack making bv Hancock on the Rebel works. For 
at half past four in the morning of Thursday, the 
12th, lie had moved from the Brown House, with 
irresistible onset capturing the Rebel salient in the 
centre of their line with nearly 4000 prisoners, 
thirty colors and 21) pieces of artillery The history 
of this event is most thrilling, but is too well known 
to need repetition here.* 

A few buildings stood near us, filled with 
wounded and a large number of prisoners. Among 
the wounded lay a lieutenant, shot through the 
body His wound was mortal, but his spirit was 
still up-borne with tire and enthusiasm at the grand 
charge of the morning. Raising himself on an el- 
bow, his eyes kindling with a wild light, he began 
to portray in glowing language the great charge. 
"We swept right over their works, and found them 
just drawing on their boots, and captured them 
without firing a shot. Some of them ran like sheep. 
I saw one captain capture five men and bring them 
off;" — and thus he continued, apparently regard- 
less that his life was departing with every syllable. 
His surgeons found it impossible to keep him quiet, 

* We < .- 1 1 1 1 1 < 1 1 refrain, however, from repeating a little incident that 
grew out of this event. Anions the prisoners taken were Generals 
Johnson and Stewart. The latter was an old army friend of Han- 
cock, who. upon observing him among the prisoners, cordially offered 
his hand to him, saying. "How are yen, Stewart V" The haughty 
Liebel refused it, saying, "I am (lainal Stewart of the Confederate 
Army, and under the circumstances I decline to take your hand."' 
To which Hancock immediately replied, "And under any other cir- 
cumstances. Ceneral, I should not have offered it." 

tor he was still carried away by the ecstasies <>t tri- 
umph, and while the spell was upon him, it extin- 
guished all suffering and thought of himself. 

The intention had been for us to have a part in 
the assault, but owing to various mischances, we 
were prevented from doing so, although in the tierce 
contest that took place for the possession of the sal- 
ient during the day we were under fire, exposed 
both to shells and bullets. During the forenoon, 
the prisoners, and a part of the captured artillery, 
defiled by us to the rear, under guard, and we, in 
common with hundreds of others not engaged in 
active duty at that moment, passed them in review. 
They were a good-looking set of men, notwithstandr 
ing the lagged and faded gray and butternut garb 
in which they were clad. Many of them seemed 
quite crestfallen at the handsome manner in which 
they had been "gobbled up," while others wore a 
stern and sullen expression, which meant war to 
the bitter end. 

The thunder now began to roll, and the rain 
poured in torrents; nevertheless, the fighting con- 
tinued with relentless vigor. Lee had resolved to 
retake, at whatever cost, the works so summarily 
wrested from him, and to this end made at least five 
desperate assaults on the position during the day, 
but each time was repulsed, with tremendous 
slaughter on both sides. It is now generally con- 
ceded to have been the fiercest struggle of the war. 
At times it was hand-to-hand warfare. Tt is a sin- 
gular fact in the history of this war, that the bayo- 
net was seldom used; but in this engagement a very 
large number of wounds were inflicted with that in- 
strument. At times, the standards of both armies 
were planted simultaneously on opposite sides of 
the breastwork. At midnight, after twenty hours 


continuous lighting, finding all his efforts to regain 
possession of the angle — now a ghastly trench of 
death — unavailing, Lee sullenly withdrew 

Our labors during the forenoon of this eventful 
day were trying in the extreme. We were inarched 
and countermarched up hill and down dale, through 
the rain and mire, taking position at the "Stevens 
House*' twice, but at rest only a brief time in any 
place At last our wanderings ceased, and our 
guns were ordered into the ravine just in rear 
of the point of heaviest righting, where we lav all 
the afternoon, exposed to stray shots. In tins place, 
one of the Fourth Detachment drivers — Edwin F 
Damrell — was hit by a spent ball, which made a 
slight abrasion of the skin over the heart. 

Columns of men, with fixed and somewhat jaded 
look, marched sternly up past us to the xevy front 
of the tempest. They were mainly from the Fifth 
< orps, which was now the right of the army, but 
from which two divisions were taken to support the 
Second and Sixth corps while they held the cap 
tared salient. Continuous lines of ambulances bore 
back the hundreds who were wounded in this day's 

Night at last set in, with the rain falling in in- 
creasing quantities, and most of us being without 
blankets, turned in upon the wet tarpaulins, lying 
on one half, and doubling the other half over us, 
and, being well exhausted with the fatigues of the 
past twenty-four hours, slept soundly; but the firing 
continued even after Lee's withdrawal at midnight, 
and the whistling of a bullet fell now and then on 
the ear of the wakeful. 

Morning of the 13th broke bright and clear, with 
comparative quiet in front. The Rebels having 
fallen back to an interior line of fortifications, our 


piece drivers were sent up to draw mil 1'roni behind 
the works such of the raptured artillery as had not 
been removed the day before. They returned with 
one gun and live caissons, and described the sight to 
be witnessed at and near the salient as beggaring 
all description. The slope in front of the salient 
had been carefully cleared of all material obstruc- 
tions by the enemy, and along this lay scattered 
many dead men, wearing the Union blue, whom a 
burial-party were rapidly consigning to soldiers' 
-laves. They lay thickest next the breastwork, 
where they had fallen lighting hand to hand. To 
the right lay the piece horses of Battery "( ' and T," 
which were shot as they were making a "left about" 
10 unliinber. Behind the works stood a heavv 
growth of hard wood, and just inside them was a 
vast trench from which the earth had been taken for 
their construction. This ditch, in places, was liter- 
ally tilled with the enemy's dead and wounded. 1 
went up with the drivers to get the guns and re- 
mained to look over the field. In the trench I saw 
the Kebels lying four deep, with some of the 
wounded at the bottom, now and then sending up 
the most agonizing shrieks of pain. A more horri- 
ble or heart-stirring sight seems scarcely conceiv- 
able. The dead lay in all kinds of attitudes as they 
fell, and the rain had added horror to their ghastli- 
ness. Xol far apart lay two dead Bebel colonels, 
;ind behind a log were six men, all of whom I 
thought dead, until I discovered the eves of one of 
them following me in my roaming. There he lay 
mute — until addressed — and motionless, three of 
his dead comrades pressing him on the one hand 
and two on the other. lie was wounded in three 
places, but made no signs of pain, feeling some- 
what interested in his case, I called for help, and, 


lifting' him out, laid him upon a blanket, hoping to 
get him into an ambulance; but upon seeking an 
ambulance sergeant, he said there was no present 
opportunity, as not all of our own wounded were vet 
cared for, but that the enemy's would be attended 
to as soon as possible.* 

So furiously did the tempest rage at the angle, so 
numerous were the bullets fired from either side, 
especially from the Union, that nearly all the trees 
standing within musket-range were killed by 
them/ and one sound oak, twenty-one inches in 
diameter, was absolutely cut off by bullets alone. 
A section of it may now be seen in the War Depart 
ment at "Washington, to which it was presented by 
<J-en. X A. Miles, who commanded a brigade of Bar- 
low's division in the charge. 

Xow came days of moving about, and changing 

"Xo mere general statement," savs Swinton, very 
truly, "can give any idea of the enormous amount 
of labor, suffering, and privation that befell the 
Iroops in these continual shifting* of the corps 
from point to point of the long line." 

The following extracts from a private diary detail 
our movements during the week succeeding the bat 
tie. They were by no means as onerous or varied 
as befell many of the organizations, — in fact, we 
got well rested, and prepared for a fresh start in 
these days. 

* What ln'iaine "f trim afterwards, of course, is not known. A 
more stoical case I never saw. He manifested no great warmth of 
desire to tret off the field, and displayed no disappointment after be- 
ing apprised that he could not he removed yet. He made no con- 
versation, only in answer to inquiries, and seemed perfectly recon- 
ciled to whatever Fate hail in store, evidently not expecting much 
consideration from the "Yanks." although not saying so. He was a 
member of the Twenty-first Mississippi Regiment. 

f Lossing, Yol. II. 


"Sal unlay, Mai/ 14. Moved to the right a little and took Posi- 
tion. Four oilier batteries on our right. Tlie breastworks thrown 
up by the Fourth New York Heavy Artillery. 

-Smi'laii. Man 1">. Eeft works at 3 A.M. Came three miles to 
largo house used as hospital (Harris Housei near army headquar- 
ters. Fay there all day and night with large part of Second 

"MoikIiu/, lii. Moved up across the road. "Went to 'Stevens 
House awhile in P.M. T.ack again at night. 

"Tncx'laii. 17. To 'Stevens House" again. Back again at night. 
Cu the move all nigtit, and 

'^Yrihicudaii. FS, brought up at 'Stevens House.' "Went into bat- 
tery on the hill near the house. Grant and Meade there. First 
Massachusetts Heavy Artillery came by. Left about noon, and 
came dowu by S i x I li Corps ambulance train. 

"Thursday, I'd. Left camp about!") and moved down the left to 
the Ny River. Fight in the evening on our right flank. "Were 
ordered out with pieces, but came back about 10 o'clock. First 
Massachusetts Heavy Artillery engaged." 

It will be seen by the above extracts that there 
were no movements made by us to the right beyond 
the "Stevens House," for the army was gradually 
swinging to the left. After the battle of the 
AYilderness, Culpepper was abandoned as a base of 
supplies and Fredericksburg opened. To this point 
were transported the wounded and prisoners of the 
recent contests. 

Our movement on the 15th was due to Hancock 
being directed to transfer the divisions of Gibbon 
and Barlow to the Fredericksburg road, and on the 
night of the 17th to be on hand in the attack Gen. 
Hancock had been ordered to make at daylight on 
Hie morning of the lstli, upon the intrenchments oc- 
cupied by the enemy in front of the captured line of 

Our move on the 19th was one in connection with 
Barlow's, Birney's, and Gibbon's divisions, which 

* It is sc.-irci'ly necessary to add that: our troops, after capturing 
n line of rifle-pits, were repulsed with considerable loss, the Rebels 
heinjj now so strongly intrenched. 


took post near Anderson's Mills on the Ny * Here 
orders were received to be in readiness to march at 
dark towards Bowling Green; and it was while 
preparations were making for this movement that 
the corps was called upon to aid in checking a bold 
dash against our right flank. Gen. Ewell, avIio was 
undoubtedly still smarting at Hancocks sudden 
swoop upon him on the 12th, wishing to redeem him- 
self, had passed around our right undiscovered, as 
it had been drawn in somewhat preparatory to the 
contemplated move, had seized the Fredericksburg 
road, and was possessing himself of an ammunition 
and subsistence train that was on the way to the 
army, when Gen. Tyler and his division of artillery- 
men/ who were holding this flank, assailed him 
and drove him into the woods. Their own loss was 
heavy, for raw troops never fight to the best advan- 
tage to themselves, but, nevertheless, they dis- 
played great pluck and audacity Troops coming 
up from the Second, Fifth, and Sixth cor] is charged 
through the woods, at 3 o'clock the following morn- 
ing, striking the rear of E well's column and captur- 
ing about, four hundred prisoners, besides picking 
up many dead and wounded. It was a bold move 
for the Ikcbels, but evidently not a profitable one. 

During this week, when on our way to take posi- 
tion at some point in the line, orders came to turn 
in two of our guns. The fact that all the batteries 
were to be thus reduced mollified our feelings some- 

* "Owing in the losses in action ami tin- expiration of tlic term of 
service of many regiments of Mott's division (4th), it had heroine so 
reduced in numbers that I issued an order on the l-'ttli of May con- 
solidating it into a brigade, and assigning it to Birney'.s division." — ■ 
Hancock's Official Itijiml. 

t "On the 17th Tyler's division of Heavy Artillery, Brig. (Jen. 
R. O. Tyler commanding, and the Corcoran Legion (Infantry), joined 
the Second Corps, making in all a reinforcement of eight thousand 
iS.f.Kll.ll men.'" — Hancocl;'* Official Hip/nt. 

212 Tin; tkxtii massac'iu'siotts battery 

what. In accordance with the order, the guns of 
the centre section were ordered to the rear, and 
for the next Ave months we were a four instead of a 
six-gun battery. 

Friday. May 20, was a quiet day with us, nothing 
occurring to break the reigning quiet except the 
arrival of a mail — the first since we left Stevens- 
burg. It opened to us once more the outer world. 
We eagerly scanned the Boston papers to ascertain 
what had really been accomplished in the campaign 
and read with some amusement, not wholly unmin- 
gled with disgust, that Lee's army was "utterly 
routed and fleeing in eonfusiou" which, like so much 
of the trash published by the papers during the 
war, would have been decidedly "important if true." 

But now came orders to be in readiness for an- 
other move. 



May 10. Emerson B. Mullett killed by shell 
through groin. Augustus 0. White wounded in the 
leg by shell and sent to hospital. John T Good- 
win slight wound in leg. Two horses killed and 
two wounded. 

May 11. One horse slightly wounded. 

May 12. Edwin F Damrell slightly wounded in 
breast by spent ball. 

Mav 13. One horse slightly wounded. 

May l.~i. One horse abandoned — worn out. 

May 17 Turned in at Pratt's Landing two 
horses and two pieces complete. Lieut. W G. Rol- 
lins, Serg't (I. M. Townsend, (J. B. Nichols, E. J. Wil- 
son, Devereaux, Sawyer, L. Hunt sent with pieces. 

May lit. One officer and seven enlisted men re- 
turned from Pratt's Landinc. 



May .!<> to June 1, 1S6.). 





It had become evident that Lee's position was now 
so strong, all attempts to force 1 him from it by direct 
assault would be simple madness. .Accordingly a 
new movement to the left flank was begun, in which 
the Second Corps, preceded by Torbert s cavalry, 
leel off. The movement began on the 1 evening of 
May 20, under cover of darkness. The Battery broke 
park about 12 P.M. and joined Tyler's heavy artiller- 
ists. Our march was along the road to Fredericks- 
burg in an easterly direction until we reached Mas- 
saponax Church, where- a turn was made to the. 

The fact that our course took us easterly maele 
the croakers happy "We are now surely with- 
drawing," they said, "and active campaigning is 
over for tin 1 present;" but our sudden and positive 
change of direction to the south was very saddening 
to these theorizers, who were 1 ever presaging ill 
upon the slightest provocation. 

The First Massachusetts Regiment, whose time 
had expired, and who were now on their way home- 
ward, marched along with us, rejoicing at the pros- 
pect of the happiness the near future had in store 
for them 


Once under way, we kept the road all right, and 
■when morning came, no time was allowed us for rest 
or coffee. We were bent on another flank move- 
ment, and success was contingent on dispatch. Our 
route lay through a tine section of country, which 
showed none of the war scars of the territory left 

"Here were fields with sprouting wheat and growing corn and 
luxuriant clover; lowing herds, and the perfume of blossoms. 
and the song of summer birds; homesteads of the Virginia 
planter (everything on a large and generous scale i. and great 
ancestral elms, dating back to the time before our forefathers 
learned to be Itebels. Coming, as the army so lately did. from 
where the tread of hostile feet for three years had made the 
country bare and barren as a threshing-floor, the region through 
which it now passed seemed a very Araby the Blest." * 

The barns and sheds were filled with tobacco in 
various stages of curing, to which lovers of the weed 
freely helped themselves. 

A short halt was made at (luiney's Station; then, 
pressing on, we arrived at Bowling (Jreen about 
noon, thirsty and dusty This is a small settle- 
ment, forty-five miles north of Richmond, having in 
IStiO a white population of 287 There was not an 
able-bodied white man to be seen, but women, chil- 
dren, and negroes abounded. Some of the women 
were communicative, yet seemingly so only to give 
utterance to sentiments of the most intense disloy- 
alty "You'll be coming back over these roads 
quicker than you are going now " "Are you going 
'On to 'Rk-limoiulT " "You'll all lay your bones in 
the ground before you get a sight of it," — were 
mild specimens of the remarks with which they 
cheered us on in their most withering manner. 

But we make brief pause here, and about 4 
o'clock reach Milford Station, on the Richmond and 

* Army of Ihr I'otomtir. Hiriittoit. 


Fredericksburg Railroad. Through this small set- 
tlement flows the Mat River, crossed by a bridge 
which was held by a Rebel force under one Kem- 
per, who happened to be on his way from Richmond 
to join Lee Ilim and his force our cavalry had dis- 
lodged by skilful tactics, and had captured sixty-six 
prisoners before our arrival. Having crossed the 
bridge and advanced about a mile, line of battle was 
formed, and the corps bivouacked for the night. 
Our lot was cast in a luxuriant wheat-field. As the 
enemy was not far away,* a line of earthworks was 
thrown up for our defence in case of a sudden at- 

The next day (May '22) was the Sabbath, and was 
spent by us in ipiiet waiting for the rest of the army 
to conic up within supporting distance; but at 7 
o clock, Monday morning, Ave renewed our inarch 
southward, past Karmel Church, striking the Xorth 
Anna river just at dusk, at a point where the rail- 
road above mentioned crosses it. Finding several 
iiatteries already in park here, Ave at once concluded 
that our services were not to be called for imme- 
diately, but Avere soon disarmed of this notion by 
being ordered up to take position on the north bank 
of the river. Leaving the caissons behind, the 
pieces passed up a road winding through the woods, 
and unlimbered on high ground overlooking the 
river. Rattorv K took position on our left, and the 
First New Hampshire on our right. \ line of red 
earth, across the front of a small opening in the 
woods opposite, marked the enemy's position, be- 
hind Avhich men were digging most industriously. 
We soon descried in the duskiness now approaching 
that they were putting in a battery, an enterprise in 
which our warmest concern became immediate] v en- 

* Ejugstreet's corps. 


But our approach had not been unknown to the 
enemy, for we speedily became an object of interest 
to Bebel sharpshooters. Our zeal needed no fur- 
ther invoking, and we opened tire with a will. At 
the second discharge a mass of tire, smoke and frag- 
ments was seen to shoot heavenward behind the en- 
emy's lines. We had exploded a limber chest for 
them, and a ringing cheer went up from our lungs, 
to tell them how badly we felt about it. For a few 
minutes silence reigned in that locality, and it was 
rather amusing to see the fugitives from the spot 
returning, first a head, then the body attached to it, 
cautiously reappearing from the bushes. They 
were not daunted, however, by this small earth- 
quake, but, changing to a less exposed position, 
gave us a taste of their metal. A piece of one of 
their shells entered the Third Detachment sponge- 
bucket. But we were too many guns for them, and 
soon compelled them to move on to a more favored 
location, as they hoped. From this they resumed 
their tire till they were finally driven. 

The annoyance Ave were beginning to undergo 
from their sharpshooters was of brief duration, for 
the First New Hampshire batterymen, turning 
their exclusive attention upon the pines from which 
these marksmen were doing their work, with shell 
and canister soon drove them from the field. 

Not long after this, there came from down the 
river the roar of musketry and cheering of soldiery 
It was Pierce's and Egan's brigades of Birney s di- 
vision, charging across an open plain to capture a 
lflc-(lc-i>onl held by the enemy, and covering the ap- 
proach to the "County Bridge" above Chesterfield, a 
wooden structure spanning the river at this point. 
This bridge-head was held by a part of McLaw s 
division of Longstreefs corps, which tied precipi- 


tately to join their main body on the other bank, as 
onr line, advancing at a double-quick, began to close 
around them. But thirty of them were captured in 
the redan, and the road was thus cleared to the 
bridge, with a loss on our side of less than one hun- 
dred and fifty While this charge was in progress 
we shelled at random over the woods into the en- 
emy's lines beyond the river, trusting to chance for 
our missiles to afford any aid. 

During the night, the Rebels made futile efforts 
to burn the bridge, but the dawn showed that they 
had fallen back from the river at this part of the 
line. In the evening we were relieved by Burnside's 
batteries, and drawing out went into park. We were 
aroused at half-past one the following morning to 
be in readiness, as we supposed, for an early attack, 
but made no movement until daylight. We then 
took position at tlie extreme left of our line, or 
nearly so, on commanding ground, and there threw 
up earth-works again; but we had no occasion to 
use them, for we lay inactive most of the day Our 
corps was crossing the river upon the bridge, and 
the only hostile demonstration attracting our atten- 
tion, meanwhile, was a Rebel battery some distance 
up the river, which iired at short intervals during 
the whole day although in doing so it invariably 
drew upon itself a concentrated lire from several 
of our batteries which had it in tolerably fair 
range. Its persistence against such odds became 
explicable when, about sundown, it came our turn 
to cross. To us on that wooden bridge suspended 
fifty feet above the river, compelled to walk at a slow 
pace, and even then swaying the frail structure con- 
siderably, the air seemed thick with Rebel shell and 
ball, and we seemed an age in crossing. That bat- 
tery, from a well-chosen position, and protected by 

:4S Tin: tenth MAssAcnrsinTs battery 


elaborate works, was closely watching the bridge, 
and whenever a body of troops attempted 1o cross, 
ir opened briskly upon them, evidently hoping and 
striving to strike tlie bridge thus encumbered, in a 
vital spot, and thereby perform a double service. It 
may have been in their minds, should any catas- 
trophe betide the bridge, to fall upon that portion 
of the corps already across. But this structure was 
destined to serve the T T nion cause to the full; and 
although those Rebel guns were posted not above 
six hundred yards up river from it, and were served 
at short intervals during the entire day, they never 
once struck it, and the only casualties were the 
wounding of two men. We can do no less, however, 
than pay a tribute of admiration to the cannoneers 
of those guns, who stood so steadfastly by them de- 
spite the hot tire poured in upon them by three of 
our batteries, though we must condemn them for 
poor shooting, as, at their distance, the bridge 
should have been destroyed with one-tenth the 
amount of ammunition they expended. 

Having got safely across, affairs wore a storm v 
aspect. We lay perhaps half a mile from the river 
near a brick house, awaiting orders. A part of the 
corps was engaging the enemy, with what result 
Ave could not then determine. We were in just the 
position to receive the enemy's shells, which every 
now and then dropped or exploded uncomfortably 
near. Soon a line of infantry was rapidly deployed 
near us, and some of them began to fortify, in mo- 
mentary expectation of an attack. Just at this 
time, the clouds having been gathering blackness, 
discharged their contents, and the combatants were 
drenched in a torrent of rain. This seemed to cool 
their ardor, and the fighting ceased. 

We lay here all night. The next day wo were 


sent down to the left to relieve Ricketts Battery. 
Meanwhile we could not fail to notice that matters 
did not seem to be working satisfactorily Anxiety 
was perceptible on the faces of nil general officers, 
and was further betrayed by the frequent march- 
ings and counter-marchings from point to point. 
The cause of all this uneasiness seems to have been 
due to the position occupied by the army with re- 
spect to the enemy, which was substantially as fol- 
Ioavs: — (Jen. Warren's Fifth Corps had crossed the 
river at Jericho Ford, four miles above us, without 
opposition, and, having advanced some distance, re- 
pelled an assault from Hill's corps and established 
his lines, correspondingly forcing back Lee's left. 
By reason of the advance of the Second Corps across 
the river. Leo drew back his right to cover Hanover 
Junction, still clinging with his centre to the river. 
His army was thus in the form of a 'V, the apex rest- 
ing on the river. Thus situated, he could promptly 
reinforce any portion of his line that was threat- 
ened. When, therefore, Burnside attempted to cross 
at a point midway between Hancock and Warren, 
he was repulsed. The situation was now a critical 
one, for Lee's position was not onlv invulnerable, 
but by rapid concentration he could fall upon either 
of our flanks before assistance could reach it. This 
was sufficient cause for the anxiety that was so uni- 
versal. Nothing, we now believe, but Lee s inferior 
force could have prevented him from executing this 

We spent all of Wednesday and Thursday, the 
25th and 2Uth, here, and in the evening of the lat- 
ter, at 10 o Clock, recrossed the river, on a pontoon 
constructed below the bridge, going into camp in 
breastworks near the captured redan. We were 
preparing for another move, for Grant, having de- 


cided tliat. Lee could not be forced from this posi- 
tion, concluded to flank him again. In this opera- 
tion, the Second Corps was to cover the rear, and so 
held position on the north side of the river until 
morning of the 27th, when it, loo, moved off, the 
Tenth breaking park about 10 o clock.* 

The County Bridge had been imperfectly de- 
stroyed under the fire of skirmishers by Piracy's Di- 
vision. Afterwards, some of (Jen. Tyler's heavy ar- 
tillerymen were sent back and completed its de- 
struction before the corps left. 

Our line of march now took us in a course nearly 
eastward, for the turning of the enemy's flank anew 
necessitated quite an extended detour for several 
reasons: first, that our destination should not be un- 
masked too soon; second, that the enemy should not 
assail our flank on the march; and third, because of 
the nature of the country. Our course Anally lay 
towards the Pamunkey. This river is formed by the 
confluence of the North and South Anna rivers. Fur- 
ther down, I lie Pamunkey unites with the Matta- 
pony to form the York River. On the latter is a set- 
tlement known as White House. It had been used 
by McOlellan as a base of supplies in the Peninsula 
Campaign and was selected as our next base of sup- 
plies, Port Royal on the Rappahannock, which had 
been serving that purpose, being now abandoned. 

We traversed about thirteen miles of country this 
day, unmolested, bivouacking at night at a place 
four miles south of "Concord Church." Six o'clock 
of the next morning (Saturday, May 2.x) saw us 
again in motion, and an advance of ten miles 
brought us to the ferry. "r 

* As we lay here, .1 random Rebel shell dropped among the thirty- 
sixth Wisconsin regiment that lay in rear of us, killing one man and 
wounding three others. 

f"()n May I'S, ; it 7 A.M., the Second Corps crossed the Pamunkey 


Here we came upon the wagon train of the Sixth 
Corps, which had just crossed. At 1 o'clock we 
went over the pontoon. There was some fighting in 
progress ahead, and now and then a stray Rebel 
shell exploded in the neighborhood. On coming to 
higher ground, not far from the river, we took posi- 
tion, covering the road with the pieces, threw up 
earthworks, and passed the night there. 

At this time the exact position of Lee's army Avas 
not definitely kmnvn, and Sunday we advanced our 
line to the right and front somewhat — again erect 
ing breastworks — and lay there all night. 

Monday morning, May 30, we moved forward 
about four miles through the woods, advancing in 
part by means of a road cut by the pioneers. This 
forward movement was one in which all the corps 
participated, and was made with a view of develop- 
ing the Rebel position. Our inarch was directed 
from llawos Shop, or Store, towards Hanover Court 
House.* Ilawes Shop was an important junction 
of several roads, and was contended for most man- 
fully on the listh instant by three brigades of Union 
cavalry, under Sheridan, pitted against that of the 
enemy commanded by Fitz-Hugh Lee and Wade 
Hampton, with the result in our favor. 

The scarred trees and Rebel dead thai lay yet 1111- 
buried along our path attested in some degree the 
severity of the fighting."^ 

There had been some skirmishing as our column 
advanced, and about four miles from its starting- 

ac Holmes s Kerry, four miles above Hanovertown." — litmrx: Hixtorii 
of llir I'hiluilelpliid Jirii/uili'. 

This eiosshiff-plaee 1 conclude to lie the one laid down on the gov- 
ernment mail as prison's I'rny. as there is no oilier at that distance 
above Hanovertown. 

* Gen. Mfinlc's order of May '_".). 

f The Union loss in this battle was upwards of four hundred men, 
that of the enemy nearly twice as many. 

titk Ti.vnr MAssAi'insiri rs battkky 

point a luilt was ordered, and the prospects indi- 
cated trouble ahead; which was indeed the rase, for 
the enemy was found strongly posted on the south 
bank of Tolopotomoy Creek, an affluent of the Pa- 
uiunkey It was high noon when an order came 
sending us to the front; and moving by a road newly 

cut through the trees, 
marked by rough guide 
boards directing to the 
different divisions, we 
finally emerged in a 
cornfield on what was 
known as Jones Farm.* 
The rattle of musketry 
and occasional boom of 
cannon farther to the 
right showed that the 
deadly business had be- 
gun in earnest, and the 
whizzing of stray bullets 
warned us of our near- 
ness to the picket line.t 
Before we had completed 
our customary redoubts, 
Gen. (ribbon ordered the 
right section forward to 
an advanced position. It 
was placet] behind a low earthwork — a mere rifle- 
pit already thrown up which afforded little protec- 
tion for the men — in the edge of some pines; and as 

* W Jones. — MichlriH Army Mop. 

f A singular incident happened this day on the line of the First Di- 
sision. This line ran through the yard of the "Sheldon House," and 
behind it were several pins in position exchanging shots with the 
enemy's batteries. In the house were several ladies who had refused 
to leave notwithstanding the danger, and had taken refuge in the 
cellar, having with them a negress. When the tire of the artillery 
was apparently the hottest, this latter personage, becoming delirious 
from fright, took up a shovelful of live coals from the hearth, and, 



there was underbrush just outside the works which 
obstructed the aini of the gunners, at the command 
of Capt. Sleeper three of the cannoneers leaped over 
to cut it awav; but just as they were completing this 
task an explosive bullet from a Rebel sharpshooter 
laid one of them low, mortally wounded. It was 
Hosea O. Barnes, Number Three man on the Third 
piece. One of his companions* lifted him up and 
bore him into the breastworks, but he was rapidly 
entering the valley of shadows. "I am about gone," 
were the last words that passed his lips. Shrouded 
in his shelter tent he was laid in a grave dug near 
by, and the spot marked by a hastily carved board 
placed at his head. His death east a deep gloom 
over the Company, for his many good qualities as a 
soldier, notably his genial temperament and good- 
humor, had made him a general favorite. t 

During the rest of the day the men lay pretty 
close, now and then tiring a few shells whenever the 
enemy showed themselves in numbers. Under the 
cover of darkness the left section was brought up 
and put into position in the clearing at the right of 
the right section, and during the night Tyler's 
heavy artillerists threw up a strong line of breast 

lushing out, threw them into an open limber and then rushed speedily 
back into the himsc Tin- ammunition exploded, killing two men 
and terribly burned the faces ami eyes of one or two more, while the 
negross escaped uninjured, though greatly terrified at the deed she 
had done. — From the Diary of a Stuff <)ffia r 

* William K. Endicott. 

i "Seme of the wounded artillerymen were struck with barbarous 
missiles called explosive bullets. These messengers of death were of 
a conical shape and contained a. small copper shell arranged on the 
principle of a fuse and calculated to explode a short time after it had 
left the rifle. One of these entered the breast of an artilleryman be- 
longing to a battery which the brigade was supporting, and the man 
had scarcely cried out to a comrade "I am shot!' before the murderous 
ball exploded in his body producing terrible laceration.'' — Jiaitcx: 
History of the Philadelphia Brigade. 

This extract is made from the chapter on North A.nna, but seemed 
so similar a case that I thought it of sufficient interest to insert here. 


works, along the crest of which we seal tercel green 
brush as a screen from sharpshooters. This done, 
there remained for ns but three or four hours in 
which to sleep, ere the battle which we expected to 
usher in the morning should summon us to posts. 

Soon after (> o'clock of Tuesday, May 31, we com- 
menced tiring and continued it in a desultory man- 
ner all the forenoon, and he who was so careless or 
reckless as to show his head above the works was 
greeted with minies. Tolopotonioy Creek was 
about midway between us and the enemy. Their 
main line was not visible directly in our front, be- 
ing screened by woods; but a little to our right front 
it came into plain view, at a distance, we now 
judge, of less than a thousand yards. We spent the 
afternoon in shelling the enemy's lines at intervals. 
Heavy firing came up from the left a long distauce 
away This we now know to have been the attack 
made upon Warren's corps, near Bethesda Church, 
by Ewell, who was attempting to turn his left. To 
relieve this pressure upon Warren, Gen. Meade or- 
dered an attack along the whole line. The order 
was not received in time to be acted upon by all the 
corps commanders; but Hancock received it, and 
with commendable and characteristic promptness 
sent in Barlow s division, which drove the enemy's 
skirmishers, captured their rifle-pits, and held them 
all night in spite of a midnight attempt to retake 

Next day (June 1st) we had little to do but watch 
the picket lines, till noon. The Rebel pickets 
charged down and drove our men from the pits cap- 
tured by them the day before. Our line then rallied 
and pressed them np the hill again, onlv to give 
way before a stronger wave of the enemy. It was 
quite exciting to watch the swaying to and fro of 


the respective lines, and when we were sure which 
was which, we sent a shell or two along to turn the 
scale; but no decisive results followed this fighting. 
It was a useless expenditure of life. 

In the afternoon a Rebel battery opened in the 
main line. They seemed interested in firing at 
something down to the left of us, and it become our 
duty — a pleasant one — to keep them quiet. Our 
guns had an enfilading fire upon them. A puff of 
smoke from them was the signal for four from us, 
rapidly repeated until the desired end was accom- 

Just before night there were heavy movements of 
troops to the right and left, brisk cannonading, and 
general activity, and after dark orders came for us 
to "limber up'* and move out as quietly as possible. 



May 21. Serg't Townsend, Artif. Stowell, Serg't 
C. Gould, Farrier Bruce, and 12 men with Caissons 
and B. W (Battery Wagon?) in Ammunition Train. 

May 25. Willard Y Gross appointed Artificer 
by General Orders No. — Hd'qVs 10th Battery vice 
David R. Stowell reduced to the ranks. William 
Herring appointed Stable Sergeant vice Asa L. 
Gowell reduced to the ranks. 

May 2(i. Elbridge I). Thresher appointed Far- 
rier vice C. E. Bruce returned to the ranks. Corporal 
Beck sent to caissons in train. One horse worn out 
and abandoned. 

May 27 Jonas W Strout and John M. Ramsdell 
missing. One horse abandoned — worn out. 



May 2S. Strout returned for duty One horse 
worn out and abandoned. Battery \Vai:on returned 
with one sergeant and six men. 

May 2!>. John Banisdell returned. 

May .'!(). Ilosea < ). Barnes struck in bowels and 
killed by sliarphooters, Jones' Farm, Ya. 




■tunc 1-1.2. ISH). 




"Early on the night of the 1st." |says Hancock, in his official 
report.] "I commenced withdrawing my corps in obedience to 
instructions from the Major General commanding. My orders re- 
quired me to mass near army headquarters, hut were afterwards 
changed, and I was directed to make every effort 1" reach Cold 
Ilarlior as early as possible to reinforce Wright's (Sixth Corps) 
left. Every exertion was made; but the niuht was dark, the 
heat and dust oppressive, and the roads unknown. Still we 
should have reached Cold Harbor in irood season; but Capt. 
Paine, topographical engineer, who had been ordered to report 
to me to Liuide my column, unfortunately took one of my divi- 
sions by a short cut' where artillery could not follow, which 
threw my column into confusion. The head of my column 

reached Cold Harbor at i',.:;u A. M.. June :!d, but in such an 
exhausted condition that a little time was allowed the men to 
close up and to conk their rations. (The attack ordered for the 
nicii'iunj;' was postponed until '< P. M.)" 

It may be desirable at this point to explain in 
brief the cause of this iioaa' movement. (Jen. Grant, 
thinking that the attempt to force a passage across 
the Chiekahominy, Avhere the two opposing armies 
then lay, had little promise of success, deemed it ad- 
visable to extend his line to the left, and endeavor 
to pass the river lower down by a movement to 
Cold Harbor. This latter place was the point of 
convergence of several roads from Richmond, White 
House (the neAv base of supplies), and other places. 

iT)«S THi-; tkxtii massaciusktts ratti:kv 

The Sixth Corps, having inarched around from the 
right of our line, was joined by a force from Ber- 
muda Hundred, under Gen. \Y F (Bahly) Smith, 
and after a severe contest with the enemy, whom 
they found already confronting them, succeeded in 
taking and holding this important strategic posi- 
tion. To support his advanced column, then, was 
the prime object of our movement by the left flank. 
In common Avith the whole corps, we left our posi- 
tion on the evening of June 1st, and fell into column 
in rear of the Third Brigade, Second Division. Of 
course we were unapprised of our destination, but 
had come to believe that the inception of a move in 
any other direction than by the left flank was not to 
be thought of; judging both from experience and be- 
cause that way Richmond lay During the night, 
owing, undoubtedly, to the confusion which (leu. 
Hancock mentions, the Battery got separated, and 
did not reunite until sunrise. At that time we pre- 
sented a picture truly interesting to the beholder. 
The corps commander has hardly done the night 
justice in his brief description of it. It ica* "hot 
and dusty," and a more veritable set of Graybaeks, 
to the eye, than we were, could not be found outside 
the Rebel lines. We had made a forced march to 
be in season for an early attack, but were late for 
the reasons given. Several of our horses gave out 
on the road, so hardlv were they urged. When Ave 
halted for breakfast Ave could find barely Avater 
enough for coffee, and sticky and grimy as Ave were, 
must needs forego the outside purifying Ave Avere so 
sorely in need of; but our dipper of coffee and slice 
of fresh meat, broiled on the coals, eaten with hard- 
tack accompaniment, refreshed us to some extent. 
Then followed a tedious period of lying aAvaiting or- 
ders, for Ave had parked on a plain, once a corn-field, 



not far from the cross-roads, and lay there in the 
dust under a burning' sun, not knowing what the 
next move was to be. Orders came at last, and 
moving to the front, we relieved Hexamer's New 
Jersey Battery from lunettes they had thrown up on 
the brow of a slight rise of land. In this position the 
muzzles of their guns were barely above the level 
of the plain in their front. Y\ 'hile moving out uu- 


tier fire to give us the place, they lost three men and 
some horses. Nor did the enemy forget us as we 
unlimbered and got into place, though fortunately 
inflicting no injury It became less interesting to 
them, however, when our guns opened, which they 
soon did; and not long after, their firing ceased. 
During the afternoon a shower came up, which was 
wonderfully refreshing; and heavy bodies of troops 
were moving from point to point, all signs betoken- 


ing a battle imminent; bnt it was not to occur this 
day * 

Just at. dusk (leu. Gibbon rode up to ('apt. Sleeper 
and delivered his orders in person. "Captain, as 
soon as it is dark you will move your battery into 
those works directly in your front, your right piece 
resting on that large tree;" at the same time point 
ing to a stalwart oak some twenty rods in our 
front. "But, General/" expostulated the Captain, 
•J shall be exposed to batteries in the rear firing 
over mine." "Obey your orders, Captain," re- 
joined the General, and rode away 

The works referred to were nothing more than a 
rifle-pit that had been hastily thrown up by our 
forces the day before, and under cover of darkness 
our detachment of heavy artillerymen strengthened 
them, so that when we took possession later they 
seemed quite tenable. But we were becoming 
adepts in the construction of earthworks ourselves 
and at once set about strengthening the line yet 
more by building higher, erecting traverses be- 
tween pieces, and sinking pits for the limber-chests, 
as a safeguard against the enemy's artillery 
Screens of bushes were likewise provided wherever 
they would screen cannoneers from sharpshooters. 
Everything being thus prepared, the guns and lim- 
bers were moved into their respective positions, af- 
ter which tiie horses were unhitched and taken to 
the rear. This looked as if we had come to stay We 
did not then know that Grant had determined to 
force the enemy's lines in this position at whatever 
cost. We feel sure, however, that our escape from 
casualties of any kind, in the brief but terrible 
storm of missiles soon after hurled in this direction, 

* At 2.40 r.M. I rercived an order further postponing the assault 
till 4.:;o A.M., June- :M. — Htnirnrk's Official Jlt-port. 



was mainly due to the care we had bestowed on our 
defences, which faithfully shielded us and enabled 
us to work with greater efficiency against the en- 

By 1 (/clock, A.M. of the 3d our preparations were 
complete, and although the rain was pattering in fit- 
ful showers, we lay down to get a little rest before 
the tumult of battle the morning had in store 
should be inaugurated. 

Day came at last, but somewhat cloudy and 
foggy. Our corps occupied the left of the Union 


line, with Gibbon on the right, Barlow on the left, 
and Birney in reserve. We were located in Gib- 
bon's line. A few minutes after the time specified 
for the attack (4.30) a staff officer rode up from Gen. 
Gibbon and ordered our right piece to be fired as a 


signal »'iin. Then was there indeed a veritable tem- 
pest. At once it was responded »<> l>y the entire 
line, and by the Kebels as well, who seemed to have 
been anticipating it. It had the fury of the Wilder- 
ness musketry, with the thunders of the Gettysburg 
artillery superadded. It was simply terrific. The 
fire of our Battery is directed upon some guns 
nearly opposite, of which we soon succeed in get- 
ting accurate range, and shell them most prodigally 
But this is no one-sided game, for it or some other 
battery soon gets us in range, now throwing a shot 
into the bank of earth before us, and now exploding 
a shell at just the right distance to sweep the frag- 
ments across our guns. The Fourth Detachment 
piece is struck twice by them. Its No. 7 man, John 
Bradley, has a "close call" made for him bv a shot 
which, just scaling the works, strikes the edge of 
the pit in which he crouches when not carrying am- 
munition, covers him with the loose earth, whirls 
his overcoat away, and sends his canteen flying into 
the ranks of a neighboring regiment.* "Why don't 
you get up, John?" some one asks; and he convulses 
us by responding from the depths of his safety pit, 
l Tm waiting for that thing to bust," not being 
aware that it had ricochetted. 

The enemy's good shooting only served to make 
us the more earnest, causing us to ply the guns with 
greater activity; and ultimately we compelled the 
battery against which the most of our energy had 
been directed to shift its position. In this engage- 
ment we expended all our own ammunition, to- 
gether with a large portion of the supply furnished 

* Tlio following entry was made in his diary, at (lit' close of this 
day. liy a "spare man" in t ho Fourth Detachment: 

"It seems to-day as though II— 11 had broke loose. The fighting is 
harder than ever. Shot and shell are Hying around my head at a 
tearful rate. Two caissons blown up." 


us by another battery that had not been engaged. 
We continued shelling, more or less actively, all the 
forenoon, and a heavy picket firing on our side, met 
by a correspondingly heavy one from the enemy, 
kept the air hissing with bullets; but the main bat- 
tle, the serious fighting of the day, was over in ten 
minutes. At the signal there was an advance, a 
crash of arms, and a sullen falling back; for the im- 
pregnable works by which our men were con- 
fronted, and the hot lire, direct and enfilading, to 
which they were subjected, were irresistible. Bar- 
low gained a temporary advantage, taking several 
hundred prisoners, a color, and three guns, but not 
being promptly supported, was forced back; not, 
however, to his original position, but to one about 
fifty .vards from the enemy, where his troops soon 
covered themselves. < fibbon's men, too, under ob- 
stacles, advanced to the enemy s works, and a few 
entered them, but that was all. They were cut 
down mercilessly Five colonels of this division 
were killed, and one general (Tyler) wounded. In 
less than an hour the Second Corps lost more than 
three thousand men. Gibbon's troops, like Barlow's 
gained a position far in advance of the one they 
started from, and close to the enemy * The story of 
the Second Corps is the story of the Sixth and 
Eighteenth that assaulted at the same time. They 
were repulsed most disastrously at every point.t 

* "Hancock's corps, the only portion of the Yankee army that had 
come in contact with the Confederate works, had been hurled back 
in a storm of fire." — Third ) car of the War. h'dward A. Pollard. 

■\ The following statement is made by Mr. Swinton on p. 487, "Army 
of the Potomac," and has been adopted by many subsequent writers. 
"Harper's Pictorial History of the Rebellion" discredits it. Others 
have denied it. 

"Some hours after the failure of the first assault, Gen. Meade sent 
instructions to each corps commander to renew the attack. 
But no man stirred, and the immobile lines pronounced a verdict, si- 
lent yet emphatic, against further slaughter." 


During the afternoon we fired only at long inter- 
\als, lying pretty low, meanwhile, as a mark of re- 
spect to the enemy s sharpsl teis. Put now came 

a minor that Ave were again to change position. 
This of course did not suit us for, having been ex- 
posed in this place to the heaviest fire we had yet 
experienced, without a man being scratched, we 
thought it a good situation to retain a while longer. 
Before the rumor received definiteness night came 
on, and we lay down by the guns, well wearied with 
the labors and vigils of the past three days. 

Then ensued one of those scenes, so familiar af- 
terwards in the trenches before Petersburg, but 
novel to us now, — a night attack by the enemy 
The first drowsiness was just creeping on, when a 
sound broke out in front that brought us instantly 
to our feet. As a shower ofttimes comes on, first bv 
a few pattering drops, and then gradually increas- 
ing, swells into one continuous roar, so this came 
on; opening with scattering shots from a few pick- 
ets, joined immediately by the whole picket line of 
each army, then by their respective lines of battle 
Such a circumstance occurring to one in his waking 
moments, has little of the soothing quality to recom- 
mend it; but when flashed upon a man well-nigh 
asleep, who does not know but what the enemv are 
at that moment about to sweep over the works in 
his very front, it is decidedly demoralizing to the 
strongest nerves. Superadded to the din of arms, 
and rising distinctlv above it, is heard the wild 
"IIP Hi! Hi!" the historic Pebel yell. The most of 
the firing seems to be at our left, where the ad- 
vanced positions gained in the charge of the morn 
ing left our lines close to those of the enemy At 
once we bring our guns to bo;ir and open fire on the 
flash of the Rebel guns. Canister is brought and 

l f5" 


laid near by, for closer work if necessary The 
scene is one of wild, magnificence. The flash of the 
guns momentarily rends the pitchy blackness of 
night, and reveals powder-begrimed men springing 
to their work. Over us scream shells from bat- 
teries in our rear, while those from the enemy are 
bursting on every side. Pandemonium seems tame 
in comparison. What the outcome of it all is to be, 
we cannot conjecture; but at last the crash of small 
arms diminishes, batteries cease firing, and soon all 
sounds die away Then rises a deafening cheer 
which passes the entire length of our line, a token 
that the attack has been repulsed. 

Again we lie down, and again the same uproar 
breaks out, and the same wild scene is re-enacted, 
resulting, as before, in the repulse of the enemy 
During the fusillade not a man in the Company has 
been hit, and although several tons of lead and iron 
have changed sides, the total loss is insignificant.* 

A third attempt to slumber is crowned with suc- 

* I append I lie following extracts touching these night attacks, and 
leave the reader to draw his own conclusions. I may add that the 
author of the first is unusually candid and reliable for one on his side. 

'"The only change made in the Southern line after the battle was 

the withdrawal of Rreckcnridgo s ti ps from the salient they had 

lost and regained. The line was straightened, and this weak point 
removed. When this was accomplished, Breckeuridge, about '.) o'clock 
that night, advanced his skirmish line to its original position. Imme- 
diately the enemy drove it in, at the same time making an effort to 
carry the line of battle. They wen 1 promptly repulsed. An attack 
was then made on Hoke s line with a like result. The firing then 
ceased for the night." — MrCabe: Lip and Campaigns of Gin. Robert 
A'. Lev. 

1'er contra. 

"A little before dark it was evident from the commotion among the 
Confederates in front of the Philadelphia Brigade, and of the bri- 
gades on the right and left, that an assault was in preparation, Soon 
the commands of their officers were heard, then the well-known yell, 
and a rush for our line. Xow came our turn, but we had not the 
advantage of strong earthworks. The men rose in their places, and 
poured in heavy volleys of musketry, and for a few moments there 
was a struggle as severe as in tin' morning, extending along the en- 
tire front of Hancock and Wright. It was soon over; some of the 


cess, but we are astir at the first streaks of dawn on 
the morning of June 4th, and are ordered into the 
advanced position at our left front that rumor had 

This post was a little knoll, about a quarter of a 
mile distant in an angle of the works where they 
swung off to the left. We remember having gone 
into this advanced position under protest, feeling 
that for so close range a battery of twelve-pound 
Napoleons could better serve the country; but the 
Fates, /. e. Gen. Gibbon, ordered otherwise, and we 
had the rather grim satisfaction of knowing that 
the Tenth Massachusetts Battery occupied a posi- 
tion in the main line at Cold Harbor, nearer to the 
enemy than that of any other. A siege of Lee's fortifi- 
cations was now begun by order of Grant, with the 
view of carrying them by regular approaches. 

On arriving at our new position we found that our 
heavy artillerymen had thrown up a line of works 
which in magnitude were commensurate with the 
danger attaching to such an exposed position. They 
were about seven feet high, with traverses, and em- 
brasures on either face of the angle, giving us range 
in two directions; but so shabbily were they con- 
structed that we gave ourselves the satisfaction of 
rebuilding them. The limbers were sunk as before, 
and the horses kept harnessed across a ravine just 
behind us. The caissons were in park a mile to the 

Confederates wen' captured, many lay killed or wounded, and the 
rest of the advance quickly retired lo their defences.'' — Bancs: His- 
tory of tin I'liiladclphia Hrii/mli. 

And again. 

"■I urn :;, 1D:2<l P.M. Despatch received from Army Headquarters, 
authorizing corps commanders to open all of their artillery at 12 or 1 
o'clock to-night, in retaliation for the enemy's attack at S this P.M." 
— From the Diary of n Staff Officii-, Sccmul l.'oritn. 

*"•/««(■ 4. Commenced pushing up closer to the enemy's lines by 
sapping, covered ways, \-c" — From the Diary of a Staff Officer. 


rear. Once in twenty-four hours the piece horses 
changed places with those of the caisson, giving the 
former opportunity to be groomed. 

We soon became well established in our new situ- 
ation. Every day saw our defences strengthened 
by some addition. For security from sharpshoot 
ing when not in action, Ave filled cracker boxes with 
sand and suspended them in the embrasures, or con- 
structed a thick wicker matting of green withes, of 
about the same size, which answered a like purpose. 
The historian of the Tenth Vermont Infantry has 
left on record a reference to the great strength of 
the works occupied by the Second Corps at Cold 
Harbor, which he saw when the movement to the 
James liiver began.* We were left for the most 
part unmolested, and what firing we engaged in was 
directed at small working parties; or perhaps we 
took the part of our pickets, when the enemy 
pressed them too hotly, by sending a shell over 
among their zealous opponents, which always ex- 
erted a wonderfully quieting influence upon them. 

Once in a while also we would bestow our atten- 
tion upon some battery that had the audacity to 
throw a shell or two into the Union lines. These 
tilings we did with impunity, resting confident in the 
strength of our position. But faith in this fancied 
security received a rude shock, when, early one 
morning, we were awakened by the explosion of a 
mortar shell above our heads. The Tenth Massa- 

* The following is the extract referred to: 

"On the 11th the division moved to the left into some works va- 
cated by tin.- Second Corps, which were very high, and so close up 
lo the enemy s lines that 'Yank' and 'Johnny could easily converse 
with each other. . Behind these works were vast excavations 

covered with logs, in which officers burrowed. They served the double 
purpose of shelter from the shells of the Rebel mortar batteries, and 
protection from the burning heat of the sun." — History of the Tenth 
ll'y. Yt-rmont YoL Chniilnin tj. M. Hnynrx. 


chusetts had nothing to compote with that, and 
knowing the accuracy with which mortal* shells can 
be dropped within fortifications, we at once set our- 
selves to provide against such demonstrations. This 
Ave did by erecting bomb-proofs twelve feet square 
and five feet high, to secure both ourselves and the 
ammunition, in case such evidences of Kebel regard 
should multiply (which we may add in passing, 
they never did). 

An interesting feature in our stay of nearly 
twelve days here was the opportunity it afforded of 
studying die phases of bullets in their passage 
through the air, and from these determining their 
source and distance from us. This we did by not 
ing the differences in sound made by them under 
different circumstances. The bullets of the enemy 
could readilv be distinguished from our own, and 
their relative distance from the earth was easily 
determined. Some of them in their passage 
through the air made a noise like the cry of a kit- 
ten. There was one phase in the development of 
this study by no means agreeable. It was when, 
on going to the spring in the rear to fill canteens, or 
walking about carelessly too far behind the works, 
one heard a sharp hiss, followed instantly by a dull 
thud in the earth. Then he knew a loud call had 
been made for him. 

It was in this position that the Battery earned the 
sobriquet of ''Saucy Battery," partly, it may be, on 
account of the advanced position it occupied in the 
line, and partly owing to the habit it had of intrud- 
ing its shot into all suspicious occasions with 
greater or less accuracy 

For some days after the battle our dead and 
wounded lay between the lines where thev fell, and, 
under a broiling sun, the former were becoming 


very offensive. Whereupon, on the afternoon of Sun- 
day (the 5th), Gen. Grant sent a flag of truce to Lee, 
proposing to bury the dead and succor the 
wounded.* After some informalities in the asking- 
had been adjusted/ the truce was granted the 7th, 
to last from 12 M. till 3 P.M. 

Then ensued a scene so anomalous in the prosecu- 
tion of war! All the firing soon died away, the de- 
tails went out from both sides to engage in the 
burial of the dead. The rest clambered upon their 
respective works aud looked unrestrained upon the 
men with whom they had so lately contended, and 
would yet again contend, in deadly strife. Now 
"Yank" and "Johnny" could banter, trade, or jest 
fearlessly with each other; for the more confident 
went outside the works from both sides, and stood 
in friendly converse together. But all too soon the 
hours slipped away, and a single rifle-shot an- 
nounced the truce ended. The works on either side, 
whose tops a moment before were swarming with 
animate existence, were cleared in an instant, and 
man, incomprehensible being! was seeking the life 
of his brother as zealously as ever. It should be said, 
however, that for the whole of the subsequent night 
and succeeding day, firing generally ceased between 
the lines by agreement between the pickets, and at 
intervals afterwards both sides would cease hostili- 
ties and talk freely with one another, and perhaps 
exchange papers or rations. But such truces were 
precarious, as the least thing — the accidental dis- 

* "June .">. 5 P.M. By direction of Gen. Hancock. I accompanied 
a flag of truce with Col. Lyman, of Gen. Meade's staff. The point 
selected to put out the flag was on the Mechanicsville road, where our 
pickets are very close to the enemy's. . . Major Wootcn, 18th 

X. C. Infantry, met Col. Lyman and myself." — Diary of a Staff Of- 

f For interesting particulars on this point see McCabe's Life and 
Campaigns of Lee. 

charge of a musket, or the rumble of a wagon — 
"would bring on the tiring again. 

The loss of the Cuion army at (old Harbor was 
l.">, !.">:> men; of the Pebels, not more than as many 



June 1. One horse died — exhaustion. 

June 2. One horse died — exhaustion. 

June C>. ('or]*. Geo. A. Smith returned from hos- 
pital and reported for duty L. K. Allard, formerly 
dropped from the rolls, returned from Camp Parole 
Md., and is again taken up on the books. 

June 7 One horse died — exhaustion. 

June 8. One horse died in train — exhaustion. 
Alvin Abbott previously dropped, returned. Cor- 
poral W P. Lemmon returned. 

June 9. One horse died in train, — exhaustion. 

June 10. One horse died of exhaustion. 

June 11. Received from Capt. Cochrane IS 
horses. Two horses died — glanders. 

June 12. Two horses died of exhaustion. 



June l.i-.iii, isii'i. 









Rumors of another move were now currently re- 
ported, and although men were busy constructing a 
line of breastworks in the rear, we had Ions; since 
discovered that such an indication was no augury 
on which to base calculations for a continued stay. 
It was on the Sabbath, June 12th, that our caissons 
were moved from the cross-roads, two miles further 
to the rear. This surely looked ominous; but ru- 
mor, to our minds, was resolved into certainty 
when, late in the afternoon, all the bands struck up 
lively airs, playing until dark. "That means a 
move," was the remark on all sides, for we had 
noted this coincidence on other occasions; and sure 
enough, true to the portent, orders were received to 
be in readiness to draw out immediately after dark. 
So our limber chests are at once remounted, our 
guns drawn silently down out of the works by hand, 
and we are off again. Proceeding to the caissons, 
Ave await our designated place in column. We evi- 
dently have a night march on hand. It is an inter- 


esting study to us, as Ave wait, to observe the sombre 
columns move silently and steadily along. "Not a 
word is spoken aloud by those thousands, and eaeli 
man seems buried in the silence of his own 
thoughts. What those thoughts are, an analysis 
of our own at that time may give us an idea, and 
that analysis, in brief, can be stated in these inter- 
rogatories — What next? Who next? 

Our march presented the usual chapter of halts, 
miring of caissons, taking of wrong road by some 
portion of the corps, etc., together conspiring to 
bring this particular night up to the standard of all 
such, in the respect of being disagreeable. We 
marched about seventeen miles. Our course took 
us past Dispatch Station, on the York Kiver Kail- 
road, and the exceeding rapidity with which we had 
been put oyer the road to that point seemed, in our 
minds, to give special fitness to the name. The 
light of day at last began to creep up from the east 
and dispel the drowsiness which always persisted 
most obstinately just before dawn, and the compar- 
ative silence of the hour was broken by some grim 
humorist muttering, "Why don't the army move?" 
We smile internally as we think how many of the 
grumbling, unappreeiative stay-at-homes, on taking 
up their papers of that morning, shall wonder what 
this lull in war news can mean. 

But we now make pause for breakfast, — a pause 
that continues for about six hours, and which we 
gladly improve in making up sleep. At noon we 
were off again, and by 1 o'clock crossed the Chicka- 
hominy at Long Bridge, where a pontoon had been 
laid, and over which Warren's Fifth Corps had 
passed in advance. This dark and already historic 
stream rolled sluggishly along between denselv 
wooded and marshv banks, and the whole neighbor- 


hood, to our lively imaginations, seemed pervaded 
with the gloom and miasmata with which the 
stream had been associated in our minds. 

We pursued our march somewhat leisurely the 
most of the afternoon, through a level tract of coun- 
try thinly populated, but as yet onr destination was 
simply conjectural. Some said we were bound to 
Harrison s Landing. At all events we were on the 
direct course to James River. "Twelve miles to the 
river,*' replies a staff-officer to an inquiry on this 
point. "Twenty, at the least calculation," is the 
observation of another equally (^reliable authority 
The negroes are also vacant, of any information on 
this head; but an old man, standing in his doorway, 
to whom we broach the query, affirms, with positive- 
ness, that to the Landing by this road is "just five 1 
miles." Fifteen minutes afterwards we intervieAV 
a pretty woman, who has come out to her gate to see 
us pass. After listening civilly to some secession 
talk, we put the same conundrum of distance to her; 
whereat she displays her accurate (?) knowledge of 
arithmetic and local geography by declaring the 
river to be just six miles from a barn which she 
points out souk- distance ahead. This finished our 
examination of the inhabitants on this topic, and Ave 
trudged on, assured that ultimately we should solve 
the problem for ourselves. We passed over the inter- 
vening space at an unusually rapid rate, and after 
dusk, parked in a luxuriant field of clover on the 
farm of a Dr. Wilcox, and watered our horses in the 
James River at what is known as Wilcox s Land- 

* "Wilcox was said to have two sons in the Rebel army, both pri- 
vates, although one of them had a good military education. We were 
especially amused at the nonchalance of one of the Doctor's old slaves, 
who had run away with MeClellan's army when it was in this vicin- 
ity, bur who had now returned to his wife and children, and was sell- 


Tuesday morning, June 14tli, the troops began to 
ci'iiss the river, being transported in steamboats of 
varied description, that the government had assem- 
bled here in large numbers for that purpose A pon- 
toon was begun in the forenoon at ("ides Ferry, a 
short distance below the Landing, and finished at 
midnight. This bridge was considered a remark- 
able achievement in pontoon engineering, it being 
two thousand feet long, and the channel boats being 
anchored in thirteen fathoms of water.* 

The troops continued crossing all rhis and the suc- 
ceeding day, our turn not coming until during the 
afternoon of the 15th. Our guns were loaded on 
one boat, and the men and horses on another; but 
the guns did not reach us until evening. Among 
the boats used in the ferriage were the "Jefferson, " 
an old East Boston ferry-boat, and the "Winnissini- 
met," that plied so many years beween Boston and 
Chelsea, and when we embarked on board the lat 
ter to make the crossing, it seemed almost as if we 
were at home once more. 

The landing having been effected at what was 
known as "Windmill Point, we went into camp for 
the night, not far from the brink of the river; but 
sunrise of the Kith found us up again and resuming 
1 lie advance. The country we were now traversing 
was quite level, and had not been the theatre of 
warfare, hence houses, fences, and crops Avere gen- 
erally undisturbed. 

From the estates of some of the more wealthy 

in* off pi,i;'s and chickens to the soldiers, alletniiLT— with lnuv much 
truth we cannot say— that they were his own. The I lector hail a 
miard put over his spacious and well-rilled corn barn, hut the fortune 
of War hail decreed it to the Union, and in the afternoon a detach- 
ment of wayons from the forage train carted it all away." — I'rirnlr 

■' Swin ton. 


farmers the occupants liad tied — a foolish proceed- 
ing on their part, for inhabited houses were, as a 
rule, more respectfully treated than those that were 
vacated. The fact of a family being fugitives was 
taken as conclusive evidence that their sympathies 
were enlisted on the side of rebellion, and hence, in 
the expressive language of the army slang, the sol- 
diers frequently "went through" such dwellings. 
The barns in this section were well tilled with to- 
bacco in the various stages of curing; and lovers of 
the weed took the opportunity to replenish their 
stock at a figure considerably lower than sutlers' 

Our destination was as vet onlv surmised, but 
every indication pointed to the correctness of that 
surmise; viz., that Ave were aiming at Petersburg. 
About the middle of the afternoon we reached the 
Petersburg and City Point Pailroad. And now, in 
order that the reader mav follow more understand- 
ingly, the movements of the corps * will be noted in 
brief, from the time of its arrival at the James un- 
til we rejoined it before the city, and any of the 
( ompany who read this will, we hope, obtain a little 
clearer view of what the ''Old Second Corps" was 
doing, and why it failed to do more at this time. 

Gen. Hancock savs the corps was all across at an 
early hour on the morning of the loth, save one regi- 
ment and four batteries. On the evening of the 
14th Gen. Meade had given him orders to hold his 
troops in readiness to move, informing him that he 
might be instructed to march towards Petersburg. 
Later in the evening he was ordered to move by the 
most direct route to that city (after having received 
from Gen. Butler and distributed sixty thousand 
rations), and take position where the City Point 

* Taken from Gen. Hancock's Official Report, which is before me. 


~t £ 

Pailroad crossed Harrison s ( 'reek. At 4 o'clock A.M. 
of the loth, Hancock notified Meade that the ra- 
tions were not yet received. He repeated this re- 
port to the commander of the army at <>..">() o'clock 
A.M., and continued waiting for them until A.M., 
and then gave orders by signal telegraph for the 
head of the column to move This miscarried, and 
the column did not start until 10.30 A.M. Birney was 
in advance. (Jen. Meade afterwards gave his ap- 
proval to Hancock s moving on without the rations. 
After a while it was learned that the map by which 
they were attempting to march was utterly worth- 
less, Harrison's Creek being inside the Rebel lines 
some miles from where it Avas laid down. The head 
of the column was then turned from the Prince 
George Court House road easterly towards Old 
Court House. It was then but six miles from 
Petersburg, and the time was not yet 3 o'clock P.M. 
At 5.30 P.M., as the column neared Old Court House, 
a place distant less than three miles south-west of 
City Point, a despatch was handed Hancock, di- 
rected to (Jen. Gibbon or any division commander, 
from Grant, urging expedition in getting to the as- 
sistance of Gen. Smith, who, it stated, had carried 
the outer works in front of Petersburg. Hancock 
now turned Piracy's and (ribbon's divisions in that 

"Xi> time" | says Hancock] "had been lost on Hie march dur- 
ing the day although it was excessively hot, the road was cov- 
ered with clouds of dust, and but little water was found on t lie 
route, causing severe suffering among the men." 

Singular as it mav seem, this despatch from 
Grant was the first intimation Hancock had re- 
ceived that Petersburg was to be attacked.* Had 

* "I lad (Jen. Hancock- or myself known that Petersburg was to he 
allackcil, I'ctcislnirg would have fallen." — <lni. MkuIi. 


he been thus apprised earlier, there would have been 
no waiting six hours for rations, or floundering 
about in quest of a place that had no practical ex- 
istence, and the city would, in all probability, have 
been entered that night. 

"At i'>.o0 F.M." [the report continues] "the head of Birney's 
division had arrived at the Bryant House on Bailey's Creek, 
about one mile in rear of the position of Gen. Hinks's division 
of the Eighteenth Corps. (ion. Smith now asked me to re- 

lieve his troops from the works they had carried, and so Birney 
and Gibbon were ordered forward for that purpose. This took 

till 11 P.M., too late for further advance. The works were imme- 
diately adapted for defence against the enemy and guns placed 
in them." 

The golden opportunity to seize the "Cockade City" 
by a coup-rfc-main had now passed, for by this time 
the advance guard of Lee's veterans was rapidly 
defiling across the Appomattox to its relief; and 
when, in the morning of the Kith, at <"> o'clock, Bir- 
ney and Gibbon advanced their lines to reconnoitre', 
they found their old antagonist confronting them 
before the "Avery House." During the forenoon, in 
the absence of (Jen. Meade, Hancock was instructed 
to take command of all the forces in front of Peters- 
burg and reconnoitre, with a view of finding a vul- 
nerable point. This was done, and the hill occupied 
by the "Hare House"* was decided upon by Gen. 
Meade, who had now arrived, as the best place to at 
tack. The assault was made by the Second Corps 
at <; P.M., and some ground gained, but with heavy 
loss. The enemy made several desperate but futile 
efforts to retake the lost ground. 

On our arrival at the City Point Kailroad, late in 
the afternoon of the 15th, we heard from cavalry 
videttes our first intelligence concerning the cap- 
ture of the outer works of Petersburg. The sun 

* Spelled H-a-i-r on Gilmer's (Rebel) map. 


was just setting when, tired, hot, and dusty, we 
turned from the road and clambered upon an elo- 
val<'d spot amid a mass (»f slimi]>s and brush, from 
which the spires of the eitv were visible, to await 
orders. It was lii.ney and Gibbon were ad- 
vancing Iheir lines in front, and to the right of the 
"Hare J louse." We had heard skirmishing in 
progress for some time, and now it had increased to 
the firing of volleys. There was sharp work on 
haml. From the tops of our carriages we saw over 
the somewhat wooded hills, long lines of smoke, and 
fitful flashes of fire beneath. Now and then a Rebel 
shell came into our vicinity, serving the purpose, at 
least, of keeping our interest from flagging; but as 
the darkness deepened all sounds died away, and we 
were just reconciling ourselves to spending the 
night there — indeed, many were already wrapped 
in their blankets — when orders came to be ready to 
move in five minutes. Having cut a path through 
the brush for the freer passage of the teams, we 
moved immediately into the road, and were directed 
to the front line. We passed through the captured 
line by a large fort that stood at the side of the 
road, and turned into the thoroughfare leading from 
Prince George's Court House to the eitv, soon reach- 
ing the position assigned us. It was in a field on 
the right of the road. The frequent snapping of 
rifles, and the occasional ''zip" of a bullet, apprised 
us of our proximity to the picket line, and admon- 
ished us to protect ourselves by redoubts. F»y the 
time they Avere finished it was midnight, and giving 
the "Johnnies" a shot or two to celebrate their cone 
pletion, we lay down behind them and Avere soon 

We were up bright and early on the lGth, expect- 
ing a renewal of the attack, and while thus waiting 



were somewhat surprised to see a battery of Napo- 
leons come up to relieve us, and still more so at be- 
ing ordered back into the fort we passed the night 
before, now adapted for defence against the enemy. 
During the morning Barlow, and Burnside (whose 
corps had now come up) advanced, gaining some 
ground, and Birney and Gibbon resumed their 
movement of the night previous, taking the hill oc- 
cupied by the "Hare House," and repulsing several 
attempts to recapture it. On this hill Fort Sted- 
man was afterwards erected. But the day was an 
uneventful one for the Battery, being mainly de- 
voted to resting and "cleaning up," — two by no 
means unimportant enterprises in connection with 
active campaigning. * 

The spires of Petersburg were now in full view, 
though distant, perhaps, two miles. By order of 
(Jen. Birney we gave our pieces ample elevation and 
tired the first shells known to have been thrown 
into The city; but for long months afterwards how 
was the doomed Town riddled and battered by every 
kind of projectile! 

At (i (/clock in The afternoon the roar of another 
attack came up from our front. It was the Ninth 
Corps and Barlow's Division advancing to the as- 
sault of the enemy s lines. Barlow lost heavily, 
and little ground was gained by our side. During 
this night, Hancock's wound, received at Gettys- 
burg, troubling him afresh, he turned the command 
over to Gen. Birney, who retained it till June 27.t 

"■■ First Sergeant Charles E. Pierce having been suffering from a 
Ions illness was sent to the hospital the 17th. During his convales- 
cence he was commissioned 1st Lieutenant of the 20th Unattached 
Co. Mass. H. A., later Co. D, Fourth Regiment, H. A., in which 
he performed the duties of Adjutant till the end of the war. 

■f "From that date till July 2tj, my troops were engaged in the ar- 
duous duties incident to the siege operations in front of Petersburg. 
Severe and almost constant labor (much of it during the night) was 


On the isth, tli»' Fortieth Massachusetts Infantry 
came up and occupied the line at our left. They 
had recently conic from South Carolina, and as we 
saw each other last at Boxford, Mass., we had many 
greetings and questions io exchange after the man- 
ner of old friends. They told us of the siege of 
Charleston and the battle of < Uustee in Florida, but 
(lei hired they never knew what, campaigning meant 
till they joined the Army of the Potomac 

At noon we were again ordered to the front, and 
in the mid-day heat and dust advanced across a 
cornfield, over which was strewn the debris of the 
battle fought the day before Xewly-niade mounds 
were to be seen scattered at short intervals over the 
ground, covering many a brave soldier who had 
crossed his last river. The trees on the margin of 
this field, torn with shells and bullets, showed to 
some extent the severity of the fighting'. Rut there 
was to be still further fighting to-day, for our skir- 
mishers, having advanced in the morning prepara- 
tory to a grand assault, found the Kebels had aban- 
doned the temporary line held by them, and taken 
up a more formidable position about a mile nearer 
the city* This made new dispositions necessary, 
and deferred the proposed assault until ■'> P.M. 
Meanwhile, when we had reached the abandoned 
liebel line, we set to work with pick and shovel to 
reverse it for our use, and at 2 o'clock received or- 
ders to open on the enemy s new line now seen as a 
bank of red earth, at this point, about twelve hun- 
dred yards distant. From that time till dark we 

i c(|uin'il from the men in erecting the formidable earthworks which 
were thrown up in front of that town. While performing these ex- 
hausting labors, the troops wort' at all times exposed to heavy artil- 
lery fire, and to the enemy's sharpshooters, from which a heavy list 
of casualties resulted daily." — II uncoil;' a Official ]{ci>ort. 

* .Meade s Report of Campaigns. 


kept up a continuous shelling upon them, while the 
infantry were engaged in making the assault; but 
our troops were repulsed at every point with a 
mournful loss of life, for Lee s final position, which 
he was then occupying along Cemetery Hill, was 

All hope of now succeeding in taking the city by 
assault was at an end, and so far as this was the ob- 
ject aimed at by Grant, the campaign was a failure. 
The experiment had cost our army ten thousand 
men. And now began the siege of Petersburg, and 
the strong earthworks to which (Jen. Hancock al- 
ludes were constructed in "a systematic line." 

At the conclusion of the assault we unharnessed 
and spent a peaceful night, and the next morning;, 
the Sabbath, opened quietly enough. ]>ut before 
noon we were sent for from further front, and Lieut. 
Granger rode forward in company with a staff offi- 
cer to find a place for us in the new line lie re- 
turned with a bullet-hole through the sleeve of his 
blouse, and gave the order to "limber up." 

"What kind of a place are we going into, Lieuten- 
ant?" inquired one of the men. 

"That s the kind," was his rejoinder, holding up 
to view his riddled sleeve. "Look at this!" 

Having cut an opening through the works for our 
passage forward, we advanced one piece at a time, 
and creeping cautiously up under cover of a thick 
grove of trees, through which bullets were con- 
stantly rattling, we reached the next line, and took 
position within five hundred yards of the enemy. 

TVe at once began to strengthen the line, doing it 
at a disadvantage under the fire of sharpshooters. 
This being done, we opened on the enemy's works 

* The loss of the Second Corps from .Tune 13 to July 2(i was 0,251 ; 
of these, _'."-2M'j were missing. — Hancock's J'cport, "Fifth Epoch." 


at short range: but as there was a line of troops in 
our front that was endangered b.v the pieces of lead 
Hying' from our shells, an evil peculiar to rifled pro- 
jectiles,* under cover of darkness we moved for- 
ward once more, and established ourselves on a side 
hill in the very front line. 

Our situation here was somewhat peculiar. The 
left piece was at the foot of the hill, while the right 
was some distance higher up; and all the guns were 
below the level of the ttebel works, which at this 
point ran along a cut of the Petersburg and Norfolk 

:: ' During the war il was frequently charged against artillerists that 
llii-.v tired into their own troops. Now, to deny that some such eases 
did occur — due. we do not hesitate to say, either to excited or ignorant 
gunnery — would lie as idle as to deny that our infantry never fired 
but at the enemy, or never killed men of their own side without de- 
sign. But the cases coming under the above head probably do not 
number more than ten per centum of all that are charged, and the 
author has thought it desirable to explain to that limited public out- 
side of the Tenth, whose eyes may fall upon these lines, the cause 
of the remaining charges. 

In the tirst place, then, the ////if fuse, used to explode shells and cut 
to burn a given number of seconds, was frequently so unreliable that 
it would burst the shell short of the mark — perhaps among our in- 
fantry, if by chance they lay between the guns and the enemy. We 
have seen them burst within twenty feet of the gun. This would ac- 
count for many of the remaining charges. But again: Those familiar 
with the Hotchkiss ammunition, then in use, know that around each 
shell was a flange of lead which not infrequently flew in fragments 
a short distance from the gun, and that about the base of the Sehenkl 
shell was a firm mass of papier-maelie, which likewise took an early 
divorce from the projectiles. It requires no ordinary nerve, either 
in kind or quantity, for men to lie exposed to the fire of the enemy in 
their front; what more natural, then, than for them, ignorant of the 
facts given, to conclude, when some of the fragments above men- 
tioned fell among them, that they were receiving the fire of their 
own side? Indeed, it would practically amount to that. Such a po- 
sition is unquestionably an ugly one to occupy, and shelling over 
troops was practised only exceptionally. To strengthen our position 
in this matter, if it needs it, we cite an illustration from the battle of 
the Po. We have already alluded in these pages to a battery which 
raked us with great accuracy. That battery was at least a mile and 
a half distant, and our guns were elevated accordingly; but we were 
ordered to cease tiring because of the flying metal endangering sonic 
of our troops who lay in a hullmr not one-fifth- that distance away. 

The above statements are made with reference to projectiles for 
rifled guns only. Just how much difficulty arose from the fixed am- 
munition of the smooth-bores we have neither the experience nor in- 
formation from which to judge. 


Railroad, — so it was said. The}' were scarcely two 
hundred and fifty yards distant. 

Having sunk the limbers, sent the horses to the 
rear, and strengthened the line by building it higher 
than our heads, leaving embrasures, occupied when 
not in use by screens similar to those constructed at 
(eld Harbor, we spent what was left of the night in 
resting. When daylight of the 20th dawned, firing- 
began, and the quick, sharp whiz of the Kebel bul- 
lets would have informed us of our unusual near- 
ness to the enemy's lines had sight failed to convey 
such information. Now and then Ave would take 
down the screens from the embrasures and treat 
their marksmen, who tired at us through loop-holes 
left along the top of their line, to a few percussion 
shells, but only a few, for a brief time sufficed them 
to send a small hailstorm of bullets at each port- 
hole. A Kebel battery, nearly opposite, was kept 
perfectly mute by the Union sharpshooters. The 
day was intensely warm; and shut in as we were by 
woods and rising ground, we were glad, when not 
engaged, to seek the shade of our half-shelters 
pitched against the works. But the day did not 
pass without its amusing scenes. All going to the 
rear, for any purpose whatsoever, must be done un- 
der fire, so completely were we commauded by the 
"Rebels and Rebel lines; and to see the lively dodg- 
ing and scampering of any courier or visitor to our 
part of the line when he unwittingly came within 
sight and range of the enemy, was provocative of 
hearty laughter. But it took on a serious aspect 
when a soldier, coining, as one did, to call upon 
friends in a regiment stationed next us, was shot 
dead in their very sight. Yet even this scene could 
cast but a temporary gloom over the witnesses, so 
hardened does human nature become by repeated 

LSS the tenth massacih'set'i s battery 

Tlie Seveiit y-second Pennsylvania Regiment of tlic 
Second Hrigado, Second Division, was on our right 
Hank, and the term of service el' seven of their com- 
panies ended that night. They were a jolly lot, 
and their joviality bubbled over towards the "Con- 
feds" in plentiful showers of lead. Twenty or 
thirty of them would level their rifles over the 
works at a time and fire in a volley, then lying low 
they would wait for the response, which was never 
long - in coming from the appreciative "Johnnies." 
When their ammunition was exhausted they fired 
away their ramrods. It was a pastime, harmless 
enough to those immediately engaged in it, but de- 
cidedly disagreeable — not to use a stronger expres- 
sion — to any who might be passing to or from the 
rear. But night came at last, and under its cover 
we were relieved by colored troops from the Ninth 
Corps, and, with our merry support, drew out from 
the trenches. 



June 1-K One horse died of exhaustion. One 
pole broken. 

June 10. One caisson wheel disabled. 

June 17 Serg*t C E. Pierce, privates Gowell 
and Benjamin (J. Pedrick sent to hospital. 

June IS. One horse died of exhaustion. 

June lit Private "Win. II. Bickford sent to hos- 



Jmi<: .'.<>-Au<j. >J. ISO.'i. 







It is a well-known fact, that, inasmuch as the ar- 
tillery of the army was abundant, and the opportu- 
nities to use it all had been limited, there were sev- 
eral batteries which had scarcely been called into 
action during the campaign, unless for siege duty at 
< old Harbor, having been kept with the reserve ar- 
tillery. As the Tenth Massachusetts had not been 
of that number, it was not unlikely, so we reasoned, 
that we were now to ''lie off' awhile, rest the horses 
and men, and give sonic one else a chance; and it 
was in this expectation that, having joined the Ar- 
tillery Brigade on the following afternoon (Monday, 
June 21), we went somewhat to the rear and parked, 
in spacious order, in a large field skirted with 
woods. But we were doomed to disappointment. 
There was other business on hand. Scarcely were 
the harnesses off the horses ere "boot and saddle" 
sounded, and away we went towards the left of the 
line. Our course took us to what was known as the 
Jerusalem Plank Boad, a Ihoroughfare leading 
southward from Petersburg, and along this we pur- 
sued a northerly course- to the farm owned bv one 
Jones, and camped for the night near the "Jones 


House." The next day was Tuesday, the 22d of the 
mouth, and shortly after dawn sounds of skirmish- 
ing Avere heard, continuing until about the middle 
of the afternoon, when the firing increased to rapid 
volleys, indicating hot work ahead — for it was up 
the road towards Petersburg. Orders soon came to 
harness and be ready to move without delay, which, 
under the circumstances, we obeyed with at least. 
our accustomed alacrity, for the firing drew nearer 
and the road was bustling with couriers dashing to 
the rear, and other appearances indicating that all 
was not right. Soon came the explanation. The 
Bebels had broken our lines, taken many prisoners, 
and captured the Twelfth New York Battery The 
remaining artillery of the corps was at once or- 
dered up into position, and we planted our guns in 
the open ground around the Jones House, there to 
await and resist the expected onset. We had 
hardly taken position before shells, probably from 
the captured battery, came crashing through the 
buildings and ploughing up the ground near by. 
Heavy masses of infantry supported us on either 
flank, and stood awaiting the appearance of the en- 
emy's columns flushed with their initial success and 
eagerly following up the advantage gained. But 
this they failed to do, for reasons of prudence, we 
judge, and withdrew as suddenly as they had ap- 
peared, taking with them four pieces of artillery, 
several stands of colors, and sixteen hundred prison- 

The history of this disaster to the corps is in brief 
as follows: The line taken by our army before Pe- 
tersburg had been so strengthened that a small por- 

* Swinton ways twenty-five hundred. Leo, however, in his official 
report to the Kobe] secretary of war, only claims that "about sixteen 
hundred prisoners, four pieces of artillery, eight stands of colors, and 
a large number of small arms were captured." 


tion of the entire force was sufficient to hold it. This 
left the remainder free to maneuver elsewhere. 
We were drawn out of the front line, then, because 
Ave were wanted elsewhere. On the 21st the Second 
and Sixth corps were dispatched to the left to ex- 
tend the line towards the Weldon Kailroad, with a 
view of enveloping the city more closely. The Sec- 
ond Corps having the advance, struck the Plank 
Koad, and established itself on the west side, con- 
necting with the Fifth Corps on the east. The 
Sixth Corps came up, taking post to the left anil 
rear of the Second. Gen. Birney, then in command 
of the Second, was ordered to swing forward the left 
wing of the corps, so as to envelop the right flank 
of the enemy This movement was making by the 
divisions of Mott and Barlow, who were pivoting on 
Gibbon's Division, which held the right. Just as 
the operation was nearly completed, a part of Hill's 
corps (Mahone s division) penetrated the interval 
between the Second and Sixth corps, throwing the 
flanks of both into great confusion, especially that 
of the Second. 

"Harlow's division" [says Swinton] "rolled up like a scroll, 
recoiled in disorder, losing several hundred prisoners. Mott on 
his right fell back, but not without a like loss, and the enemy 
still pressing diagonally across the front of the corps struck Cib- 
bon's now exposed left flank and rear, swept off and captured 
several entire regiments and a battery, and carried Cibbon "s in- 
trenehments. The shattered corps was re-formed on its original 
line when the enemy made a brisk attack on Miles' brigade, but 
was easily repulsed." * 

* An effort was made to retake the captured guns, hut it was re- 
sponded to feebly by the troops, for the Second Corps had literally 
been charged to death. It had borne the brunt of the campaign since 
its inception at the Wilderness, which had placed half its members, 
and chiefly too those numbered among its best and bravest men, hors 
dc combat, so that now its morale was dreadfully shaken. During the 
final assaults on the city, this demoralization had become very ap- 
parent, large bodies of the men, while a charge was in progress, seek- 
ing shelter behind every available object that would give them cover, 
and from which they could not be urged forward. 


Now a season of comparative inactivity set in and 
continued for some Avcks. Not that Ave weir en- 
joying a state of absolute rest, for we were kept 
moving from point to point, but there was no fight 
ing going on in this interval. There was, however, 
a long list of casualties reported every dav at corps 
headquarters, for the pickets were most inimical to 
each other, and hundreds of lives were thrown away 
in this branch of warfare that might have better 
served their country's cause. 

The season was an unusually dry one, and the 
slightest movements were attended with considera- 
ble bodily discomfort, for by the continuous passage 
of troops, animals, and army transportation in gen- 
eral, the surface of the ground had been pulverized 
into such an impalpable powder that a newspaper 
correspondent, writing - home at this time, stated, 
with not much exaggeration, that whenever a grass 
hopper hopped it raised such a cloud of dust, the 
lookouts of the enemy immediatelv reported our 
army to be on the move. Xo rain had fallen for 
several weeks, and moving columns were en- 
shrouded in dust. It settled on evervthing alike. 
Trees and shrubs were coated with it, making the 
aspect of nature dreary indeed. Men were abso- 
lutely unrecognizable who had marched a mile. The 
air seemed freighted Avith it, and breathing under 
these conditions A\as uncomfortable. Water be- 
came scarce Soldiers would scoop out small holes 
in old watercourses, and patiently await a warm 
milky-colored fluid to ooze from the clay drop by 
drop. Hundreds Avandered through the woods Avith 
their empty canteens, and could barely find water 
enough to quench thirst, to say nothing of getting a 
supply for coffee. The horses Avere ridden two miles 
to slake their thirst with Avarni, muddy, stagnant 


water yet retained in some hollow Even places 
usually clank and marshy became dry and baked un- 
der the continuous drought. But such a state of 
things was not to be endured by live Yankees. It 
was ascertained that water was abundant some 
twelve or fifteen feet below the surface of the 
ground, and forthwith picks and shovels were di- 
verted from their warlike business of intrenching to 
the more peaceful pursuit of well-digging. These 
wells wore dug with shelving sides, broadest at the 
top, to guard against caving, for stoning' a well 
was obviously out of the question. Old-fashioned 
well-curbs and sweeps were then erected over them, 
and we were supplied with an abundance of excel- 
lent water. To the present day the expression, 
"where we dug the first, well," brings back to the 
mind of every member now alive and then in the 
Company, the camp in the woods where Ave spent a 
few days of tolerable enjoyment. 

Having made a trough by hollowing out a log 
twenty feet long, the horses were also provided with 
water in camp. But our enjoyment of this luxury 
was short-livd, for in two days we were ordered out 
from our cool retreat to go, no one knew whither. 
Burner sent us in various directions: a trip to the 
Shenandoah Valley looked the most plausible, for 
Gen. Lee, wishing to relieve the pressure upon him 
by our army, thought that by detaching a corps to 
menace Washington, the authorities of that city 
would be seized with such trepidation as would 
compel Grant to send a large part of Meade's army 
to protect it, and possibly would result in raising 
the siege of Petersburg.* In accordance with this 
theory, about the 1st of July, he dispatched Gen. 
Early's corps in that direction, which resulted, as is 

~ JJfr and Campaigns of />'. H. Lee, p. 544. Mc(Jabc. 


well known, in exciting quite a commotion in the 
capital city, and (J rant sent the Sixth Corps to meet 
the emergency 

We were evidently not included in any party des- 
tined for detached service just then, and after mov- 
ing np toAvards the right of the line (we had been at 
the extreme left), in rear of the Fifth Corps, Ave went 
into camp in the edge of a tract of Avoods skirting an 
extensive opening, once divided into fields by 
fences now "lent," and proceeded to make ourselves 
comfortable after the method employed at Sulphur 
Springs. This camp Avill be remembered as "where 
Ave dug the second well." 

And noAV we began to receive contributions from 
the Sanitary Commission. An extract from a pri- 
vate letter, dated July 19, says: 

"We are living quite well t<> what we did last year. AVe draw 
cabbages, potatoes, turnips, and sometimes onions, soft bread, 
pork, canned meats, pickles, beans, etc These are not all drawn 
at one time or in large quantities, but by saving up two or three 
rations, we finally get a fair mess of any one article." 

To appreciate the luxury of the above variety of 
vegetables, one needs the experience of a two 
months campaign in hot weather, on a diet of hard- 
tack, beef, and pork. 

For tAvo weeks Ave lay here enjoying a respite 
from active Avork, Avatching the shells of the enemy 
as they burst over our lines, at a safe distance in our 
front, and reading Avar news from Northern papers. 
We occasionally heard rumors of forts to be bloAvn 
up, but nothing tangible in this direction could be 
learned. Finally reports of another move came 
floating in the air, and at 2 o'clock in the afternoon 
of July 26th, definite orders Avere receiA'ed to be in 
readiness for that event, and not long after 4 o'clock 
Ave started. Our march was rapid and unimpeded 


by wagon trains, and a regular ten minutes' rest 
every hour seemed to indicate that there was a 
certain distance to be made in a given time. As our 
movement was well to the rear of the lines, and un- 
der cover of darkness in the main, its object was 
evidently intended as a surprise. We crossed the 
Appomattox and its contiguous swamps on a pon- 


toon bridge of eighty boats, laid at Point of Rocks, 
and when darkness came on, a line of fires, lighted 
by cavalry pickets, guided us along our route. By 
2 o'clock A.M. (liTt li), the broad, placid waters of the 
James shone like silver at our feet. After some de- 
lay we crossed on a pontoon of thirty-two boats, 
muffled with reeds, and at 3.30 A.M. were at Deep 


Bottom, twelve miles from Richmond. AVe parked 
in a field of grass wet with dew, and, thoroughly ex- 
hausted with onr rapid march of twenty-five miles, 
lay down to get what rest we could before our serv- 
ices were sought for elsewhere. 

It was broad daylight when we awoke, but no 
fires were allowed, and breakfast less, as well as sup- 
perless, we moved out to take position. Our guns 
were placed in the edge of woods. The presence of 
the "Clover Leaf ( orps" was a complete surprise to 
the enemv, who had, the day before, been confront- 
ing a part of the Nineteenth Corps under (Sen. Fos- 
ter, and had made one or two unsuccessful attempts 
to dislodge him. ..They did not suspect the vicinage 
of a body of troops which, when last heard from, 
was down at the other end of the line; conse- 
quently, when the skirmish line of Miles' brigade of 
Barlow s division Avas sent out, by a well-executed 
maneuver it captured a battery of four twenty- 
pounders, which had just gone into action, and was 
sending its compliments down into our neighbor- 
hood. Our piece horses were then detached to 
draw the trophies into our lines, which they did 
without loss, though under fire from the Kebel skir- 
mish line. Later in the day another battery opened 
on us from farther towards the Confederate left, 
and sent its shells crashing through the trees over 
our heads. Wheeling our two left pieces, Ave an- 
swered the challenge, while Battery B, First Rhode 
Island Regiment, opened from another quarter, thus 
concentrating a fire that soon silenced it. During 
the day the gunboat "Saugus" fired at brief inter- 
vals, directing its shot into the enemy s Avorks. Be- 
yond these happenings, everything remained quiet, 
and the original plan seemed to have been checked 
in its execution. At nightfall of the 29th, the 


whole force drew out, and we were on the way back 
to Petersburg-. 

This expedition was not, as we generally supposed 
at the time, designed as a feint to draw troops away 
from the Eebel lines before Petersburg, — although 
it had that appearance and that result, — but to 
prevent Lee from sending reinforcements to the 
north side of the James, while Sheridan operated 
towards Bichmond, the defences of which were 
thought to be so sparsely occupied as to be open to 
a surprise. To accomplish this end, we gather 
from Hancock's report, the latter was instructed to 
take and hold a position near Chapin s Bluff, which 
commanded the enemy s pontoons across the river 
at this point.* But owing to a probable misappre- 
hension of the Lieutenant (leneral, and to the large 
reinforcements sent hither by (Jen. Lee, the expedi- 
tion was a failure in this respect. t In its bear- 
ings on the assault made after the explosion of the 
mine, had the latter been anvthing but the wretched 
failure that it was, the result might have been most 

Hancock concludes his report of operations at 
Deep Bottom as follows: 

"I continued holding the line during the H'.Hh with the remain- 
ing divisions of my corps.;;: Barge s brigade of the Tenth Corps, § 
and Sheridan"* cavalry. Having attracted to my front so large 
a portion of Lee's army. Lieut. (Jen. (J rant thought it a favor- 

,:: "(Jen. fJrant must have been misinformed as to the location of 
these bridges. The lowest was above l)n.'\vr.v's Bluff." — McVabvx 
Life and Vnmpuiijiis of tint. J'uhi-rt hi. 1jC<- 

f "This movement induced (Jen. Lee to send four out of his eight 
divisions to the north side of the James Itiver." — Ibid. 

1; Moil's division had been ordered to report to Ceil. Ord, the day 

§ This corps was now commanded by Cen. Birney, who had been 
promoted from the Second to that position, July 11. 


able time i<> assault at Petersburg, and I was therefore in- 
structed li» proceed to that place with the remainder of my com- 
mand. Soon after dark on the '_".ith, I withdrew the entire 
command from Deep I'.ottom, and reported at Petersburg, 
on the morning of the :»th, in time to witness the explosion of 
the 'Mine.' " 

The casualties of the corps in this movement were 
I!)!'. Of these, 57 were missing. 

As we drew near Petersburg in the gray of 
morning, the rumbling sound of cannonading was 
perceptible.* When we reached the Eighteenth 
Corps hospitals, on the City Point Kailroad, distant 
two miles from the main lines, Ave went into park. 
From this position the roar of artillery was some- 
thing tremendous. The "Burnside Mine" had been 
exploded, and now every gun and mortar that could 
be brought to bear was concentrated on the enemy's 
lines. A 15-inch mortar called the Dictator, whose 
carriage rested on the railroad near ns, was drop- 
ping its ponderous messengers into a Kebel fort at 
brief intervals. But the history of what Oen. Grant 
has fitly characterized in his report as "This miser- 
able affair," is too well known to need repetition 
here, did it come fairly within the domain of this 
narrative; and the interested are directed, for full 
particulars of this sad chapter in the history of the 
Army of the Potomac, to the volume devoted to it in 
the "Keport of the Committee on the Conduct of the 

The wounded wore brought in in large numbers, 
and orderlies coming from the front were beset to 
tell the news; but little satisfaction was derive*] 
from this source, for whereas one told us with posi- 
tiveuess that our troops had been forced back, badly 
beaten, another would affirm the contrary with 

* While recrosxing the pontoon, I). W Atkinson, a cannoneer, falling 
asleep walked off the bralge, providentially alighting in one of t lit" 



equal decision, and declare that Petersburg lay at 
our mercy However, the fact of a large number of 
men lying inactive in our vicinity was sufficient evi- 
dence that we had gained no decided advantage; 
for, in such an event, every man would have been 
needed to retain it. Whatever doubts we may have 
entertained as to the result of the assault were set 
at rest by our being ordered back to our old quar- 
ters. These we found occupied by a battery of an- 
other corps. They were forced to acknowledge our 
priority of claim, however, and the next day we set- 
tled down in them once more. 

The fortunes of war left us in peace a fortnight 
before a new draft was made upon our services. 
This time, according to Dame Rumor, we were 
surely destined for the Shenandoah, but away we 
sped again over our old course up to the right flank, 
crossing the Appomattox at Point of Rocks as be- 
fore, and ending our rapid and fatiguing march at a 
point near Bermuda Hundred, within Butler's lines, 
where we parked to await transports, it was said.* 

'Appended are the notes made by the author from General Han- 
cock's "Report of Operations North of the James River, from Aug. 12 
to August 20, 1st 14." 

"At 12 M., August 12, I received instructions from the Major Gen- 
eral commanding to move my corps to City Point, the artillery to 
cross the Appomattox at Point of Rocks, and to park in some con- 
cealed position within (ieneral Butler's lines. 

"To throw tin' enemy off the scent, the infantry were embarked on 
transports at City Point. The idea was encouraged that the 

command was about embarking for Washington. 

"On the morning of the 13th I received my instructions, which were 
nearly identical with those furnished me in July, when operating 
from Deep Bottom." 

These were, in brief, a demonstration in force against the enemy's 
left. Gregg's division of cavalry and Birney's Tenth Corps were 
placed at Hancock's disposal. The movement was intended to be a 
surprise, but failed as such. It was expected to land troops at vari- 
ous points on the river by means of temporary landing-places, but it 
was a failure, and the troops were not finally disembarked at Deep 
Bottom until !) o'clock on the morning of the 13th, — an inauspicious 
delay. The column finally advanced, but gained only temporary ad- 


But we waited iu vain, although we knew that the 
infantry had embarked. The synopsis of Hancock's 
Keport of Operations, appended, sufficiently indi- 
cates the cause of our inaction. Sounds of battle 
were wafted to our ears across the river, and the 
clouds of smoke that lose from the combat were oc- 
casionally visible; but we were destined to have no 
part in the fray, finding ourselves for nearly the 
first time out in the cold. 

While we lay here the drought was broken. The 
clouds gathered blackness, and with thunder and 
lightning accompaniments, discharged such tor- 
rents of rain as only southern and western climates 
ever witness. What a delicious sense of purity and 
(leanness now pervaded everything! The air was 
once more clear, the foliage, stripped of its burden 
of gray, became green again, and the sky exchanged 
its coppery hue for pure azure. 

This movement of the corps on the right, though 
not intended as a feint, — for, owing to the sup- 
posed weakness of the enemy north of the James, 

\antages. Birney s men captured four howitzers. The report wn- 

"On the night <>f the Kith, a fleet of steamers was sent from City 
Point to Deep Bottom, returning at 4 o'clock A.M. on the 17th, the 
object being to c mvey the impression to the enemy that we were 
withdrawing from Deep Bottom, ami to induce them to come out of 
their works and attack." The ruse failed. 

"A.t S o'clock P.M., ({en. Molt was ordered to Petersburg to relieve 
the Ninth Corps from the intrenchments. 

"Immediately after dark i20th>. I withdrew my command, in ac- 
cordance with orders. and marched my two divisions by Point 
of Bocks to my old camp near Petersburg. . The night was ex- 
tremely inclement, and the roads were in exceedingly bad condition, 
but my command arrived at camp in very good order between and 
7 o'clock A.M., on the 21st.'' 

This camp was noted as near the "Deserted House." 

The behavior of some of the troops under Barlow is commented 
upon unfavorably for their lack of steadiness, and Hancock attrib- 
utes their lack of cohesion ''to the large number of new men in the 
command, and the small number of experienced officers." 

Casualties in the corps from Aug. l.'llh to L'dih, 1SC.4: Total, 915; 
of which 2U7 were missing. 


substantial fruits were expected to be reaped in 
that quarter, — yet had every appearance of one, 
and had compelled Lee to detach a considerable 
force from before Petersburg. Advantage was 
taken of this fact to make an advance from the left 
flank, which was now distant but three miles from 
the Weld on Railroad. By the time "Hancock's 
Foot Cavalry" had returned to Petersburg, the 
Fifth Corps was across that road, holding to it like 
good fellows. It was Sunday morning, Aug. 21. 
That day the batterymen will remember as the one 
on which we returned to our camp to find it a pond 
of water. As we lay waiting, we listened to the 
tierce struggle making four miles distant by Ileth s 
and Malione's divisions of Hill's corps, to dislodge 
Warren from his position; but they were repulsed at 
every point, and finally left the Fifth Corps in quiet 
possession of their prize, which had cost our army 
four thousand four hundred and iifty-five men — 
killed, wounded, and captured.* 

In the afternoon we moved down to within sup- 
porting distance of the above corps, and remained 
till the next day, when, leaving battery wagon, 
forge, and spar*- men behind, we marched through 
dense woods to a position quite near the railroad, 
to be in readiness for another attack which was ex- 
pected. At night, as we were going into park, a 
second hard shower came on, drenching us to the 
skin. After it was over, a crowd of men, cannon- 
eers and drivers, assembled under a tree, and woke 
the evening- echoes in their attempts to drive away 
discomfort by singing with unusual unction, ''John 
Browns Body," "Marching Along," "Rally 'round 
the Flag," and every other song of kindred charac- 
ter generally familiar; and the success manifestly 

* Warren's Report of Operations on the Weldon Railroad. 


rewarding these efforts clearly demonstrated how 
philosophical the martyrs were who sang while en- 
during tortures at the stake. But that is an all- 
wise provision of Providence which keeps the future 
a sealed book till, leaf by leaf, it becomes the pres- 
ent, for some of the voices that rang out clear and 
cheerful in the gloom of that Monday evening were 
hushed, ere the week was dosed, in the solemn still- 
ness of death. 



June 21. Two horses shot by order Capt. Sleeper 
— glanders. One horse died — exhaustion. 

June 28. One horse shot, farcy; one horse 
died — exhaustion. Corp. Paine and Thomas Ell- 
worth sent to hospital. 

June 2(>. Two horses died, — exhaustion. 

June 27. Private Newton, Killoran and Corp'l 
Smith missing. Corp'l Smith returned. 

June 20. Fifteen horses drawn from (.'apt. Coch- 
rane; eight transferred to ('apt. Strang. 

June o(). Private Killoran returned; private 
Judson Stevens sent to hospital. 

July 1. Eleven enlisted men with caissons in 
Ammunition Train heretofore counted as detached 
returned as present for duty. J. H. Knowland ex- 
cused from duty. 

July 2. Corp. Smith, Privates A. W Ilolbrook, 
J. L. W Thayer excused from duty Knowland 

July •*!. Private Harmon Newton returned and 
reported for duty Corp. Smith, I). I). Adams, 
Ramsdell and Thaver excused from dutv 


July 1. Bugler Timothy G. Kedfield reduced to 
the ranks. 

July 5. Serg't Geo. F Gould by order acting as 
1st Sergeant. Edwin H. Church detailed as officers' 
cook. M. M. Pierce, Holbrook, Trefry, D. D. 
Adams, Henry Orcutt, Ramsdell excused from duty. 

July 6. Corp. Stevens, Holbrook, Devereux, M. 
M. Pierce, Thayer, Henry Orcutt, D. D. Adams and 
Ramsdell excused from duty 

July 7 Privates Trefry, Devereux, M. M. Pierce, 
Thayer, D. D. Adams and Ramsdell excused from 

July 8. Corp. Stevens, Devereux, Trefry, Hol- 
brook, D. D. Adams, Ramsdell and Thos. Smith ex- 
cused from duty. 

July 9. Corp. Stevens, Devereux, Holbrook, M. 
M. Pierce, Thos. Smith, Ramsdell, D. D. Adams ex- 
cused from duty 

July 10. Francis Montague, recruit from Draft 
Eendezvous, Long Id., B. H. joined without accom- 
panying officer or paper. Cor]). Stevens, Holbrook, 
Devereux, Trefry, M. M. Pierce, Ramsdell and Thos. 
Smith excused from duty 

July 11. Ellis A. Friend detached to report to 
Art'y H'dquarters, 2nd Corps, on Orderly duty. 
John F Baxter sent to hospital. One horse shot, 
by order (/apt. Miller. Glanders. 

July 14. One horse in caisson train shot by or- 
der Capt. Miller. Glanders. Lieut. Smith, Corp. 
Stevens, (?) Smith, Holbrook, Trefry, excused from 

July 15. Corp. Benj. F Parker promoted to 
Lance Sergeant in command of Fourth Detachment. 
Lieut. Smith, Corp. Stevens, Holbrook, Thayer, 
Thos. Smith excused from duty Private S. A. Al- 
den formerly dropped from the rolls by Gen. Order 


No. :*>, Ildqrs. Arty A. of 1' taken up by order of 
War Dep't and now at Camp Parole, Md., on dc 
tached service. 

duly K'.. Lieut. Smilli, Spooner, Holbrook, Tre- 
fry, Tlios. Sinitli excused from duly One horse 

duly 17 Corp. Stevens, Trefry, Spooner, Paw- 
son, Thos. Smith, excused from duty Holbrook 
sent to hospital. 

July IS. One horse shot — glanders. 

July 1!). Corp. Stevens, Trefry, Thos. Smith and 
Spooner excused from duty. 

July 20. Corp. Stevens, Thayer, Bamsdell, ex- 
cused from duty. 

July 21. Corp. Stevens, M. M. Pierce, Trefry, 
Bamsdell, Cross, excused from duty Holbrook, 
Spooner and Thos. Smith in hospital. 

July 22. M. M. Pierce, Bamsdell, Cross and 
Corp. Stevens excused from duty. Privates Hol- 
brook, Spooner, and T. Smith in hospital. 

July 2:5. Privates Trefry, Devoreux, M. M. 
Pierce, Thayer, Bamsdell, Allen and Cross, excused 
from duty Private's Holbrook, Spooner, and T 
Smith at hospital. Six horses received from Capt. 
Cochrane. One horse died — distemper. Private 
Win. H. Bickford died in Carver Hospital, Wash- 
ington, 1). 0., July l.~>. Chronic Diarrhoea. 

July 21. Privates J. W Bailey, Devoreux, Allen, 
Cross and Bugler Mugford excused from dutv 
Holbrook, Spooner and T. Smith in hospital. 

July 2.">. Corp. Stevens, Artificers Cross and 
Thresher, Bugler Mug-ford, Privates Devoreux, M. 
M. Pierce and M. Thompson excused from duty 

July 2(>. One horse died — farcy Private W 
Allen sent to hospital. Cor]). Stevens and privates 
Devoreux, J. W "Bailey, Monroe, Killoran and 


Thayer excused from duty Holbrook, Spooner, and 
Smith in hospital. Bailey, Killoran, Devereux, 
Newton, Trefry report to hospital. O. W Whee- 
lock thrown from his horse and injured. 

July 27 O. TV Wheelock sent to brigade hos- 

July 28. Two horses shot by order Capt. Sleeper, 

July 29. Frank A. Munroe sent to brigade hos- 

July 31. Ten (10) horses received from Capt. 
Cochrane. Devereux, Bailey and Trefry, returned 
to duty Twelve horses turned over to Capt. 
Strang. One horse died on the road — exhaustion. 

Aug. 1. [Entry nearly all destroyed] * * Whee- 
lock returned to duty * * Hospital James * * * 
Killoran, Newton, Holbrook, Spooner, Thus. Smith, 
Allen and Munroe at hospital. Lieut. Win. 
C. Rollins * * * * accounted for as on detached 
service is now credited on special * * * 

Aug. 3. Geo. S. Richardson detailed as Orderly 
at Art'y Hd. ([ts. John F Baxter returned to 
duty from hospital. Edwin II. Church returned to 
duty from "Detached men/' 

Aug. 4. Killoran, Newton (Devereux, J. W 
Bailey, Trefry returned) sent to general hospital. 

Aug. 5. Holbrook, Spooner, T Smith, Allen, and 
.Monroe, in hospital. Bailey and Trefry excused 
from duty 

Aug. G. John Millett returned to duty from hos- 
pital, Washington, D. 0. 

Aug. 7 Agreeably to Gen. Orders No. 20, Art'y 
H'd. Q't's 2nd Corps, morning report to headquar- 
ters shows P and A 5,177,183! P T. 165, P D. Ill 
and 115. 

Aug. 8. Wm. Allen, Thus. Smith, A. B. Spooner, 


A. W Holbrook sent to general hospital. James 
Peach and M. M. Pierce sent to brigade hospital. 
One horse died — glanders. 

Aug. 9. Private Win. Trefry sent to brigade hos- 
pital. Munroe, Peach, and M. M. Pierce at Brigade 

Aug. 10. J. W Bailey sent to Brigade Hospital. 

Aug. 18. One horse shot — glanders. 

Aug. 20. Private Alex. W Holbrook died of 
Chronic Diarrhoea at U. S. General Hospital, Brat- 
tleboro, Vt., Aug. 16, 1864. 

Aug. 23. Privates E. D. Thresher and B. H. 
Phillips sent to Brigade Hospital. 




An//. A;-.'.), isa.'i. 








Tlic expected attack against Warren's left, in an- 
ticipation of which we had moved down to our pres- 
ent position, did not take place One division of 
the corps was said to he occupied in tearing up the 
track, one was in tlie front line, and the third (Bar- 
low's) lav near us ready for anv emer^encY, Bnt 
in the afternoon of Tuesday, the :J3rd, the bands 
struck up lively strains, and in accordance with 
precedent orders soon came for us to move. It was 
about noon that General Hancock ordered the first 
Division, under command of General Miles (Barlow 
being absent sick), to proceed to the Wehhm Rail- 
road, there to aid in covering the working party, 
and to assist in destroying the road. This was the 
movement enlisting our services; so, drawing out of 
the field we entered the Jerusalem Plank Road, 
halting at 10 o'clock to bivouac. 


"<'onn\ sergeant, turn out vonr men!" was the un- 
Avelcome command issued by the chief of the left 
section to the chief of the Fourth Detachment 
piece, at o o'clock Wednesday morning-; and in a 
half hour the column was again advancing, soon 
leaving the Plank Road and turning to the west. Ry 
daylight we found ourselves in the midst of a coun- 
try which had not been much desolated by the 
march of war. Through this Ave passed cheerily 
along amid apple-trees laden with fruit, and corn 
fields whose ears were just ready for roasting. At 
S o'clock we had reached Reams Station, a place on 
the railroad ten miles south of Petersburg, where 
the infantry, in pursuance of instructions, went to 
work destroying the road. This was done after the 
method pursued by the Rebels on the Orange and 
Alexandria road in 1863, and so far as Ave know, the 
one pursued by the armies on both sides whenever 
opportunity offered, viz.: by placing the rails across 
piles of burning ties, where, becoming heated in the 
middle, they bent of their own Aveight, thus render- 
ing them temporarily useless. 

A map of the battlefield is here inserted. The 
railroad runs generally north and south. The Hali- 
fax road, a thoroughfare which accompanies the 
railroad soutliAvard at close intervals, is at this 
point not more than eight rods to the east of it. 
South of the station, perhaps ten rods, the DiiiAvid- 
die road, an important higlnvay leading from the 
Jerusalem Plank Road, crosses the Halifax road 
and the railroad and disappears in the Avoods to the 
Avestward. This was not the road Ave came in on, 
our route, after leaving the plank road, being a less 
frequented one farther north, that Avound about 
through the woods, finally issuing by Oak drove 
Ohurch, a small chapel that stood (and still stands) 




in the woods a few rods from the site of the railway 

At a point north-easterly from the church, and 
distant from it less than a fourth of a mile, began a 
line of works facing' westwardly These ran 
south-westerly to the railroad, then continuing on 
the west side, extended parallel with it to the south 
a quarter of a mile, where, bending to the railroad, 
they Terminated. The right of the line Thus de- 
scribed was quite high and strong, with embrasures 
for artillery, and would well protect the men that 
might be posted behind them. In these, near 
where they crossed the track, the Twelfth New York 
Battery took position. 

That part of the line west of the railroad was a 
mere rifle-pit not more than three feet in height, 
and of frail structure, being built of fence-rails 
within, and These were slightly banked with sods 
and loose earth. Behind this part of the line we 
were ordered to place our four pieces. Battery B, 
First Rhode Island Regiment, occupied the extreme 
left. They were separated from us bv a traverse, 
and had stronger and better constructed works with 
embrasures, though inferior to those in which the 
Twelfth Xew York Battery was located. 

Between us and the railroad, a distance of not 
more than eight rods, the ground rose slightly 
from the guns. In this open space the limbers took 
post. The caissons were just across the Halifax 
road. Having taken the position assigned us, there 
was nothing to do but enjoy ourselves as we chose, 
for fatigue duty did not usually pertain to the lot of 
light artillerymen. A cornfield not far off fur- 
nished us a liberal quantity of roasting ears during 
the day, and some good early apples were brought 

* The station was burned some time pre\ ions. 


into camp by the more enterprising foragers. We 
remember the day as an extremely pleasant one, 
both in lespect of the weather ami our enjoyment of 
the surroundings. It seemed very holiday-like to us 
as we lounged about the guns, expecting to draw 
out by night; but the advent of the latter brought 
no promise of any such procedure, so we spread our 
blankets, and slept soundly, undisturbed by any 
hostile sound. 

The next day, August 2.>, was to be less peaceful 
than its immediate predecessor. During the morn- 
ing General Hancock rode along the line, issuing 
orders, and soon the intrenchments were extended 
from the left of Battery B across the Weldon and 
Halifax roads, then gradually bending still further 
to our rear, crossed the Dinwiddie road, and passing 
through an extensive cornfield of stunted growth, 
terminated at the edge of the woods not far in rear 
of the church, thus encompassing us on three sides. 
This measure seemed to indicate that an attack 
might be looked for from that quarter. So little ex- 
pectation had we formed of any severe fighting on 
this part of the line, that we not only had not 
adopted our usual precaution of strengthening our 
position, but had loaned every pick and spade to a 
regiment requesting their use, and did nothing 
whatever to improve our frail breastwork. Soon 
after 9 o'clock skirmishing was heard some distance' 
down the railroad, and a short time afterward also 
broke out directly in the rear. The first-mentioned 
was at Malone s Crossing, less than two miles south- 
ward from our post.* 

""Ann. •_'.">. 1M.i4, '•>.-<> A.~S1. Spier"* cavalry lieiran to skirmish in 
front with the enemy (Wade Hampton's cavalry), on Maloiie's Cross- 
road. Gibbon's division. Second Corps, immediately moved out to 
meet enemy s cavalry. Our cavalry forced hack to hijrh ground in 
rear of Smart's house by the time Gibbon's Iroops had advanced that 
far." — Xotcx from tin- Diary of a Staff Officii- 


While this skirmishing was in progress a battery 
opened to our left rear, which we knew from the 
sound to be one of the enemy's. The right section 
of our own was detached to oppose it, and after a 
lively contest, in a warm position (made more so by 
the ground which had recently been burned over), 
it succeeded in silencing the Rebel guns, and re- 
turned to its old position victorious.* 

Lieut. Granger's bridle-rein was cut by a piece of 
shell during this little encounter. 

About noon, as we were preparing dinner, a crash 
of small arms broke out in front, and directly our 
cavalry pickets (First Maine) came dashing furi- 
ously back over the Dinwiddie road into the line, 
raising a great dust, and riding as recklessly as if 
the whole Rebel army was at their heels. Never- 
theless our skirmishers maintained their ground, 
and we sent a few shells down the road, after which 
affairs were quieter for a while. But we felt a 
crisis to be approaching. Our troops seemed to 
have been concentrated in a small space, and the en- 
emy were drawing their lines closer about us. We 
spent a part of our leisure in anathematizing the 
powers that kept us here liable to be gobbled up, 
when the object of our coming was simply to take 
part in rendering the railroad still further useless, 
which object we understood had been accomplished. 
The idea generally obtained among the men that 
General Hancock remained of his own volition, ex- 
pecting a triumph of his arms if attacked, but the 
subjoined synopsis of his report sets him right in 
this respect. 

At the right of the Battery, where the road to 

* "10. Mo. The enemy opened on us with one section of artillery. 
One section of Sleeper's Battery ordered up, which knocked enemy's 
section out of time in a few rounds." — Diary of a titaff Officer. 


Dinwiddic issued through (lie line, an opening had 
been left for the lice passage of Hoops, but at the 
first hostile shot, a hasty barricade of loijs and 
brush was thrown across it, and afterwards a thin 
line of infantry was deployed along the works. 
Soon our skirmishers were forced back and took 
refuse in our line, whereupon the Kobe! skirmishers 
established themselves in a cornfield not above 
three hundred yards to our front, from which posi- 
tion they enjoyed a full view of our horses, limbers, 
and gnus, themselves remaining concealed the 
while. And now our misfortunes begin in good 
earnest, for they draw bead on both man and beast. 
Early in the action Captain Sleeper, who is riding 
slowly along in rear of the guns, utterly regardless 
of danger, is shot through the arm and soon after 
departs, leaving the Battery in charge of Lieut. 
Granger. Then Private John T. Goodwin, a driver 
on the First piece, falls, shot through the shoulder. 
He calls loudly for help, and being assisted to arise 
makes rapidly to the rear. Charles A. Mason, a 
driver belonging to the Fourth gun, is shot in the 
top of the head as he lies fiat on his face by the side 
of his horses. For a time he does not move and all 
think him dead; but afterwards, at intervals, he ut- 
ters most pitiful Avails of agony Finding life still 
persisting tenaciously, two of the gun's crew bring 
him under cover of the works out of further dan- 
ger,* William Foster, driver on the First piece, 
also received a wound in the head, the bullet 
ploughing a perfect furrow from front to rear of the 

Meanwhile the enemy have reopened the battery 
around to our left and rear-, evidently firing at our 
cavalry, as Ave are not visible to them; but one of 

* He died the nexl day and was buried in a family lot near Ueams. 


their first shots pierces our frail breastwork on the 
inside, narrowly escaping the head of a cannoneer. 
This being between two fires is a situation of whose 
discomforts we had read, bnt never before expe- 
rienced them; and although our experience was a 
brief one, we found no fault witli it on that account. 
But all this time we are not idle. We ply the corn- 
field in our front, and the woods at our right front, 
iiberally with shells, and a house which stands in 
the midst of the former we completely riddle, some- 
times firing at it by battery, for it and its outbuild- 
ings furnish shelter for Rebel skirmishers. One of 
the buildings took fire from the shells.* 

Words fail to convoy an adequate idea of the for- 
titude displaced by our horses. It soon became evi- 
dent that the enemy intended to capture our guns, 
and as a first step in that direction to disable all the 
horses. Standing out in bold relief above the slight 
earthwork, in teams of six, they were naturally a 
prominent target for Rebel bulleis, and the peculiar 
dull thud of these, at short intervals, told either 
that another animal had fallen a victim to the en- 
emy's fire, or, what was frequently the case, that 
one alreadv hit was further wounded. Some of the 
horses would fall when struck bv the first bullet, lie 
quiet awhile, then struggle to their feet again to re- 
ceive additional injuries. Frequently a ball would 
enter a horse s neck, with the effect only of causing 
him to shake his head a few times as if pestered by a 
fly, after which he would stand as quietly as if noth- 
ing had happened. I remember seeing one pole- 
horse shot in the leg — the bene evidently fractured 
— and go down in a heap, then, all cumbered as he 

"During a visit to the ^mi made l>y r.". >iiu-:i<l<* William E. Endi- 
inir and the writer, in ISC',), we were told by one of the inhabitants 
that there wa.s only one corner of the house in which a person could 
remain with safety. 


was with harness and limber, lie scrambled up and 
stood on three leys. It was a sad sight to see a sin- 
gle horse left standing, with his five associates ly- 
ing dead or dying around him, himself the centre of 
a concentrated tire, until he, too, was laid low I 
saw one such struck by x<ren bullets ere he fell for the 
last time. Several received as many as Ave, and it 
was thought by some that they would average that 
number apiece. They Avere certainly very thor- 
oughly riddled, and long before the serious fighting 
of the day occurred, but two, out of the thirty 
plainly visible to the enemy, Avere left standing. 
These two had been struck, but not vital! v, and sur- 
vived some time longer. This statement does not 
include the horses on the caissons, many of which 
also fell. I have called this manifestation of horse- 
flesh fortitude; it deserves rather to be called hero- 
ism, and my regard for the horse was by the scenes 
of that hour kindled iuto admiration. 

This phase of Reams Station battle impressed me 
so forcibly, that it has outlasted other impressions 
perhaps more valuable historically, but assuredly 
not more interesting. 

Those cannoneers whose duty it was to carry am- 
munition, not wishing to run barkwards and for- 
wards any more than necessary under so warm a 
fire, now brought Avhat few rounds remained in the 
limbers to the shelter of the works. liy sitting in 
the shallow trench under the muzzle of the guns, 
when not engaged, the breastwork gave us protec- 
tion from Rebel shot, but when loading and tiring 
Ave were necessarily exposed. William Kawson, 
a driver on the first piece, received a bullet between 
his foot and boot-heel as he lav at his post. 

But the afternoon wears on, and everything be- 
tokens a tempest yet to burst. The hours are anx- 


ious ones to us, and they are made the more so by 
noting the character of our support. It is the 
Fourth New York Heavy Artillery The men 
scarcely show signs of life, much less of an active 
interest, as they lie crouched low in the works. 
Once in a while one does venture a shot, but he ele- 
vates his musket over the works, pointing it sky- 
ward, as if he saw the enemy approaching from that 
direction. Said an ex-Confederate, who partici- 
pated in the fight, "Your support didn't kill any of 
our men. We never saw such queer shooting. They 
nil pointed their guns up into the air and shot far 
above us.*' We remember suggesting that the Ueb- 
els were not winged creatures, but it was wholly 
lost upon them. 

No word reaches us from the commanding general 
as to just what is expected of us. No orderlies ap- 
pear with despatches, nor are staff officers to be 
seen anywhere taking observations. But this is not 
to be wondered at. To approach our line from the 
rear is simply a reckless hazard of life, which few 
dare assume. Thus we remain totally ignorant of 
what is occurring on other parts of the line. 

Tiy and by our ammunition draws low The cais- 
sons cannot come up with more, for every horse not 
already disabled would be sacrificed in attempting 
it. The only way to get a supply is for cannoneers 
to creep along inside the works, and reaching a 
point less exposed, run the gauntlet to the rear and 
provide themselves with a few rounds. One man 
from each piece makes the trip, and returns in 

The stillness grows more and more oppressive. 
We chafe like caged lions, for we feel that the worst 
is yet to come, and wish, as did Wellington at 
Waterloo, that "either Blucher or night would 


conic" to relieve us from impending calamity This 
raininess, we know, forebodes an attack respecting 
whose result we are, not unreasonably, fearful, for 
the line is thin ami our support unreliable, ami if a 
determined assault is made the chances are 
strongly against us. There is no retreat for the ar- 
tillery — certainly not for Sleeper's Tenth Massa- 
chusetts — and we have but a few rounds of ammu- 
nition left, not an encouraging outlook, truly So 
we watch and wait as the sun slowly sinks. At 
this stage Ave are anticipating a new danger. It is 
that the enemy are preparing to open with artillery 
If they do, we must lie behind our frail protection, 
aud take without giving in return. While Ave thus 
lie inactive, momentarily expecting the next move 
of the enemy, not far from i o'clock, one of our sup- 
port, an honorable exception, who has kept a sharp 
lookout, suddenly exclaims, "Look up there on the 
right!" There, sure enough, emerging from the 
Avoods beyond tin Dimviddie road into the opening 
that stretched before the intrenchments, between us 
and the Twelfth Xew York Battery, are charging 
lines of Confederates. Thev come at the double 
euick, Avith flashing bayonets, and ringing out their 
familiar yell. On the instant we turn our muzzles 
to the right and give them canister. The 2s ew York 
Battery uses the same.* Some of our support I?) run 
to the rear, many lie inert in the ditch, and a few- 
join in repelling the enemy's assault. But even then 
it is a Avarm reception, and ere the hostile lines have 
fairly reached the works they break, reel, and surge 
to the rear in confusion, seeking the Avoods again, 
and leaving the ground thickly sprinkled with their 
slain. We set u]» a shout at their discomfiture, but 
feel that the worst is not yet over. This proves to 

* The Ithode Island Battery was out of ranjrc 


he the case, for within fifteen minutes, having been 
rallied under rover of the pines into which they tied, 
they are ajuuin descried in stronger force than be- 
fore, and pressing on solidly, regardless of the fire 
reopened upon them. At this critical juncture, our 
heavy artillerymen, unable to honor the draft the 
situation made on their courage and manhood, 
started for the rear in lar^e numbers. In our exas- 
peration we call them cowards, with all the choice 
adjectives prefixed that we can summon from our 
vocabulary on demand, and this plan not succeed- 
ing to our satisfaction, Ave threaten to turn our »'iuis 
upon them unless they remain. This stayed the 
tide, and many who had ^one but a few rods came 
back.* But the enfilading fire of the same two bat- 
teries, coupled with the brave stand math' by a part 
of the infantrv in their front, auain turns the scale, 
and the enemy floe to cover anew, shattered and baf- 
fled, leaving an increased number of their dead be- 
hind. Had exrvy man in the Union line done his 
duty as unflinchingly as the Uebels did theirs (and 
why should they not have stood even more firmly?) 
not one-third of the charuine, party would have left 
the field. 

We now take courage, hoping that they have re- 
tired from the contest beaten, and satisfied to jjive 
up their object. Xot so. In the next few minutes 
they brinu up and plant ei^ht pieces of artillerv di- 
rectly in our front beyond the coin, and open a fu- 
rious cannonade upon us. The air seems filled with 
the shrieking shells, with the flash, smoke, and 
crash of their explosion, and the harsh hurtling of 
their fragments. It is unquestionably th« J heaviest 

* I now question the wisdom of our proeedure. for those men hart 
done and would do no fiirhtinjr. and by keening them on the field we 
but swelled the proportions of the Kebel triumph, for they were all 
taken prisoners. 


artillery tire we have ever endured at close range, 
but alas' we cannot help ourselves. "Truly," wt 
thought, "it is- more blessed to give than to recei\e." 
Would that we possessed the power of giving abun- 
dantly at this moment. Fortunately for us, most of 
their shooting is a little too high, and damages the 
extreme left-rear of the line more than it does us.* 
Fnder cover of this fire the Kebel infantry again ad- 
vance to the assault. They are formed in three solid 
column s,+ and come as before, at the double-quick, 
with fixed bayonets, uttering their war-cry louder 
than ever. Nearer and yet nearer they come. But 
what can ire do? As we had been unable from lack 
of ammunition to measure metal with their artil- 
lery, so now we have but one round of canister to ad- 
minister as they cross the field, and keep another — 
our last — for closer quarters. Our troops have 
evidently given way, for the enemy have reached the 
works at a point opposite the church, and swarm 
over them. It is all over with us now, for, turning 
down the line, they advance towards us in three col- 
umns, one outside, one inside the breastwork, and 
one along its crest. Our Fourth New York 
"Heavy*" are giving themselves up by scores, and 
now we stand well-nigh alone confronting the 

* During the visit to the field already mentioned we found a dead 
cedar standing between where our twn right pieces stood in the 
action. It was less than six inches in diameter, and showed marks 
of at least fifteen missiles. Emm a section of the trunk which we 
took away with us we extracted five case shot, a piece of a flange 
of a shell, and two minies. 

The ex-Confederate whom we met here (already alluded to.) 
told us that in .shelling the woods to our right front we gave too 
much elevation, as the majority of our shells passed over them. On 
going into the woods afterwards, the shell scars still visible on the 
trees corroborated his statement. 

-(•"Cook's and McKae's North Carolina Brigades, under (Jen. 
Heth. and Lane's North Carolina Brigade, of Wilcox's Division, with 
I'egram s Artillery, composed the assaulting column." — Lrc'x Official 
li'i' port. 


foe.* But they shall pay dearly for our four 
Rodmans, of which it is painfully evident we must 
soon take leave. We have three rounds of canister 
left. With these the three right guns are loaded," 5 ' 
and pointed up the line at the heads of advancing 
columns. They have arrived within ten rods of the 
right piece, when the lanyard is pulled and a furrow 
of death is ploughed through one Rebel column. 
Then the men fall back to the next piece, and 
though sonic of our heavy artillerymen interpose 
their bodies between us and the enemy in their zeal 
to surrender themselves, our duty is plain, and the 
second gun belches forth its messengers of destruc- 
tion, which do deadly work among our assailants. 
In like manner Corporal Howes points the Fourth 
piece at the head of the column inside the works, 
now not more than eight rods away, and the last 
shot tired by the artillery on this part of the field 
has performed its ghastly mission in the cause of 
Freedom and Union. We have now done our worst, 
but all is of no avail to stop the advancing hosts, 
and there remain to us the two alternatives of sur- 
render, or an attempt at flight. We say attempt ad- 
visedly, for the enemy are fast gaining our rear, and 
in two minutes — ves, one — that hope will be cut 
off. Our minds are instantly made up, for against 
the horrors of Rebel prisons on the one hand Ave 
have only to balance the chances of being shot while 
retreating on the other; and although the men that 
are falling as we pause, demonstrate most forcibly 
how poor those chances ;ire, we hesitate but for an 
instant ere choosing the latter alternative, and take 
our departure, amid the hissing of bullets and the 

* The loss of this regiment in this action was l'-'< killed, 32 wounded 
and o'.jO missing. Comment is unnecessary. 

fThe left was disabled. 

touching invitations of the "Johnnies," who tell us 
lo "come in," or they'll shoot us. But we are not 
(|uite ready to respond to their appeal for our so- 
ciety, oven when coupled with such a compulsory 
proposition, and make for the bushes in rear of Bat- 
lery B, our nearest cover, where we separate, each 
taking the course thai seemed best to him, and no 
one knowing whether exit from the field was then 
possible.* Crossing the Dinwiddle road just far 
enough east not to be cut off by the victors, I plunge 
into the cornfield, and finally emerge at the extreme 
left of our line, where, on account of the changed or- 
der of things, the troops are occupying the reverse 
side of their works. Gen. Gibbon rides along the 
line, his horse at a walk, himself the picture of de- 
spair, as he casts frequent and anxious glances 
towards our lost position in anticipation of a move- 
ment against his division. His men seem com- 
pletely demoralized. Midway between this position 
and the grove in which the church stands is Wer- 
ner's Third New Jersey Battery, which is throwing 
its shells in great profusion soutlnvard into the 
Kebel lines. 

Before leaving the field I made my way up to the 
right of the line north of the church. Here T saw 
Gen. Hancock (Heaven preserve him for his distin- 
guished bravery), followed bv two or three of his 
personal staff, riding up to the main breastwork, 
waving his cap and shouting, "('onie on! we can 
beat them yet. Don't leave me for (bid's sake!" 
But nol a half-dozen men responded to his appeal. 
We never felt so strongly moved to follow this 
matchless leader as at this stage of our disaster, t 

* From tlic close of our firing to my arrival :il the c;i iss< >n 
the narrative is personal to myself, but as it involves nreurrenees 
of historic interest, I have ventured to inserl them here. 

j While the Ceueral was making this effort to rally the troops his 


But the movement was unanimous to the rear, and 
when T found but two men ready to respond, and 
one of them an unarmed artilleryman, I concluded 
the day was irretrievably lost, and soon afterwards 
left the field, riding off on a caisson of the Jersey 
Battery, which had just drawn out. I was in utter 
ignorance as to whether any one else had escaped 
until I had reached a point perhaps a half-mile to 
the rear of the church, where I came upon the 
Fourth Detachment caisson, drawn up by the side 
of the road awaiting members of the Company On 
or around it were a dozen of the men, by each of 
whom I was greeted with the utmost warmth as if 
restored from the dead, and such a greeting did 
every one receive on his arrival. That was a meet- 
ing I shall never forget; for if the writer ever re- 
joiced to see comrades in arms, it was the small 
band he met in the dusk of that historic August 25, 

The caisson was detained here until it was 
thought that all had come in who would be likely 
to, when we started back to camp. It is of interest 
to note the condition in which some of the men re- 
ported. Lieut. (1 ranger, upon whom devolved the 
command of the Battery, and who was among the 
last to leave the field, had his pistol-hilt shattered 
at his side. Lieut. Adams had the visor to his cap 
shot away; and Lieut Smith brought off his 
wounded horse and a bullet-pierced stirrup. 
Charles X. Packard, a Number One man, came in 
with his sponge staff on his shoulder, which, with 
the instinct of a true soldier, he had (dung to on 

horse received a bullet in the nock, from which he fell forward, dis- 
mounting the General, and appearing as if dead. Hancock believing 
him so to be. mounted another horse, but within five minutes the 
fallen brute arose, shook himself, and was remounted by the Gen- 
eral, surviving the war some years. 


leaving the field, and bore off as a trophy of battle. 
Several came in in shirt -sleeves, for the day being a 
warm one, they had taken off their blouses, which 
when they left they did not stop to don.* 

Of our three other caissons, one was exploded by 
a Kebel shell, a second had its wheels shattered by 
the same means, and the third had lost all its 
horses, when the fourth pulled out and escaped at a 

On our way from the field we passed reinforce- 
ments from the Ninth Corps, which had arrived too 
late to be of service, for reasons that will appear in 
a very full synopsis of Gen. Hancock's report here- 
inafter. We camped within our lines, near the Wil- 
liams House, that night, and in the morning fol- 
lowed that lone caisson into camp, a sorrowful pro- 
cession indeed; and a sad tale we had to tell the 
thirty odd men whom we here rejoined. On count- 
ing up our losses in killed, wounded and missing, we 
found they amounted to twenty-nine out of nearly 
seventy men that went into the battle. Of these, 
twenty were unaccounted for; the fate of the other 
nine we here present more in detail: 

Capt. Sleeper was wounded in the arm, the bullet 
splintering but not fracturing the bone. 

Charles A. Mason, shot in the head, died of his 
wound on the field where we left him. 

George N. Devereux, a driver on the Fourth De- 
tachment caisson, shot through the bowels on the 
retreat, died two days afterwards in the field hos- 
pital, lie was formerly a member of the Fifth Mas- 
sachusetts Infantry, and participated in the battle 
of Bull Run. 

* Tin: writer's blouse was left by the side uf the jrun. It contained 
nothing valuable but a diary of the campaign from Cold Harbor (o 
Keains. which has been sorely missed in the preparation of the last 
two or three chapters. 


George K. Putnam, Number One man on the 

piece, was wounded in the knee as we were leaving 
the guns, was taken prisoner and kept a week with- 
out having the wound dressed. He was then ex- 
changed, but died at Annapolis, November 21st. 

Henry L. EAvell, driver on the piece, was 

wounded in the shoulder, and underwent a surgical 
operation, but pyemia setting in, death resulted in 
the hospital at Washington, November 2d. 

John T. Goodwin and Samuel H. Foster both re- 
ceived flesh wounds, as already stated, from the ef- 
fects of which they soon recovered and rejoined the 
Company in a few months. 

Benjamin G. Hooper received a flesh wound iu 
the forearm, the bullet first having passed through 
the breast of his blouse, and through several letters 
in the breast-pocket. 

William H. Starkweather was shot above the hip, 
the bullet passing in under the backbone. He was 
a cannoneer on the Second piece, and returned to 
duty in a few months. 

Corp. Burnham C. (.'lark was struck by a bullet 
while leaving the field, which passed through his 
pantaloons, abrading the skin of the thigh. 

George W Stetson was knocked down by a spent 
shell or part of one, and bv this means was cap- 

As Aug. 2fith wore on without bringing tidings of 
the other twenty, we were at length forced to be- 
lieve them killed or captives. A thrilling account 
of the fortunes of nineteen of them after the loss of 
the Battery is given by William E. Endicort, one of 
their number, in the Appendix. Concerning the 
three whom he mentions as sent to Salisbury, N. C, 
viz., Timothy G. Bedfield, Francis L. Macomber 
and Charles W Green, the first was admitted to the 


hospital in Salisbury, \. < \, F«*l». 1">, 1 *<'..>, h" T w:,s 
later transferred to a hospital in Kichmond where 
ho died. Messrs. Oi-een and Macomber had both 
died previous to the above date. 

The following is a correct list of the prisoners 
from the .Battery: 

Serg't Adolphus B. Parker, ( "orp'l Francis M. 
Howes, Oorp'l Oeorge A. Smith, Bugler John E. 
Mugford, privates hyinan W Adams, James S. 
Bailey, Jr., John Perry Brown, Thomas Ousick, Wil- 
liam E. Fndicott, Oscar F (Hidden, Charles \Y 
(ireen, Bichard Martin, Francis L. Macomber, John 
Millott, William Bawson, Timothy (I. Bedlield, 
Oeorge W Stetson, Alvin Thon)]»soii and Charles 1). 

James Kay, the twentieth missing, was never 
heard from.* 

The following copious extract from (leu. Han- 
cock's "Beport of Operations of Second Corps and 
Cavalry between the 2lM and 2<>th of August, 1SIU, 
including the battle of Beams Station, Va." is here 
introduced for the information of surviving partici- 
pants, who would like to have the questions as to 
why we remained here so long, and why we were not 
reinforced, answered satisfactorily, together with 
other details of this their severest battle. He pro- 
i eeds to sav that after the troops had returned from 
J )eep Bottom, — 

"They wi'i'c i>t"rmilH'(l to rest barely lonu' enough to cook break- 
fast, when the two divisions (First and Soronil) were ordered to 
a position near the 'Strong House, from which I hey were a.^airj 
speedily moved to the vicinity of the '(.urley House in rear of 

* The writer was unable to find his name in a book issued by a 
Kebel surgeon purporting to contain a complete lisl of the men who 
ilieil in Kebel prisons. While the volume was doubtless imperfect, 
it is not improbable that Kay may have lost his life that day. as he 
was not seen after 111 o'clock A.M. 


('Ion. Warren's position, arriving there about 3 o'clock in the af- 
ternoon. About noon. Aug. L'l'd. the First Division. (Ion. Miles 
commanding'. was ordered to move on to the Weldon road 

to aid in covering the working party, and to assist in the destruc- 
tion of the road. The work was prosecuted on the follow- 
ing day without material incident as far as Beams Station." 

The cavalry, however, had had some skirmishing 
toward Dinwiddie Court House. 

"Gen. Barlow, who had assumed command of his division dur- 
ing the day occupied the intrenchments at Beams Station at 
night. The Second Division, Ma.j. den. Kibbon commanding, 
moved from the vicinity of the Aiken House' shortly lief ore dark 
on the "J.'ld. arriving at the station at an early hour on the 

morning of the 24th, relieving the First Division from the in- 
trenchinents. Gen. Barlow was again obliged to relinquish the 
command of his division to (Jen. Miles, on account of sickness. 
On being relieved from the intrenchments. the First Division pro- 
ceeded with the work of destroying the railroad towards Rowanty 
Creek, my instructions being to destroy the road as far as that if 
practicable. At dark the working party and the division 

were withdrawn to the intrent hnieiits at Beams.'' 

The next day the Second Division was to continue 
the work of destruction, but at 11 o'clock that night 
Hancock was apprised by (ien. Humphreys, (Jen. 
Meade s chief of staff, that large bodies of the en- 
emy were passing south, and cautioned to be on the 
lookout, to which (.Jen. Hancock at once replied in 
substance that it would not be advisable for him 
then, under the circumstances, to separate his 
forces. By a further despatch lie learned the force 
thus moving to be estimated tit from eight to ten 
thousand men. Warren, who was also informed of 
the movement, expressed the opinion that it must 
be against Hancock. 

The order for work on the railroad (the 25th) was 
postponed until the result of recoimoissances 
Gregg had been ordered to make was known. 
Hancock savs: 


"The enemy s cavalry pickets were driven in at two points on 
the Yaughan mail, and no indications of any increase of force 

At <» A.M. (Alio 1 . 25) he telegraphed his postpone- 
ment of work ou the road to (ieu. Meade, and his 
reason for it — the inferiority of his force — until 
he became satisfied there was no infantry in his 
front; but after receiving the reports from the 
squadrons of cavalry he changed his mind and put 
Gibbon's Division in motion for work on the road. 
Just at this juncture word came from Col. Spear, 
who was holding Malone's Bridge Road where it en- 
ters the Halifax Road from the west, and at which 
point work Avas to be resumed, that the enemy was 
advancing on him in force. His expulsion from the 
crossing soon followed. Gibbon now threw out a 
skirmish line which developed the fact that the en- 
emy's cavalry was supported by infantry 

"While the skirmishing was going on here, a part of the en- 
emy s cavalry passed to my left and rear, breaking through (Jen. 
Gregg's picket line then running along the Diuwiddie Road from 
Reams to the Jerusalem Plank Road. They were speedily driven 
back by a regiment of cavalry and a small force from Miles' Di- 
vision. At this juncture it was deemed prudent to recall (Jen. 
Gibbons Division, and he took post in the in/trenchments on the 
left of the First Division, extending the breastwork to better pro- 
tect the left and rear. It is proper to say here that the defensive 
position at Reams Station was selected on another occasion by 
another corps, and was iu my judgment very poorly located, the 
bad location contributing very materially to the subsequent loss 
of the position and particularly to the loss of the artillery " 

Full particulars of whal had taken place thus far 
were sent to Gen. Mea.le at 10.21) and 11.45 A.M. 

''These despatches were sent to (Jen. Warren's headquarters, 
a distance of about four miles, from which point they were tele- 
graphed. At about li' M. the telegraph line was in operation to 
within about a mile of my headquarters, and subsequent de- 
spatches from me were sent by telegraph entirely. 


"At 12 o'clock the enemy drove in the pickets of the First Di- 
vision on the Dinwiddie Road, and at about 2 F.M. made a spir- 
ited advance against Miles' front, but was speedily repulsed." 

A second and more vigorous attack met with a 
similar fate. About this time Hancock received a 
despatch from Meade, notifying him that Mott had 
been ordered to send down all his available force, 
and stating further that he thought the enemy was 
about to assume the offensive against him, or was 
about to interpose between him and Warren, and 
giving Hancock his option of withdrawing to his old 
position in rear of Warren, or elsewhere according 
to his judgment. 

To this, at 2.45 P.M., Hancock replied as follows: 

"Considering that the enemy intends to prevent any further de- 
struction of tl'.e railroad, there is no great necessity of my re- 
maining here, but it is mure important that I should join War- 
ren; but I do not think, closely engaged as I am at present, I can 
withdraw safely at tin-; time. I think it will be well to withdraw 
to-night. Everything looks promising at present, except that be- 
ing in an enclosed position the enemy is liable to pass between 
myself and Warren, and I cannot determine the fact; so that 
Warren had better be watchful until I can make a practicable 
connection with him. I shall try and keep my cavalry engaged 
to keep them off the Flank Road." 

A few minutes past 4 o'clock Hancock received a 
despatch from Meade that Wilcox's Division of the 
Xinth Corps had been ordered to the Plank Road, 
where the Reams Station road branches off, and ex 
pressing the hope that Hancock "will be able to give 
the enemy a good thrashing;"' and further stating 
that some of Warren's forces are ready for contin- 

To this, at 4.15 P.M., Hancock replied, deprecat- 
ing that the division had not been sent down the 
railroad so as to be in season, and inquiring whether 


lie was to retire from I he Station "to-night in case 
we get through sate " 

At 4.."><l lie scut anot her despatch, expressing the 
belief that his right could not be turned, owing 1o 
llie nature of the country and the time required to 
do it, but expressing some fears about his left, and 
stating that he had ordered up Wilcox s Division. 

At 4.45 he again telegraphed that the enemy had 
drawn a line from his left, covering the railroad and 
the Dinwiddie and Stony (reed; roads; that they 
could be heard chopping, and that the road was still 
clear between him and Warren. He ways: 

"As soon as I knew that Wilcox's Division had been ordered 
down the Plank Itoacl, I despatched a staff officer iCapt. Enteei 
to conduct it up. Arrangements were made as to its disposition. 
About "> o'clock, a staff officer from Cell. Motl (Maj. Willian) re- 
ported the arrival of seven hundred men of Con. Mott's Divi- 
sion at the forks of the road where the Keams Station leaves 
the Plank Koad. These troops would have been immediately or- 
dered up, but Maj. Willian slated that before he could possibly 
i;'ef back with the order Wilcox's Division would have passed, so 
that nothing would be .uained. Orders were therefore n'iven to 
Col. McAllister, commanding the force, lo hold well down the 
Plank Koad in anticipation of any attempt of the enemy s cavalry 
to pass to our rear. An order was also sent him lo arrest all 
strainers and form them into regiments." 

This order was given by mistake to (Jen. Wilcox, 
who, not observing the address upon it, took it as 
meant for himself, and acted accordingly Han- 
cock says: 

"How much delay was caused by this error is not known, but 
it is known that the division in any event would not have arrived 

in time lo lie of service. 

"Meanwhile the enemy was preparing his force for a final at- 
tack, which was inaugurated about ."i P.M. by a heavy artillery 
fire which, while it did little actual damage had its effect in de- 
moralizing a porlion of the command exposed to reverse fire, 
owin.i,' to the faulty location of 1 1n- rifle-pits as before explained. 


The shelling continued for about fifteen minutes, when it was 
followed by an assault on Gen. Miles' front opposite that portion 
held by the Consolidated Brigade and the Fourth Brigade. Just 
at the time when a few minutes' resistance would have secured 
the repulse of the enemy, who were thrown into confusion by 
the severity of the fire they were subjected to and the obstacles 
to their advance, a part of the line composed of the Seventh, 
Fifty-second, and Thirty-ninth New York gave way in confusion. 
At the same time a break occurred on the right of the One Hun- 
dred and Twenty-fifth and One Hundred and Twenty-sixth New 

"A small brigade of the Second Division, under command of 
Lieut. Col. Rugg, which had been previously sent as a reserve to 
Gen. Miles, was ordered forward at once to fill up the gap. But 
the brigade could neither be made to go forward nor to fire. Me- 
Knight's Battery, under Lieut. Dauchey Twelfth New York Ar- 
tillery, was then turned on the opening, doing great execution; 
but the enemy advanced along the rifle-pits, taking possession of 
the battery, and turning one gun upon our own troops. On the 
left of the break in the line was Murphy s Brigade of the Second 
Division, which was driven back, and two batteries — B, First 
Rhode Island, Lieut. Perrin, and the Tenth Massachusetts Bat- 
tery, Capt. Sleeper — fell into the hands of the enemy after hav- 
ing been served with marked gallantry and losing a very large 
proportion of officers, men and horses. 

"I immediately ordered Gen. Gibbon s Division forward to re- 
take the position and guns, but the order was responded to very 
feebly by his troops, the men falling back to their breastworks 
on receiving a slight fire. By the loss of this position the re- 
mainder of Gen. Gibbon s division was exposed to an attack in 
reverse and on the flank, and was obliged to occupy the reverse 
side of the breastwork it had constructed. 

"Affairs at this juncture were in a critical condition, and but 
for the bravery and obstinacy of a part of the First Division, and 
the fine conduct of their commander, Gen. Miles, would have 
ended still more disastrously Gen. Miles succeeded in rallying a 
small force of the Sixty-first New York Volunteers, and forming 
a line at right angles with the breastworks swept off the enemy, 
recapturing McKnight's guns, and retook a considerable portion 
of the line. 

"Gen. Miles threw about two hundred men across the railroad 
and towards the enemy's rear, but the force was too small to ac- 
complish anything. 

"The One Hundred and Fifty-second New York is reported to 

have behaved very badly here, running away without tiring more 
than one or two shots. 

"An attempt was made to get some of the troops of Gibbon's 
Division to assist in the operation, but the commanders reported 
that their men eouhl not be brought up to the advanee." 

Tlu* report o<>es on to say that Gibbon's troops 
were now driven by some of the enemy's dis- 
mounted cavalry, who, exulting at this easy success, 
were pressing on, when Gregg's dismounted troop- 
ers summarily checked them. Of Gregg s force 
Hancock speaks in the highest terms, contrasting 
their steadiness with the despicable conduct shown 
by some of the infantry 

'"Werner's Battery. First Xew Jersey Artillery, rendered ef- 
ficient service during and after this attack. With the aid of this 
battery and the troops under Gen. Miles the road running to the 
Plank Road was held until dark, the enemy being checked in 
every attempt to advance beyond that part of the line they had 

"A part of the captured guns was held by the enemy's skir- 
mishers, and (leu. Miles succeeded in recapturing one, drawing 
it from the field to the woods within our lines. Owing to some 
failure to make it known that the piece had been recovered, it 
was unfortunately abandoned when the troops withdrew, making 
a total of nine guns lost during the action. At this time Gen. 
Miles and (Jen. Gregg offered to retake their breastwork entire, 
but General Gibbon stated that his men could not retake any of 
his line. It being necessary to reoccupy the lost works to pro- 
tect the only communication then open to the rear, and no rein- 
1'oreemeirts having arrived, the troops were ordered to withdraw 
at dark. Gen. Miles covering the rear." 

The troops went into camp near the "Williams 
House" about midnight. Hancock resumes: — 

"Mad my troops behaved as well as heretofore [ would have 
been able to defeat the enemy on this occasion. I attribute the 
bad conduct of some of my troops to their great fatigue, owing 
to the heavy labors exacted of them, and to their enormous losses 
during the campaign, especially in officers. The lack of the corps 
in this respect is painfully great, and one hardly to be remedied 
during active operations. 


"The Seventh, Fifty-second, and Thirty-ninth N. Y. are largely 
made up of recruits and substitutes. The first-named regiment, 
in particular, is entirely new, companies being formed in New 
York and sent down here, some officers being unable to speak 
English. The material compares very unfavorably with the vet- 
erans absent. 

"My force at Reams Station consisted of about six thousand 
arms-bearing men of the infantry, at most, and about two thou- 
sand cavalry. The enemy's force is not known to me." 

The battery took a total of 5S horses on to the 
field. Lieut. Grander reports a loss of but 34 of 
them. This seems, today, inexplicable, for the 
twenty-four piece-horses and the four horses of 
chiefs of pieces all went down and with them the 
bugler's horse a total of 2!>, about which there is no 
question. This leaves but five more to be accounted 
for. It does not seem possible that only five were 
disabled at the caissons, but as only one caisson es- 
caped, and that with four horses, there are fifteen 
other caisson horses that must in some way have 
survived. Just how they got off the field and when, 
no one has ever informed the historian. Yet it isn't 
likely that a false report was rendered headquarters 
and so there the matter must rest. 

The official report of this action further shows a 
loss of two thousand, three hundred sixty-two men 
of all arms killed, wounded and missing. Of these 
twenty-two officers and eighty-seven men were 
killed, sixty officers and four hundred forty-one men 
were wounded, and ninety-four officers and sixteen 
hundred fiftj-eight men were missing. Had even a 
thousand of this unusually large percentage of miss- 
ing, or prisoners, followed Miles' gallant example or 
stood up in the trenches to repel the assaulting 
force, as they might easily have done, the story of 
the fight would have been a more pleasing one. 

The figures go to show how large a number igno- 

:',:>4 Tin-: tenth massacui'sktts uatteky 

miniously gave themseh vs up without attempting 
Id light, or even retreat; for as success to the eiieinv 
was secured by a direct assault in front, every man 
had the option of lighting and then falling hack if 
((impelled to, which an attack on tlie flank or from 
the re; ir would not have allowed; or of basely sur- 
rendering without resistance, which it is confidently 
believed was the status of four-flfths of the men re- 
ported as missing. 

The loss of the enemy in this battle is put by 
Gen. A. 1* Hill, in his Official Keport, at seven hun- 
dred and twenty 

This is probably a low estimate. It seems we 
were opposed by Ilill*s Corps and Hamptons Cav- 
alry (Jen. Hancock informed the writer that in a 
conversation had with (Jen. Heth since the war, the 
latter told him that he had about ciijlitccn llioiisiuid 
men with him, and was surprised to learn the small- 
ness of our force. He further admitted that their 
losses were verv severe in killed and wounded. 

Most of the Tenth had lost everything save what 
they had on; but the consciousness of having stood 
so manfully at their posts to I. lie last moment, and 
the knowledge that their determined stand was ap- 
preciated by Gen. Hancock and his subordinate 
field officers, was glory enough to atom 1 for all losses 
save that of companions in arms. Had the men 
known the number pitted against them they would 
have felt even more jubilant. 

But now our occupation was gone for a season. 
We were without guns and had but few horses, so 
Ave lay snt e;ise in cam]) in rear of the army, having 
no fear of orderlies or their orders, and utterly in- 
different to all rumors of impending movements. 

best it mav be thought by the casual reader that 
the historian has been too partial to his old com- 



mand, let one of the enemy tell the story as he saw 
it acted. May 10, 1890, the Hon. Charles M. Stednian 
of Wilmington, X. C, delivered a Memorial Day ad- 
dress on the life and character of Gen. William 
MacKae. It will be remembered that MacKae's 
brigade formed a part of the charging body, and in 
cidentally the orator gives a sketch of the battle of 
Keams Station. Toward the conclusion he says: 

''In truth the Federal infantry did not show the 
determination which had generally marked the con- 
duct of Hancock's corps. Not so with the Federal 
artillery It was fought to the last with unflinch- 
ing courage. Some minutes before the second as- 
sault was made (leu. MacKae had ordered Lieut. W 
E. Kyle with the sharpshooters to concentrate his 
lire upon the Federal batteries. Many men and 
horses rapidly fell under the deadly fire of these in- 
trepid marksmen. Yet still the artillerists who 
were left stood by their guns. When MacKae's 
brigade crossed the embankment a battery which 
was on his right front as he advanced wheeled to a 
right angle with its original position and opened a 
fire of grape and canister at close quarters enfilad- 
ing tlie Confederate line. General MacKae imme- 
diately ordered this battery to be taken. Although 
entirely abandoned by its infantry support it con- 
tinued a rapid fire upon the attacking column un- 
til the guns were reached. Some of the gunners 
even then refused to surrender and were taken by 
sheer physical force." Those were the cannoneers 
of the Tenth Massachusetts Battery 

The following letters are of interest in this connec- 
tion although anticipating by some time the dates 
on which they were issued. 

U'f/r De/xirtiiifiit, ~\V<ixhiii<ittiu, December M, lHli.'i. 

Sir, — You are hereby informed that the President of the 

United States has appointed you. for gallant services at the bat- 


tie of Reams Station, and during the present campaign before 
Richmond. Ya.. a Major of Volunteers by brevet, in the service 
of the United States, to rank as such from the Second day of 
December, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-four. Should 
the Senate, at their next session advise and consent thereto, you 
will be commissioned accordingly. 

Immediately on receipt hereof please to communicate to this 
Department through the Adjutant General of the Army, your ac- 
ceptance or non-acceptance; and, with your letter of ac- 
ceptance, return the oath herewith enclosed, properly filled up, 
subscribed and attested, and re]>ort your age, birthplace, and the 
State of which you were a permanent resident. 

[Signed] E. M. STANTON. 

Secretary of War. 
B'v't Major J. Henry Sleei*er, U. S. Volunteers, 

Thro: Comd'g Gen'l Army Potomac. 

Headquarters Army of the Potomac, Dec 6th, 186.'/. 
Sir, — The accompanying appointment has been conferred upon 
you by the President upon the recommendation of your superior 
officers and at my request; and it affords me great pleasure to be 
the medium of transmitting to you this mark of the recognition 
by the government of the highly meritorious service you have 
rendered to the country since I have had the ihouor to command 
the Army of the Potomac. I am Very Respectfully, 
Your Obedient Servant, 

[Signed] GEO. G. MEADE, 

Major General Commandhip. 
To Capt, and Bv't Maj. J. Henry Sleeper, 
Commanding 10th Mass. Battery 

Head Qrs. Artillery Brigade, 2nd Army Corps, Dec 7th, 186-). 
Major, — I herewith transmit to you an appointment as Brevet 
Major U. S. Vols., conferred upon you by the President upon rec- 
ommendation of your superior officers. 

I desire to express my gratification at your reception of so 
marked a recognition of your gallant and distinguished services. 
Very Respectfully, 

Your Obed't Serv't, 

[Signed] JNO. G. HAZARD. 

lircrel Lieut. Vol. Vomd'y. 
Brevet Major J. Henry Sleeper, 
loth Mass. Batlcrv. 




Aug. 24. Received notice of transfer to general 
hospital Aug. 12 of privates J. W Bailey, W A. 
Trefry, M. M. Pierce, James Peach, F A. Munroe. 

Aug. 25. rapt. Sleeper, privates Devereux, Fos- 
ter, Ewell, Goodwin, ( ). P Brown, Starkweather and 
Ben. (t Hooper wounded; L. W Adams, Geo. H. 
Stetson, Win. Rawson, Geo. K. Putnam, ("has. A. 
Mason, and Thompson wounded and miss- 
ing; Serg't A. B. Parker, ( orp. F M. Howes, Gorp. 
Geo. A. Smith, privates (). W (Hidden, James S. 
Bailey, Jr., Richard Martin, Thos. Cusick, Timothy 
G. Redtield, John Millett, John Perry Brown, James 
Kay, A. W Green (?), Ah in Thompson, F L. Ma- 
comber. Bugler John T Mugford and AVm. E. Endi- 
cott missing. 




Autjuxt .Hi to Oi-lnhtr >',, ISC). 




As there must come an end to all tilings earthly, 
so we found our season of rest no exception to the 
rule, and the camp began to wear a business-like as- 
pect. By the 11th of September we were once more 
supplied with the requisite number of horses and 
harnesses, rubber buckets, tarpaulins, and all the 
paraphernalia of a battery completely equipped. 
September 20th a detail went down to City Point 
and brought back four 3-inch Parrott guns. They 
were beauties and gained our regard at once, com- 
pletely usurping the place the Rodmans had held 
there. We were now ready for actiye service again, 
and haying been made happy by a visitation from 
the paymaster, who left lis two months pay and set- 
tled our annual tailor's bill Avith the government, 
we were relieved from further expectation and de- 
lay by receiving marching orders. 

They came Saturday afternoon, September iM-tli, 
and in the evening we moved from camp up into the 
main trenches before Petersburg, relieving Battery 
1), Fourth Regulars, of the Tenth Corps. The same 
evening eight recruits arrived from Massachusetts. 

The light of morning revealed a novel and inter- 


esting sight. We were in Battery XIV,* a few rods 
to the right of Fort Morton. The works we had left 
three months before, so hastily and rudely con- 
structed, had given place to a fortified line so elab- 
orate and strong that it scarcely needed defenders. 

The special portion Ave occupied was seven or 
eight feet high, and constructed of logs smoothly 
jointed, with several feet of earth piled against 
lhem outwardly The embrasures were shaped 
with <i<il>i<)iix\ these were cylinders of basket-work 
the size of a barrel, woven of green withes, filled 
with sand and set up on either side of the openings 
to give them sharpness and regularity Before 
each embrasure a matting of rope six inches thick 
was hung to keep out bullets, with an aperture left 
in it just large enough to pass the muzzle of the 
piece through when a charge was to be fired. Di- 
rectly in front of the line was a deep ditch, and a 
rod or more outside of that ran the fiatsc, a defence 
consisting of large, pointed stakes set firmly in the 
ground about six inches or more apart, their points 
projecting outward at an angle of perhaps thirty 
degrees with the ground, and all fastened firmly to- 
gether by telegraph wire. To troops advancing 
against them the points would come about breast 
high, and as one might not crawl through them be- 
low, and could scale them only with great difficulty, 
ihey wore an efficient defence 

Outside the fraise, deep trenches and covered 
ways led to the phket line, itself a strong fortifica- 
tion, where the pickets kept watch of the Rebels. 
Beyond this again lay the "Middle Ground;" then 
the Rebel pickets; and on the ridge. 1 beyond, the en- 

* For the information of the uninformed it may be stated that 
every fort in the Union line was named, and every part of the line 
eonstrneted for the use of a battery was numbered, beginning at the 
right of the line near the James and numbering toward the left. 


eniy's main line. Still farther up towards the crest 
of Cemetery Ridge, for so it was called, another 
strong line had been erected since the Mine failure, 
to guard against the possible issue of another such 

In full view at our left front, opposite Fort Mor- 
ton, were the ruins of the "Elliott Salient," the un- 
dermined fort, much as they were left on that mem- 
orable July 30th. Since the catastrophe the Rebels 
had straightened their line, and the rifle-pit of their 
picket line now crossed the front of the ruins.* 

Returning within our own lines, the view was 
most unique. To the rear the ground fell off rap 
idly to the bottom of a gully, and rising on the op- 
posite side even more rapidly, stretched away in a 
level tract of land. But our immediate surround- 
ings were such as to warrant one in the belief that 
an army of huge moles had been building a city 
All passing to and from the rear Avas by deep 
trenches, in which the passers were shielded from 
bullets. Some of these led to the dwelling-places 
of the troops, which toward the enemy showed sim- 
ply as hemispherical domes of earth. These struc- 
tures and others similar in form, built to hold the 
ammunition, were the bomb-proofs. Passing far- 
ther to the rear beyond the region of bomb-proofs, 
every sutler's establishment, every stable, every 
tent of any kind or size, was protected on the side 
towards the enemy either by a pile of earth, or by 
barrels filled with sand; for, during the davs of con- 

* " A horrid chasm one hundred and thirty-five feet in length, 

ninety-seven feet in breadth, and thirty feet deep: and its brave gar- 
rison all asleep, save the guards when thus surprised by sudden 
death, lie buried beneath the jagged blocks of blackened clay— in all 
two hundred and fifty-six officers and men of the Eighteenth and 
Twenty-second South Carolina — two ollicers and twenty men of IV- 
gram s Petersburg battery." — .1 rmy of Northern Virginia. Memorial 
To! nine. 


tinuous picket-firing, all this territory lay open to 
the chance bullets of the enemy, and many a life 
was lost in this manner by persous unsuspicious of 
danger, as the graves scattered about the plain at 
brief intervals bore testimony- In fact, this rear 
ground was generally considered the most unsafe 
part of the whole line until the abatement of picket- 
firing, and even then after dark, when such firing 
Avas most active, few cared to come out of their 
shelter to pass to or from the front. 

About a mile to the rear, and beyond this danger- 
ous belt of territory, out of reach of bullets, and 
generally <>f shells, headquarters of the Battery was 
established. There were the drivers, spare men, 
horses, caissons, and company property generally 
With the guns were Lieut. Granger in charge, and 
eight men of each gun detachment.* Some of these 
men took up their quarters in the bomb-proofs, 
while others stretched their tents and built bunks 
close under the breastwork to enjoy the open air. 
The guns were separated by very solid traverses, 
thus giving each detachment, as it were, a distinct 

We made it our business by day to watch the red 
or yellow heaps of earth which marked the enemy's 
lines, and whenever any of their guns opened, or any 
number of men showed themselves at work on their 
fortifications, we sent them our customary Union 
compliments as an admonition that Ave Avore cogni- 
zant of all their acts, and should hold them account 
able. But in artillery they Avere no match for us, 
either in the number of guns or their calibre, and 
Avhenever their pieces, in position directly opposite 
Battery XIY, opened on our line, they dreAV upoBi 
themselves not only our attentions, but those of the 

* Captain Sleeper was away on leave of absence. 


guns in Ball cry VIII, and Kurt Haskell on our 
right, and of two ."impounders in Fort Morton. 
Those latter sent iheir ponderous projectiles wiih a 
rattling crash, beside which our 10-pounders seemed 
as muskets, — and with a precision that almost in- 
variably closed up the business on the part of the 
enemy with little delay, although they were ever 
ready to open again when a good mark was pre- 

We remember with what constancy Lieut. Gran- 
ger remained by the hist piece hour after hour, and 
day after day, availing himself of every opportunity 
to send a shell into some unwary group of Kebels. 
He always sighted the gun himself, and ere Ave left 
this place became most expert in gunnery It came 
to be the standard remark among llie cannoneers 
whenever this gun was heard, that the Lieutenant 
was at his old tricks of shooting off Kebel buttons. 
He always took careful note of the result of each 
shot, with his field-glasses, by stepping to the right 
of the piece and looking over the top of the works, 
which at this particular point were partially 
screened by a few scattering trees. But he had 
proved such a nuisance to the enemy by his close 
watch and his unexpected introduction of shells 
among them, that one day a Kebel sharpshooter, 
who had undoubtedly been awaiting his appear- 
ance, put a bullet through the top of his army regu- 
lation hat, — a circumstance which elated the Lieu- 
tenant immensely, so unmindful was he of his own 
personal safety 

( >n the picket line there was now comparatively 
little firing by day, but when darkness came on it 
began, and, safely ensconced behind the works, we 
Were often lulled to sleep by the music of bullels 
hying harmlessly overhead. 


A few days after our arrival in this position we 
heard heavy firing down at the left. It was a move- 
ment of parts of the Fifth and Ninth corps * and 
Gregg's cavalry westwardly from the Weldon Kail- 
road, with a view of preventing reinforcements be- 
ing transferred to the right against the Army of the 
James, which, under Butler, was advancing upon 
the fortifications of Eichmond.t It resulted in a 
loss of mure than twenty-five hundred men, and the 
extensions of our lines to Poplar Spring Church, in 
whose neighborhood the Battery was afterwards lo- 
cated. Butler, it will be remembered, captured and 
held Fort Harrison in this movement. 

One evening, just before sundown, at a time when 
our line was very thin, an infantry officer came 
along to say that the Keb-ls were intending a tre- 
mendous assault on this part of the line, which, if 
they had by any means become aware of the paucity 
of its defenders, did not seem in the least improb- 
able. When night had well closed in, the assertion 
seemed about to Ik; verified. The pickets increased 
their fire; the main line, both infantry and artil- 
lery, joined in; and tlie familiar Bebel yell swelled 
louder and louder with the increasing din. There 
was uproar sufficient for a first-class battle; but 
soon the yelling, the musketry, and the artillery 
subsided, and then the mortar batteries, with which 
each fort was supplied, took up the contest, and the 
sky became brilliant with the fiery arches of these 
more dignified projectiles. The attack, if there was 
one, had failed, and as the mortar shells described 
their majestic curves through the heavens, every 
other sound was hushed, and the two armies 

* The Ninth Corps was now commanded by Maj. Gen. John G. 

f Import of Campaign of 1804. Meade. 


seemed to stand hi mule admiration of these instru- 
ments of destruction. Sometimes a single shell 
could be seen (limbing the sky from a Rebel mortal', 
and ere it had reached its destination, as many as 
half a dozen from 1 nion batteries were chasing each 
other through the air as if anxious to be first in re- 
senting such temerity; for in tbis arm of the service, 
as in the artillery, our army was vastly the supe- 
rior. It should be stated, however, that the enemy 
could not afford to be as prodigal of their ammuni- 
tion as the L'nionists, had the guns not been want- 
ing, for the beginning of the end was at hand, and 
they were finding themselves somewhat crippled in 
this respect. 

These evening fusillades rarely resulted in injur- 
ing any one on our side, and were a "feature" of our 
experience here. So harmless were they consid- 
ered, and at the same time so brilliant to view, that 
officials frequently came on from Washington to 
witness them. Xo less a person than President Lin- 
coln himself was present at one of them. They were 
expensive displays to the government, and served 
no practical purpose, so far as known, except to as- 
sure the enemy from time to time that our works 
were still occupied in force. 

We have said these fusillades rarely did any dam- 
age They nevertheless often succeeded in enlist- 
ing our warm personal interest, for the Tenth Bat- 
tery was several times the mark of their particular 
attentions. At such times we would watch the 
shells closely as they mounted the sky If they 
veered to the right or left from a vertical in their 
ascent, we cared nothing for them. If they rose 
perpendicularly, our interest increased. If they 
soon benan to descend, we then knew thev would 
fall short; but if they continued climbing until 



much nearer the zenith, and we could hear the 
creaking whistle of the fuse as the shell slowly re- 
volved through the air, business of a pressing na- 
ture suddenly called us into the bomb-proofs, and it 
was not transacted until an explosion was heard, or 
a jar told us the shell had expended itself in the 

Thus time rolled away for four weeks. The heat 
of the long weary summer was yielding to the clear 
and frosty nights of autumn. At Battery head- 
quarters the airy tents gave way to substantial huts, 
and at the guns we were erecting new bomb-proofs, 
which would be more habitable than our present 
ones, the design being to combine safety with com- 
fort and convenience. This we did, thinking the 
prospects were good for several weeks' further stay 
Two additional Parrot! guns were furnished us, 
thus restoring us to the dignity of a six-gun battery, 
and giving, as we reasoned, 
still further promise of our 
continued stay But, alas! 
our nice calculations mis- 
carried sadly, for on the 
morning of .Monday, Octo- 
ber 24, orders came for us 
to draw out quietly at dark, 
at which time the limbers 
were driven up to receive 
the ammunition chests 
once more, another bat 
tery* appeared to relieve 
us, and we took our final 
leave of Batterv XIV 

September 22, Sergeant 
<t. Fred. Gould was commissioned as First Lieuten- 
ant in the 21)th Fnattached Co. of Massachusetts 

* Eighth Ohio. 



Heavy Artillery, and William Ik Fndicott as Second 
lieutenant in ilie -">Oth rnattached Co.; but the kit 
ter did not accept his commission, lie was a pris- 
oner of war at the time but later declared his pref- 
erence for the post of a cannoneer to that of a line 
office]- in either Heavv Artillerv or Infantry 


Auii'. 2<i. Private A. B. Spooner died of Chronic 
Diarrhea at Ceneral Ilosi»ital, Brattleboro, Vt., 
Au»'. 20, 1SC4. 

Aug. 27 B. (i. Hooper sent to brigade hospital. 
Boceived notice of 20 days' leave granted Capt. 
Sleeper, (Jen. Orders 220 IFdq'Cs Army of Potomac 
Aug. 25, 1SC>4. 

Aug. 2S. Privates Foster, Ooodwin, Stark- 
weather, Fwell, De\ereux, and <>. P Brown sent to 

Aug. 20. Four horses shot by order ("apt. Miller 
— (.1 landers, farcy and wounds. 

Aug. o(). F. J. Wilson and II. O. <Jil]ey tempo- 
rarily detached at Artillery Hrigade Headquarters. 

Sept. 1. Died Aug. 27, Ceo. X. Devereux of 
wounds received Aug. 2.>. 

Sept. 2. Lieut. J. Webb Vdanis on detached 
service at Twelfth New York Battery. Oorp'l S. 
Paine returned to duty from hospital. Four re- 
cruits received from camp of distribution. 

Sept. ■">. One horse died — ■< ilanders. Seven l7) 
horses turned over to < 'apt. Strang. 

Sept. 4. Private J. M. Kamsdell sent to brigade 


Sept. G. Received notice of Thresher and Phil- 
lips' transfer to general hospital Aug. 2G, 186-1. J. 
W Bailey returned to duty from general hospital. 
B. Bemis made farrier. 

Sept. 7 Daniel D. Adams sent to brigade hos- 

Sept. 9. Fifty-four (54) horses received from 
< 'apt. Fisher. 

Sept. 10. J. B. Sulham injured by falling tree 
and sent to hospital. I). D. Adams returned from 
brigade hospital. Xotice received of F. A. Friend's 
furlough, Aug. 19, and Hugh Killoran's Aug. 21, 
each 20 days. 

Sept. 12. R. *G. Gilley returned to duty from 
Arty Brigade IFdquarters. B. G. Hooper returned 
from brigade hospital. 

Sept. 14. J. B. Sulham returned from brigade 
hospital. E. J. Wilson carried along as on detached 

Sept. 15. ( >ne horse died —- Glanders. Serg't C. 
Could sent to Brigade Hospital. Joseph Sheridan 
returned from hospital. 

Sept. 1(5. One horse died — Glanders. Hiram 
Warburton sent to brigade hospital. 

Sept. 17. (apt. Sleepers leave extended 30 days. 
Xotice received of J. M. Kamsdell's transfer to gen- 
eral hospital Sept. 4, 1SI54. 

Sept. 18. II. Warburton returned from brigade 
hospital. John F Sullivan, private Co. I, 4th X. Y 
II. Art'y, 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 2nd A. C. de- 
tached to this Battery as bugler per Special Order 
Xo. 237 Headquarters 2nd Corps. Private Geo. K. 
Putnam, a paroled prisoner at Annapolis, Md., 
wounded and in hospital. 

Sept. 19. One horse died — Glanders. 

Sept. 21. Corp'l T. Beck, eight men and two 

::."»(' the tenth Massachusetts ratteuy 

caissons returned from Ammunition Train. Hiram 
Warlmrton sen I to brigade hospital. 

Sept. 22. First Serjeant ('has. F. Pierce and 
Serg't (leo. V Could discharged for promotion by 
S. (). No. 304, War Dep't \. O. < >. 

Sept. 23. Notice received of John Mil let I, pa- 
roled prisoner sick in general hospital Div 2, An- 
napolis, Md., Sept. 14. 

Sept. 24. Notice received that of the l.~> men 
transferred to Battery K, 4th F S. Arty, 11 are 
present for duty, 4 absent, sick (John II. Fa it, Aug. 
12, W E. Hooper, Alio. 13, .1. W Hayden April 13, 
W M. Bastable May 12, 18G4). 

Sept. 2.). James 1). Smith sent to brigade hos- 
pital. Eight recruits received; II. N. Bemis, 1). A. 
O'Connor, E. F. Jewell, Fornelius McAuliffe, F. W 
Anisden, Daniel Whalen, Alfred F Billings and I). 
F Blackmer. 

Sept. 27 Private Henry Murphy detailed to pro 
vest marshal's headquarters, 2nd Corps, agreeably 
to Special Order. 

Sept. 2!l. One horse died — Flanders. 

Sept. 30. Serg't Chandler Fould sent to general 
hospital Sept. 2<>. 

Oct. 1. Private Harmon Newton died at Lincoln 
Feneral Hospital, Washington, I). C, of Phthisis 
Sept. IS, 1S04. 

Oct. 2. Ten (10) enlisted men returned from Bat- 
tery K 4th F. S. Art'y, viz:— T. A. Carter, P T. Hill, 
John Handlin, A. W Smith, J. T. Sanderson, M. 
Haley, M. Campbell, M. B. O'Xeil, J. I). Schwartz, 
1\. O Wright. James (?) Moran, Surgeon's Orderly, 
\rt'y Brigade, Privates J. I). Smith and II. War- 
burton sent to general hospital Sept. 2S, by S. O. 24!) 
ll'dq r's 2nd Forps. Private W M. Bastable de- 
serted instead of absent sick, May 1!», 1S04. 


Oct. 3. One horse died — Glanders. 

Oct. 4. One horse died. — Glanders. One re- 
cruit received. — Elisha T. Quimby 

Oct. 5. Two horses died — Glanders and Stop- 
page. Private H. Murphy returned to duty 

Oct. 7 One horse shot, by order of Lieut. Beck 
O & I 5th U S. Arty A. I. Officer — Glanders. Pri- 
vates Knowland and Quinn sent to brigade hospital. 

Oct. 8. Twenty (20) horses received from Capt. 
Fisher. Private B. G. Pedrick returned to duty 
from general hospital. 

Oct. 10. One horse received from Capt. Fisher. 
Private II. X. Bernis sent to brigade hospital and 
Private Henry Murphy detailed to Provost Mar- 
shal, Second < 'orps. 

Oct. 11. One horse died — Stoppage. 

Oct. 12. Four horses turned over to Capt. 

Oct. 13. Fourteen ill) recruits received; James 
Lee, John I). White, Francis Booney, L. E. Quint, 
Ohas. Conners, J. P Allen, Patrick Foley, Geo. T. 
Cranston, Patrick Carr, Jere. O'Oonnell, A. P Fol- 
lett, Michael Birmingham, Michael Farrell, G. W 

Oct. 11. Two recruits received; Peter Terbrig- 
gen, Win. Osborn. Private A. L. Gowell returned 
to duty from general hospital. 

Oct. 15. Private II. X. Bemis returned from 
brigade hospital; Private E. C. Jewell sent to brig- 
ade hospital. 

Oct. 17 Xotice received of Serg't Chandler 
Gould's death by Chronic Diarrhea at F. S. Hos- 
pital, Beverly, X J (?) Oct. 5th. 

Oct. 10. J. H. Knowland sent from brigade to 
general hospital. Corp. Geo. A. Pease sent to brig- 
ade hospital; Private E. C. Jewell returned to duty. 



Private K. -T. Wilson on detached service at Art y 
Brigade Headqnai lers in confinement. One horse 
'lied, worn out. 

Oct. '2-2. Lients.J. W Adiiins and W O. Bollins 
transferred on .Morning Beport from "present on 
special duty" to "absent on detached service." 

Oct. LN>. I'rivate A. Vinson severelv wounded 
and missing since Au^. 2.>, 1SI!4 dropped from the 
rolls, killed in action. 

[I Med on the field and was buried in a family lot 
near Reams.] 




OfluhtT .>■') to Xuniiihrr 1, lSH-'i. 







Having marched some distance to the rear, we 
came to a halt in a lai'^v field near Fort Pross. This 
was a ton at the extreme left of our rear line of de- 
fences, near the Xorf'olk Railroad. Here we were 
joined by more artillery and two divisions of in- 
fantry Xo further movement was made Tuesday, 
and Ave lay whilin^ away the time, hearing and cir- 
culating "yarns" as to the destination of the pros- 
pective- move The hatterv wa<>on and fori^c were 
sent to City Point, which v,avo color to the story that 
all non-combatants and superfluous uiah rid were to 
be sent thither, that a small picket was to hold the 
main line, while the rest of the army, cutting loose 
under Hancock, Avas to march upon, seize and hold 
the Southside Railroad. In apparent accord with 
this theory the Battery, in common with the other 
troops mentioned, started toward the left and 
camped near "Yellow Tavern,"* on the \Veldon 

* Culled "Ololie Tavern," on Gen. Micbler's F, S. map of "Peters- 
burg and Five Forks." 


Bailroad. Before broad daylight, Thursday morn- 
ing, October 27th, the march was resumed, and 
with flankers well out the column proceeded slowly 
and cautiously in a southwesterly direction. Early 
in the forenoon sounds of skirmishing reached the 
ear, a sure index that our advance was likely to be 
warmly opposed. The enemy's outposts were met 
and driven in and their picket line captured with a 
small earthwork. The advance was then continued 
still moie cautiously, and anon cannonading was 
heard. At noon we were brought to a stand-still, 
and parked at close intervals on the left of the 
Dabney's Mill road (over which we had been march- 
ing) where it meets the Boydton Plank Boad. Bat- 
tery K parked in our company From this position 
we were enabled to watch the fight going on be- 
tween one of our batteries (Beck's "C «!<: I," or li Keg- 
ulars) and some Bebel guns; but Avhen the shells 
from the latter came whistling along not far over- 
head, or, plunging into the ground uncomfortably 
near, indicated that the troops massed and massing 
here were visible to them, we lay a little lower. 

Twas but a moment, however, for we are wanted 
at the front, and leaving caissons behind, out upon 
the Plank Boad dash the pieces at a lively trot. 
We have a half-mile run before us ere getting into 
position, and no sooner are we fairly on the road 
than we become the object of warm attention from 
ihe enemy s guns, whose shells crash through the 
trees and fence by the roadside as we go. But on 
we press, galloping up the rise in the road jnst 
south of where it meets the White Oak Boad. and 
wheel to the right into a field, unlimbering near a 
barn.* We arc opposite the entrance of the White 

* The topography of the map of this battle was taken from Mich- 
Iit's TJ. S. mai">, and the location of troops mainly from a map 



Oak Road, along Avliicli the right of Lee's line after- 
wards ran when Sheridan fought so famously for 
Five Forks. On the corner of it and the Plank 
Road stands lor stood) an unpretentious wood-col- 
ored hostelry, known as Burgess' Tavern or house. 
But these particulars in the landscape were noted 
afterwards. Xow, other business is in hand. We 
at once join battle with the enemy's batteries posted 
across the Run near Burgess' Mill.* These we 
have about succeeded in silencing when the enemy 
open a flank fire upon us with some guns posted 
about eight hundred yards up the White Oak Road. 
We immediately direct the most of our efforts in 
that direction, and it is not long before we have 
them silenced. We had succeeded Becks Battery 
in this position. They had exhausted their supply 
of ammunition, and had gone 1o the rear for more, 
and we continued the contest after their departure, 

But now a more important factor in the fray 
moved to the front. It was (Jibbon's Division, com- 
manded by Oeneral Egan. Its left covered the 
White Oak Road, and from thence the line crossed 
the Plank Road extending around towards our 
right. It was making preparations to carry the 
bridge over Hatcher s Run, which crossed the Plank 
Road not more than five hundred yards in our front, 
and take the rifle-pit and guns beyond. Lieut. 
Smith was detached with the centre section to the 
north of the barn, for the purpose of covering the 
bridge more effectively while the advance Avas mak- 
ing. In this position his guns expended all their 

sketched by Col. Morgan, then Hancock's chief -of -staff, now de- 

* Hancock, a synopsis of whose official report is included in this 
chapter, says the enemy had nine guns confronting us at this point, 
and five up the White Oak Road. 

.">5S the TK.vni massacht'sktts rattkuy 

ammunition except the canister, and Sei^t. Cur- 
rant was dispatched to Lieut. Granger to see about 
getting up more. This, events immediately subse- 
quent prevented. 

We of the other sections had now ceased firing, 
and were watching the charging party with eager 
interest. They press on quite steadily without seri- 
ous opposition, and have almost reached the 
bridge,* when a sharp musketry fire breaks out in 
the Avoods to our left rear, and the line is imme- 
diately faced about, ^\r arc flanked and cat off I is 
our first thought. What else can it mean? The 
stoutest heart trembles at the possibilities of the im- 
mediate future. We can stand a hot fire from the 
front when allowed to give in return, and feel as 
comfortable as the situation warrants; but to be so 
sharply and unexpectedly assailed in the rear, is 
weakening to the strongest nerves. The roar of 
musketry increases, and the whiz of bullets coming 
up from the fray t makes us anxious for the order 
to fire to the rear; and soon it comes from Sergeant 
Townsend, in the absence of Lieut. Granger. At 
once Ave send Hotchkiss percussion shells crashing 
into the Avoods at point-blank range, for the enemy 
are less than three hundred yards distant. But 
just as we have become engaged in dead earnest, 
the guns across the "Run, relieved from the pressure 
of the charging party, treat us to a fire from the 
flank, whereat, taking advantage of a temporary 
lull in our new front, Ave turn and give them a good 
pounding. The roar soon breaks out again behind, 
and feeding that the most is at stake in that direc- 

* Hancock says a part had reached it. AA'e could not see that part 
of the line. 

f Perhaps from our own infantry, for. in confronting the Kelx-ls 

as they issued from the \v Is, I )c Trolirinud's brigade was facing 

nearly towards us. 


tion, we direct our fire thitherward anew At this 
time, a body of infantry,* having advanced by our 
left down to the woods in our front shortly before, 
came falling back through the guns. We remon- 
strate with them, but all to no purpose. A colonel 
says he cannot rally his regiment. One of our men, 
David R. Stowell, cries out to some of the Eleventh 
Massachusetts infantry that he recognized, "Shame 
on you, boys! Will you leave the old Tenth Bat- 
tery to fight it out alone?" Then going to the color- 
bearer he demands the flag, declaring he will lead 
them on himself, while Lieut. (Jranger draws his 
sword and endeavors to stay the retreating wave. 
When they see that we remain steadfastly at our 
posts, making no sign of retreat, some of the more 
courageous step out ami call on their comrades to 
halt and save these guns. For a moment the line 
falters, but a moment only, for the Rebel artillery 
across the Run increasing its fire at this time, dis- 
pels the little resolution they had mustered; again 
the line sways backward and we are alone. 

"What shall we do, Lieutenant?"^ asks some 
one. "(live them shell!" he replies. "We can whip 
them alone." And Ave do give them shell, for now 
their line appears to view, stretching through the 
woods, and the leaden messengers multiply As we 
spring to the work with the utmost vigor, Sergeant 
Townsend coolly watches the Rebel guns in the op- 
posite direction. At their every flash he shouts 
"down!" and down it is until the shell howls pasl, 
when we are up and in business again. But their 
shooting is poor, for their shells all go over us. 

* A brigade of Mitt's Division. 

f Granger. The/ only other otlicer with the Battery being Lieut. 
Smith, Capt. Sleeper not yet having reported for duty, Lieut. Adams 
having been detached in command of the Twelfth N. Y. Battery, 
and Lieut. Itollins being with the train. 


"We have fired t lie hist shell. Lieutenant," is 
heard from the Fourth Detachment. 

"Then give them canister:' - is the immediate re- 
sponse, as immediately obeyed. While in the dis- 
charge of this command, Daniel \Y Atkinson, No. 
Two man on the Fourth Detachment gun, is shot 
through the lower part of the abdomen, and falls to 
the ground with an agonizing groan. In a few mo- 
ments he is dead. Thus perished a brave soldier, a 
professed Christian and true man who had occu- 
pied the post of Xo. Two since the organization of 
the Battery, and who had thus sealed with his blood 
the cause he had upheld from the beginning with 
peculiar earnestness. We pause here to note fur- 
ther, that during the previous winter he had said he 
did not expect to survive the war, and in rhe fore- 
noon of this particular day he had given directions 
to some of his more intimate comrades in regard to 
the disposal of his effects in case he should fall. 
As the troops halted from time to time, he was sev- 
eral times seen, apart from the column, reading the 
Scriptures, or on his knees in prayer. What is that 
■s'jincthiiu/ which has on so many occasions, and not- 
ably during the war, so accurately foreshadowed to 
the individual impending personal events, except it 
be a revelation from Deity? The cases of this de- 
scription on record are as numerous as they are re- 

But no one leaves his post to minister to the dy 

"Wlit'ii a nations life s at hazard, 
We've no time to think of men." 

Our extremity goads us on, each thinking his turn 
may be next, and determined to give the enemy the 
benefit of what ammunition there is left before he 


yields. Lieut. Smith now rides up aud reports the 
centre section brought off according to orders re- 
ceived from Gen. Egan in person.* Being without 
ammunition, the guns stand by the barn unservice- 
able. Scarcely has the Lieutenant reported ere he 
tumbles from his horse, shot through the bowels — 
a mortal wound. 

The situation is now a critical one. We are con- 
tending alone and momentarily expecting the Rebel 
line to emerge from the woods, when we find the 
last round of ammunition is expended. We have 
done our worst, and there is nothing left us but to 
limber up and accept the inevitable. 

"Sip sponge-staff, rammer, and handspike. 

As' wars men should. 
We placed within their proper racks. 

And at our quarters stood." 

We draw off. taking our wounded lieutenant with 
us, and halt near the barn, expecting to be "scooped 
in" by the enemy very shortly "Let us keep to- 
gether, bovs, so as to go to Richmond together," re- 
marks a cannoneer, thus indicating the fate which 
all are momentarily anticipating. Xear by, lying- 
low behind a hastily improvised line of rails, boards, 
etc, is a line of infantry, Egan's Division/ which 
has retired to this position from their advance, and 
a part of the Third Division. 

Affair's as we see them now seem utterly hope- 

* It will be correctly inferred that all of the foregoing description 
back to the point where first mention is made of the rear attack, 
pertains to the right and left sections only, with which the author 
was at the time. 

t Notwithstanding the complimentary manner in which (Jen. Han- 
cock alludes to these troops in his report, those who had a better 
opportunity than the General to observe their conduct, think the 
compliment undeserved, and regard their behavior as a whole as lit- 
tle better than at Keams Station. 

:\(\'2 the tenth .MAssAcinsKi rs hatter y 

less. We have heard nothing from the rear in all 
this time, have no tidings as to what the result of 
the fiank attack was; but learning that the eneinv 
hold the Plank Koad between us and headquarters 
at the caissons, -\ve naturally suppose ourselves and 
neighbors hopelessly cut off. lint soon a staff offi- 
cer appears galloping down the road, at which 
Lieut. Granger declares that he will take the risk 
and responsibility of withdrawing- the risk of en- 
countering the enemy, and the responsibility of 
leaving without orders, as there is no one present 
from whom to receive them. So the drivers and 
cannoneers are mounted, and the horses are started 
to the rear on the gallop.* We draw a lively lire 
from the Pebel skirmish line as we pass, which, it 
seems, still commands the road. Put we escape 
uninjured, although the dead and wounded of t lie 
afternoon s fray are strewn along the course, and 
we have the satisfaction of finding- our men and 
caissons safe and where we left. them. We then 
learn ir/n/ the enemy did not swing around and gob- 
ble us up, as we had expected them to do. It seems 

* Four men, Serge. Townsond, Corp. Chirk, (Jeorge II. Putnam, 
and the writer, remained behind to take Lieut. Smith from the field. 
lie was lying in a corner of the barn already referred to, and on 
hearing our intentions, tells us to look out for ourselves and not mind 
him, as he cannot live long. lint we resolve to take him with us 
or remain with him, and proceed to place him on a blanket. As we 
attempt to carry him it causes him such intense suffering that we 
desist anil cast about for a stretcher. We find one standing by the 
roadside, occupied by a wounded "Johnny." lie had undoubtedly 
been left here by some of the ambulance corps, who, while biking 
him from the field, had precipitately abandoned him at the first rattle 
of musketry in the rear. We remove him with as much care as is 
consistent with time and the circuiuslances, and placing the Lieuten- 
ant on the stretcher, start down the road. Wo had not gone but a 
few rods, however, before we were fired upon, and compelled to 
leave the road near a blacksmith's shop, then standing a short dis- 
tance south of the White Oak Load, and seek a safer retreat through 
the woods. After numerous vicissitudes in the darkness and rain 
that soon set in. our charge was finally brought to the I'.altery and 
put into an ambulance. 


that the left of the Rebel column under Gen. Heth 
of Hill's Corps, our old antagonist, under orders 
from Lee to cross Hatcher's Bun and attack Han- 
cock's right, in pursuance of this order suddenly is- 
sued from the woods about 4 o'clock P.M., and fell 
upon a part of Mott s Division. Their point of issu- 
ance was near the junction of the Boydton Plank 
with the Dabney's Mill Road, near where our cais- 
sons and Battery K were parked. The caissons 
were immediately hurried out of the way, aud brave 
Battery K unlimbering its guns at close intervals, 
opened fire to the rear, double-shotted with canis- 
ter, doing good execution upon the enemy, while, si- 
multaneously, our shells raked across them, adding 
to the warmth of their situation. These circum- 
stances, with others given in detail further on, 
caused the larger part of the Rebels to again seek 
cover in the woods. Se\ eral hundred of their num- 
ber, however, did not do so, but remained fighting, 
apparently unconscious that they were left alone, 
until by the advance of the First Minnesota under 
Maj. Mitchell of the staff, they were cut off and sur- 

Our supply and ambulance trains stood parked in 
the field with our caissons, and all under fire. 
There was no safe rear in this fight, for the enemy 
nearly surrounded us, and Hampton's cavalry was 
still behind us across the Plank Road, stoutly op- 
posed by the valiant Gregg with inferior numbers. 

* Crawford's Division of the Fifth Corps hail been expected to 
move up tiio Run and join our right, but owing to the densely wooded 
region through which it was making its way, connection had not 
been made, and Heth, though unaware of it at the time, had pene- 
trated the interval between Hancock and Crawford. Heth told Han- 
cock since the war that he was greatly alarmed after lie had crossed 
the Run to attack, lest Crawford should advance upon his left flank, 
and said that had lie done so his (Heth s) command must have been 
driven into the stream, aud dispersed or captured. — See Swinton's 
Army of the Potomac. 


Having exchanged our empty limbers for full 
ones from the caissons, we are again ordered into 
position, this time in the field across the Plank 
Boad, where we go into battery prepared to lire to 
the rear, that apparently being considered the direc- 
tion in which our greatest danger lay, as ihe enemy 
were pressing Gregg very heavily Soon after this 
a cheer was heard from the front. Lt was Euan's 
Division charging to the rear, retaking full posses- 
sion of the road and contiguous territory 

It was now about sunset, but the sun was ob- 
scured from view by threatening clouds, and other 
trials were in store for us. .V Bebel battery (prob- 
ably the one we had silenced from our position at 
Burgess' Tavern), located up the White Oak Bead, 
not more than twelve hundred yards distant, and 
apparently supposing our troops to be massed near 
or marching down the Dabney's Mill Boad, opened 
a random fire in that direction. We say a random 
fire, for had not we been screened from view by in- 
tervening woods, a foggy mist that had set in would 
have covered us. But if Ave had been in full view, 
and not half as far away, they could not have done 
better shooting, for rrrri/ shot raked the Hfitlrri/ from 
rii/ht to left, undoubtedly due to our being at about 
the limit of their range. It would not have been 
wise to answer them, they being at the circumfer- 
ence of the circle, as it were, thus letting them know 
that we were still at its centre, and perhaps draw- 
ing a hotter fire in our direction. But whether or 
not this was the reason governing the commander, 
no orders were received by us to reply, and so we 
lay by the guns hugging the ground until torrents 
of rain and pitchy darkness caused the "wicked (foe) 
to cease from troubling." 

We had not undergone (his ordeal unseat lied. 



Hiram Pike was thrown to the ground by the con- 
cussion of a shell. Another struck and disabled 
both wheels of the fifth piece, a fragment of it 
wounding private Alfred C. Billings in the lip, and 
two pieces entering the head of Michael Farrell. 

A "close call" was made for John P Apthorp, 
whose canteen strap was cut by a shell as he lav by 
the fourth piece; but sadder than all, and as a cli- 
max to The horrors that had accumulated around us, 
a fragment of an explod- 
ing shrapnel entered the 
breast of Lieut. Gran- 
ger, inflicting a mortal 
wound. By his fall we 
were left without a com- 
missioned officer, and our 
prospects looked dismal 
enough. As sr>on as our 
condition was reported 
at headquarters, Lieut 
Smith of Battery K was 
detached to take charge 
of us, and Lieut. Dean of 
the Sixth Maine was de- 
tailed to assist him. 

When darkness had 
fairly settled down, all 
firing had died away, and 
from the surrounding 

territory there came up wails from the wounded and 
dying, not all of whom had been brought off the field. 
It was with great difficulty that places could be 
found in an ambulance for our wounded officers, so 
crowded were these conveyances. The Union loss 
in this battle was fourteen hundred and fifteen. Of 
these, six hundred and twenty-five were missing.* 

* Hancock: Report of Operations on the Boydton I'laiik Road. 




The enemy s loss exceeded this, by their own admis- 

Affairs becoming quiet, we spread our tar- 
paulins, and lying down, doubled them over us for 
shelter and warmth, while we attempted to catch a 
little sleep in anticipation of the next move. It was 
nearly 31 o'clock at night when we were aroused, 
and ordered to "limber up" preparatory to moving 
otit. As we had expected to remain on the field 
and renew the contest next morning, this was an tin- 
looked for order, but retracing our wav through 


mire and water, we emerged at Yellow Tavern just 
as the sun was breaking through the clouds. There 
we lay till noon, going thence to the camp in the 
rear line occupied by us on the return from Jieams 


station; thence, on the evening of the 29th, to Fort 
Stevenson, inside which we pitched our tents. 

Thus ended the Battle of Hatcher's Bun, or Boyd- 
ton Flank Road as it is sometimes called, which 
closed active operations on this part of the line for 
1864. Our total loss was two officers mortally 
wounded, one private killed and two wounded, and 
seven horses shot.* Lieut. Grander died in the hos- 
pital at City Point, October :>Oth, and Lieut. Smith 
at the same place, October 2Sth. 

In the death of Lieut. Grander we felt that we had 
lost our warmest friend. When he was struck 
down (it was after dusk), he asked to have all the 
men gather at his side that he nii^lit take them by 
the hand and bid. them c;ood-bve. He expected, 
then, to expire in a short time. He thanked us all 
for standing by him so well, told us to look out Tor 
tlie Batterv after lie was ^one, and iret Lieut. Smith 
off the field if possible. A brave soldier! None 
could be braver! A true, warm-hearted friend! 
His goodness of heart and equity of government 
won the manliest affection of all, and as we looked 
upon that prostrate form for the last time, the 
stoutest hearts pive way in tears. He fell far short 
of the ideal military hero, never seeming at home on 
parade, but in the earnestness of battle his cool- 
ness was unsurpassed. The following notice of his 
death appeared in some paper (I think the "Barre 
Gazett*'*') shortly afterwards, written by a hand 
unknown to me, but the tribute seems so well mer- 
ited, I insert it here entire. 


"Died at City Point. Va.. Sunday, Oct. 3<»fh. of wounds received 
in the battle of Hatchers Creek. Henry H. Grander, Senior First 
Lieutenant Tenth Massachusetts Battery, a.ued 47 years. 

* Cornelius McAuliffe was thrown from a caisson on the return 
inarch, resulting in the breaking of one of his legs. 


"In the death of this gallant soldier not only the Battery which 
he so faithfully served, but the whole division sustains severe 
loss. Inheriting the loyal spirit of his grandfather, Capt. John 
Granger, (who in former time of our country s peril gathered a 
company of sixty minute-men in New Braintree and towns ad- 
joining, and marched to Cambridge at the call of Gen. Washing- 
ton,) he but renewed the old record with others of the same lin- 
eage Upon the day of his last battle, a great-grandson of the 
old patriot, Capt. D. A. Granger, at the lime commanding the 
Eleventh Massachusetts Infantry, fell mortally wounded while 
passing the colors from the color-bearer who had fallen to an- 
other Lieut. Granger rode over to his fallen kinsman and prom- 
ised to send a stretcher for his removal, but was directly ordered 
into action, and soon after received his own death-wound. Capt. 
Grangers men endeavored to carry him from the field, but his 
agony was intense, and he told them to leave him to his fate. 

"During the battle of Hatcher's Creek, the Tenth Battery was 
exposed at one time unsupported to fearful odds, and won spe- 
cial praise for its signal daring and efficiency. It was then com- 
manded by Lieut. Granger. As an office]- he won the confidence 
of the men to a remarkable degree, and always manifested a 
lively interest in whatever concerned the welfare or comfort of 
the company. The most obscure private felt that in him he would 
always find a ready listener, and one as willing to do justice to 
him as to any of a higher station. 

"But not for goodness of heart alone was he distinguished. In 
the din and confusion of battle no officer could be braver. Seem- 
ingly destitute of all regard for personal safety, he was always 
to be seen in the thickest of the fight, and as the danger became 
more imminent, his coolness and good judgment shone out the 
clearer. In his last battle when he yielded up his life for his 
country, these qualities came out most grandly to view. When 
the impetuous attack of the Rebels behind obliged the cannon- 
eers to turn their guns and fire to the rear, and when our in- 
fantry were breaking, he rode up in a shower of bullets and gave 
the characteristic order: 'Fire whatever you ve got into the 
woods! We can whip them alone!' Then as the retreating lines 
came wavering past the guns, and the colonel commanding de- 
clared he could not rally his men, he (Granger) drew his sword, 
and riding forward called upon them to 'rally and save the guns. 
When the ammunition was all gone he remained mounted till 
every gun was limbered and brought off in safety. Then he led 
the Battery in a desperate run for life between the two skirmish 
lines, exposed to the tire of sharpshooters the whole distance, and 

\U€r$ J&<u k 


put the guns iulo position in the fields below. Here a stray shot 
struck him and he fell mortally wounded. It was the hardest 
blow to us yet. and made the darkness of the night then closing 
in more full of gloom. His memory Ave shall always cherish as 
that of a friend and a brave soldier. The tribute paid to his 
bravery by the chief of artillery in special order of thanks we 
feel was richly deserved.* and our grief at his untimely end is 
tempered by the reflection that he met his fate where the true 
soldier ever wishes to die. leading his men against the foe. 

"When lying in hospital, a valued friend in the service at City 
Point was sent for and remained by him while ho could. After 

bidding this friend \g 1-bye he called him back. 'Tell uncle. 

said he. 'I am not afraid to die. I was ready to obey my last 
order. His body was embalmed and brought home to his native 
town of Hardwick. -Mass.. to rest amid the scenes of his boyhood. 
Long will his memory be green in the hearts of his friends and 
townsmen. His surviving son, Louis E. Granger, is in his coun- 
try s service on the staff of Brig. (Jen. Ullman at Morganzia. 
Louisiana. M. C. A." 

In the death of Lieut. Smith the Battery lost a 
most efficient officer. He was a man of dauntless 
energy and derision of character, and whatever he 
undertook was sure of accomplishment. Although 
a rigid disciplinarian, there may truly be said of 
him what Gen. Garfield said of (Jen. Thomas, that 
he rendered that same exact obedience to superiors 
which he required of those under his command, and 
those who knew him most intimately assert that 
under that mantle of sternness beat one of the 
warmest of hearts. lie, too, was a thoroughly 
brave man in action, and never cooler than in his 
last battle. 

The following synopsis of (Jen. Hancock's report 
of this movement Avill throw light over much of the 

Gibbons Division, commanded by Egan, and 

* This special order was issued by Lieut. Col. Hazard, the chief 
of the Second Corps artillery, a day or two after the action, and 
paid high tribute to the officers and men for their gallant stand. On 
account of the death of Cen. Hazard I am unable to embody a copy 
of the order in this volume. 


Mott's Division were withdrawn from the intrench- 
ments on the morning of the 25th, and massed in the 
rear. Miles Division stretched out and occupied 
their places. At 2 P.M. they moved along the rear 
to near Fort Du Chesne on the Weldon Road and 
bivouacked. It was expected they would bivouac 
on the Vaughan Road. 

'The order of movement prescribed that the troops should 
move down the Vaughan Road, cross Hatcher's Run, thence by 
Dabneys Mill to the Boydton Plank Road, thence to the White 
Oak Road, again crossing Hatcher's Run, and finally that I should 
strike the Southside Railroad. Gregg's Division of cavalry was 
placed under my command, and was to move on my left flank 
by way of Rowanty Creek and the Quaker Road. The 

march was somewhat delayed by obstructions in the road, and 
the head of Egan s column reached Hatcher's Run very soon after 
daylight, and Egan at once made his arrangements to force the 
crossing. The enemy was posted in a rifle-pit on the op- 

posite bank. Smythe's brigade carried the works with a loss of 
about fifty men.* Egan now moved on towards the Boydton 
Dank Road. 

"As soon as we emerged into the clearing at the Plank Road 
the enemy opened fire on us from near Burgess Tavern, and from 
our left, having apparently a section of artillery at each place. 
Beck's Battery of the Fifth Artillery soon silenced the fire of the 
section at the tavern. Preparations were at once made for 

continuing the march by the White Oak Road. Gen. Egan's Di- 
vision moved down the Boydton Road for the purpose of driving 
the enemy across the Run. Mott's Division was put in motion 
for the White Oak Road, and a brigade of cavalry sent down to 
relieve Egan in order that he might follow Mott." 

At this juncture, 1 P.M., Meade ordered a halt. 
Egan pressed the enemy across the Run. Meade 
soon arrived on the field. Egan was now ordered 
to deploy to the right, to connect with the Fifth 
Corps, which was moving this way 

"Meanwhile the enemy was not idle. He placed nine guns in 
front of Egan on (he north bank of the Run, and five more about 

* This took place where the Vauffhan Road is crossed bv the Run. 


eight hundred yards from Egan's left on the "White Oak Road, 
from which he opened a very annoying artillery fire. Beck, with 
four guns, replied gallantly. More important events directed 

my attention from this point, though Granger's Battery, Tenth 
Massachusetts, was sent forward to relieve Beck, that the latter 
might replenish his ammunition. Knowing the views of 

iny superiors, I had determined to assault the bridge and gain 
possession of the high ground beyond. Gen Egan, whose divi- 
sion occupied the crest of the ridge near Burgess' Tavern, had 
been entrusted with the necessary preparations. McAllis- 

ter s Brigade of Mott's Division was still in line of battle facing 
the approaches from the upper bridge.* The remaining brigade 
of Mott's Division, f General Pierce's, had been moved up to 
support a section of Beck's Battery under Lieut. Metcalf, which 
was in position on a secondary ridge, about midway between Mott 
and Egan. Constant firing had been heard on my right, 

which was attributed to Crawford's (Fifth Corps) advance. Be- 
coming uneasy I ordered two regiments of Pierce s Brigade to 
advance well into the wood and ascertain what was there. 

"Lieut. Stacy of my staff was sent to Gen. Crawford to inform 
him that I was about to assault the bridge, for which prepara- 
tions were complete. A section of Granger's Battery had been 
advanced to cover the bridge; the artillery had already opened, 
and a small party of the One Hundred and Sixty-fourth New 
York, the advance of the storming party, had pushed across the 
bridge, capturing a 10-pound Parrott gun. Just at this time, 
about 4 o'clock P.M., a volley of musketry immediately on my 
right, which was followed by a continuous fire, left no doubt that 
the enemy was advancing. The small force of Pierce's Brigade 
in the woods was overrun by weight of numbers, and the enemy 
broke out of the woods just where Metcalf's section was placed. 
Metcalf changed front and fired a few rounds, and the part of 
Pierce s Brigade in support endeavored to change front, but was 
unable to do so successfully, and most of the brigade was driven 
back in confusion, rallying at the Plank Road, — the section falling 
into the hands of the enemy 

"At the first sound of the attack, I sent Maj. Mitchell to 

* Probably the bridge here referred to is the one crossed by the 
Claiborne Road, which leaves the White Oak Road about two miles 
west of Burgess' Tavern, and was in our prospective line of march. 

f It must not be understood from this that there were but two 
brigades in this division. De Trobriand's brigade is located by Han- 
cock in the report, but is omitted in the extract as having at this 
time no special bearing on the concerns of the Battery. 


Cei). Egan, with orders for him to desist from his ;iss:iult on the 

E^-an had already done so. 

"I do not think the enemy comprehended the situation exactly, 
lie pushed rapidly across the ridge resting his right across the 
Boydton Plank Road, and, facing south, commenced firing. De 
Trobriand's Brigade was quickly formed just in front of the Dab- 
ney Mill Road, with Kerwin s brigade of dismounted cavalry on 
its left. Roder's (Ki and Reck s batteries were opened on the en- 
emy Maj. Mitchell, in returning from (Jen. Egan. found the 
enemy in possession of the road, and taking the first Minnesota 
of Rugg "s Brigade, Second Division, opened Are on him. This 
was, perhaps, the earliest intimation he had of the presence of 
any considerable force in his rear, and he immediately directed 
a part of his fire in that direction. 

"Gen. Egan swept down on the flank of the enemy. , . . while 
the line formed along the Dabney Mill Road advanced at the 
same time Some of the uew troops faltered, but were 

speedily re-formed. The general advance of Egan was, however, 
irresistible, and the enemy was swept from the field with a loss 
of two colors and several hundred prisoners. The captured 

guns were retaken, and were soon afterwards drawn off the field. 
Almost simultaneously with this attack the enemy com- 
menced pressing our left and rear heavily. The enemy in 
front had hardly been repulsed, when the fire in rear became 
so brisk that I was obliged to send (Jen. Gregg air of his force 
I had used to meet the attack in front as well as another of his 
brigades. The attack on Gregg was made by five brigades of 
Hampton s cavalry. . Between and 7 P.M. I received a 
despatch from Gen. Humphreys, stating that Ayres Division 
of the Fifth Corps had been ordered to my support, but had 
halted at Armstrong's Mill, which was as far as it could get. 
The despatch also authorized me to withdraw that night if I 
thought proper; but stated that if I could attack successfully in 
the morning with the aid of Ayres' and Crawford's divisions, the 
Major-General commanding desired me to do so. Though these 
reinforcements were offered to me, the question of their getting 
to me in time and of getting ammunition up in time to have my 
own command effective in the morning, was left for me to de- 
cide; and I understood that if the principal part of the fighting 
in the morning would be thrown upon these reinforcements, it was 
not desired that they should be ordered up. They would at least 
have been called upon to do the fighting until my own command 


could have replenished their ammunition, "which I was quite cer- 
tain would not b.» iu time to resist attack at au early hour iu the 
morning. Reluctant as I was to leave the field, and by so doing 
lose some of the fruits of my victory, I felt compelled to order a 
withdrawal rather than risk a disaster by awaiting attack iu the 
morning only partially prepared." * 


Oct. 2.">. One recruit received — Timothy lierl- 
ehy Two horses shot, by order F. L. Smith, Lieut. 
Battery K, 4th V S. Arty, A. A. I. (i 

Oct. 2<i. Corp. Ci. A. Pease sent to general hos- 

Oct. 27 Lieut s < J ranker and Smith and Pri- 
vates A. C Killings and Farrell wounded and sent 
to hospital. McAuliffe, lei; broken also sent to hos- 
pital. Lieut. E. L. Smith Lattery K, 4th V S. 
Arty and Limit. Deane, <>th Me. \rt'y temporarily 
attached. Seven horses shot in action. Hiram 
Pike slightly wounded. 

Oct. lis. Lieut Asa Smith died at general hos- 
pital City Point, Ya., from effects of wound received 
Oct. 21. Lieut. O ranker sent to general hospital 
also Billings, Farrell and McAuliffe. 

Oct. L".». ('apt. Sleeper returned to duty from 
leave of absence since Alio;. 2~>. Lieut. Wm. (5. Kol- 
lins returned to duty from ammunition train. 

Oct. :><>. Private C A. Mason dropped from the 
rolls Oct. 2-"> is taken up. Lieut. 10. L. Smith re- 
turned to Battery K, 4th V S. Art y One horse 
died — effects of wounds. 

*< leu. Heth told Hancock since tin.' war that they remained all 
night in the position they held when the fighting ceased, and during 
the night massed fifteen thousand infantry and Hampton's cavalry, 
with which they had intended to advance upon us at daylight of the 
L'Stli. - - UamiJfiiynx Of the Army of the l'otonuu-. 



Norembcr 1, ISO.'/, to March ,?J, is<;:>. 










Fort Stevenson, in which we were now located, 
was the largest fort in the rear line of works before 
Petersburg. In a day or two the left section of the 
Battery was detached to Fort Blaisdell, a smaller 
work in the same line further east. Captain (now 
Major) Sleeper * returned from leave of absence, 
and resumed command of the Battery New quar- 
ters were built and the usual careful preparations 
made to stay 

On the 2(>ih of November Lieut. Milbrey Green re- 
ported at the Battery for duty to succeed Lieut. 
Smith deceased. His military record was an un 
usual one and worthy extended notice.t 

* Hi' had been breveted Major by general orders for gallant and 
meritorious serviee. 

file was a member of the Roxbnry Horse Onard from its begin- 
ning, and after the war began drilled under Col. Hodges regularly 
till the First Massachusetts Battery was organized tinder Captain 
Porter. In this he decided to enlist and was mustered into service 
Aug. I'.X, ISiil. This battery was largely recruited from the old Bos- 



It is a record of which to be proud and while 
some of the company believed the Captain was un- 
just to his own command in filling vacancies from 
outside yet, since he had chosen to do so, Ave were 
glad to adopt into our membership one every way 
so worthy 

Time passed monotonously enough at this station 
nothing occurring worthy of note for four weeks; 
but November 29th brought a change, when we 
were ordered down to the extreme left to take posi- 
liou in Fort Welch, relieving there a Ninth Corps 

ton Light Artillery just back from throe months' service. All its of- 
ficers except Lieut. Sleeper and all its non-commissioned officers ex- 
cept Lieut, Green wen- old members of the Boston Light Artillery 
The First went to Washington Oct. .">rd and was soon sent to join 
Franklins Division at Fairfax Seminary. Virginia. Oct. 12, Lieut. 
Green was notified that Gov. Andrew was ready to issue a commis- 
sion of second lieutenant for him in the First Massachusetts Cav- 
alry and he might be discharged to receive it. But rumors of an ad- 
vance of the Confederates were rife and the commission was de- 
clined, Lieut, (ireen being unwilling to leave the Battery under those 

He was soon detailed to the Signal Corps, remaining with it till 
the army went to Yotktown when he was made A. A. 0- M and 
A. C. S. of the artillery brigade, first division, iSloeunfsi Sixth Corps. 
This position he held till Sept. 21, ISCii. when he was commissioned 
second lieutenant in the First Mass. Battery. As .V. A. O. M. he 
was always with the chief of artillery, in action or on the march. 
After the Seven Days Battles he was commended by his superior 
officers "for bravery under all circumstances and for efficient service 
in carrying orders and acting with great coolness under heavy fire." 
lie was also commended by the chief of artillery for similar services 
at the battles of Second Bull Run. Crampton Pass and Antiotam. His 
service was then with the First Battery from October, V>2, till Octo- 
ber. "t;4. when its term expired. In September. '<>4, he was recommended 
for the command of a battery by generals Sheridan, H. G. Wright 
i commander of Sixth Corps), James B. Rieketts, David A. Russell, 
and Albion P. Howe (who wrote of their personal knowledge of his 
services in their divisions), by Gen. George H. Getty, and Col. Tomp- 
kins. Chief of Artillery, Sixth Corps. He received a commission in 
the Fourth .Mass. Heavy Artillery but declined it as the regiment 
was in the defences of Washington and he preferred active service, 
but accepted a commission later as second lieutenant in the Tenth 
at the request of Captain Sleeper. 

He participated in twenty-six battles and received four wounds dur- 
ing the war. one a bullet in the thigh, still causes him suffering, an- 
other in the left ankle still gives constant pain and has < ipletely 

disabled him for months at a time. He was breveted captain and 
major at the close of the war "for gallant and meritorious services." 


batterv * Headquarters were with the caissons 
ncai- Foil Whc-aton. We were in 1 ho front line 
again, with the Kebel works in full view, but a truce 
existed between the opposing pickets, so that we 
walked unconcernedly both in and outside the 
works, the Kebels doing the same. The difference 
in this respect between the present position and 
that at Battery XIV, was due to the greater dis- 
tance between the lines at this point, the opinion 
prevailing on both sides at the former position seem- 
ing to be that eternal vigilance was the price of 

On the otli of December, Lieut Adams returned 
to the Battery from detached service, and past 
Sergt. (ieorge II. Day, who had been commissioned 
Junior Second Lieutenant the 1st of November, re- 
ported for duty in that capacity 

November 2<ith Gen. Hancock was taken from his 
command and sent north to raise a new corps. This 
was a matter of much regret to us, for while we had 
seen hard service under him, had been ''shoved," as 
the expressive army slang had it, we were none the 
less anxious for him to retain command of the old 
Second Corps, whose renown was so indissolubl v 
connected with his name, till the end. But the 
"powers" had ordered otherwise, and the same (lav 
that he left us Major (Jen. A. A. Ilumphrevs, late 
Cen. Meade's chief-of-staff, took command of the 
corps. t 

Thursday, December Nth, we were relieved by the 
Eleventh New York Battery, and ordered to take 
the position vacated by them in the rear line, about 
a mile distant, and south of Poplar Spring (drove?) 

* Jones' Kleventh Massachusetts. 

I Brig. Gen. A. S. Webb succeeded (Jen. Humphreys as Gen. 
Mea lie's chief -of-sta£E. 


Church. This exchange was said to have been 
made to enable us to participate in a projected 
movement. So we took what we hoped wa« tempo- 
rary possession of barn-like quarters left by our 
predecessors, to pass the night and await the next 
rum of the wheel. It came the ensuing day in the 
shape of orders to join the First Division of the 
Sixth Corps at dusk.* With the inception of this 
movement the weather changed from mild to 
stormy We went perhaps two miles and a half 
and halted near an old hut in the woods, where 
having spent the night and a part of the subsequent 
day in the last degrees of wretchedness, shivering 
about a camp-fire in the cold and sleet, we returned 
to our starting-point Saturday afternoon. >sbd to 
Fort Welch as we had fondly desired, for we had 
left superior quarters there; and the hopes we had 
entertained of a lot urn thither were soon dissipated 
by orders ro place our guns in forts Emory and Sie- 
bert, near the extreme left of the rear line. 

At headquarters cam]), which had remained un- 
disturbed by this brief movement, all was bustle 
and activity, for, in addition to remodelling the 
shabby stockade in which their lot was cast,t the 
men were engaged in building and shingling a sta- 
ble for the horses — a work of considerable magni- 
tude, and, as they felt, of questionable profit, consid- 
ering the uneasy state in which the army then was. 

* (Jar division (Third) moved to Hatcher's Itun on the Dili, in a 
terrible storm of snow and rain, as a supporting column to Warren 
and Mott, who had gone still further to the left to destroy the Weldon 
Kailroad. — History of Tenth llrg'tmrnt 17. Vols. 

t If the reader is of the opinion that too frequent reference is made 
to building quarters, he must bear in mind that the best soldiers as 
a rule had the best quarters; that the Massachusetts troops as a 
whole were unusually tidy and ambitious in the character of their 
huts: and finally that they spent a great many days during the year 
in their construction, which fact may, perhaps, alone justify what 
inference is made to them. It was an interesting and important fea- 
ture in army life. 


The shingles were rifted from sections of hu.ue pine 
lo^-s, cut in the neighborhood, and sawed into three- 
foot lengths - — all this by hand. After a months 
labor the stable was about two-thirds covered with 
these, and would soon he ready for use. when march- 
ing orders were received, and shortly after daylight 
of Sunday the oth (Has any one thought how many 
of the movements and battles of this army took 
place on the Sabbath?) we reported to the Second 
Division, now commanded by (ien. Sniythe. The 
movement included but two divisions of our corps, 
the Second and Third, !<len. Miles having been left 
in the int renchments,) and two batteries, Battery K 
and the Tenth Massachusetts,* and was only an- 
other reaching out around the Confederate ri^lit, in 
the direction of the Southside "Railroad, which, if we 
beat the enemy, Ave should advance upon. By mid- 
afternoon we halted, and were ordered into posi 
tion; but let Lieut. Adams report to the Adjutant 
General "ive one view of the story:'!" 

"I have the honor to report that on the -"illi inst.. at A.M.. 
T reported with the Lattery to Lrig. Gen. Sniythe. commanding 
Second Division, Second Army Corps, and inarched with that 
division on the Yaughan Road to near Hatchers Itnn. and went 
into position: the Right Section, commanded by Lient. Day, near 
the Tucker House, the Left Section, commanded by Lieut. Cli'eeii. 
near young Armstrong's house, covering' the front and right of 
(ien. Sm.vthe's Division; and the Centre Section, commanded by 
First Serjeant Townsend, under my own immediate supervision, 
near (Jen. Sniythe s headquarters, covering a ford and (Jen. 
Smythes left Hank. About -L'.o P.M., the enemy in strong force 

* "Smythe's Division had been directed by me to diverge to the 
right from the Vaughan Load, near the Gumming* House, secure the 
missing at Armstrong"* Mill, cover it, and extend to the right, past 
the It. Armstrong house, and rest his right upon the small swamp in 
dial vicinity. Lieutenant Adams' I'm (I cry of rifled guns was sent 
Willi him."' — (icncnil Humphreys Official lic/iorf. 

f Lieut. Adams was now in command of the Battery, Major 
Sleeper being away on leave of absence. 


attacked the right of Gen. Smythe's Division, and attempted to 
turn his flank. Lieut. Green changed the position of his section, 
and opened an enfilading Are within three hundred yards of the 
right of the enemy s line of battle. The centre section changed 
front and fired to the rear, having an oblique Are ou the centre 
and left of the enemy's line of battle. After a hard fight of an 
hour or more, in which we expended nearly three hundred rounds 
of ammunition, doing good execution, the enemy withdrew. The 
right section was not engaged. 

That Lieut. Adams is modest in his statement of 
the part the Battery had in this action, further tes- 
timony will show The following is an extract from 
a letter written by Gen. McAllister to a friend in 
New Jersey The General commanded a brigade of 
Mott's (Third) Division, and took the brunt of the 
Rebel assault. He says : 

"The distance now between my Brigade and Gen. Srnythe s 
First Brigade on my left across the swamp, was at least three 
hundred yards; through this the enemy might sweep with their 
heavy columns. To prevent the enemy from passing into and 

through the open space. Adams' Battery (centre section) crossed 
my Seventh New Jersey (infantry) fire at nearly right angles, 
while Lieut. Green's Battery (section) had considerably more of 
an enfilade. The Rebels recoiled under our deadly fire, and 

the firing ceased in a measure. This gave our boys courage. In 
a few moments more the well-known Rebel yell rolled out on the 
evening breeze, and on rushed their massed columns. My line 
now opened a most destructive Are, again the enemy were 

repulsed. The fire slackening' some, I rode along the lines en- 
couraging the men to stand Arm and the day would be ours. 
They all struck up the song 'Rally around the Flag, Boys.' The 
Rebels replied, 'We will rally around your flag, boys!' The heavy 
firing had now ceased for the time being, but the pause was of 
short duration. The Rebel Mahone with his famous Aghting di- 
vision made a rush for the gap in our lines, but our boys 
were ready for them, and as the darkness of the night had closed 
in upon us, the discharge of musketry and burning, Aashing pow- 
der, illuminating the battle-scene, and the loud thundering 
of the artillery, made the scene one of more than ordinary gran- 
deur. We then rolled back the Rebel columns for the last time. 
Cheer after cheer resounded along our lines. The battle was 
over, and victory perched on our banners." 


Following is a short extract from Maj. (Jon. Mc- 
Allister's official report to Gen. Humphreys: 

"Had it not been for this and the aid of the artillery com- 
manded by Lieuts. Adams and Green of the Tenth Massachusetts 
Battery, who were throwing their tire across the swamp at a 
right angle with my enfilading tire, all would have been lost. 
These anillery officers deserve great credit, and I have the pleas- 
ure to mention tliem favorably." 

I may preface the fol lowing extract from a letter 
written me by Gen. McAllister, by saying that Gen. 
Gordon, commander of the TCebel Second Corps, 
was in command of the enemy 

"In a conversation with Gen. Gordon, relative to this oth of 
February Hatcher's Run battle, I asked him how many troops he 
had charging against us. "Three divisions, and I was never more 
certain of victory I expected to gobble you up, and don't know 
why I did not succeed.' was his answer. He then asked me, 
'How many troops had you in the fight'.'' 1 replied, 'One brigade, 
assisted by a part of a Massachusetts battery on the other side 
of a swamp or low ground. He was astonished when he learned 
this fact. He advanced in three lines, division-front, making 
three separate charges, each of which we rolled back as they 
came tin. 

"He expected the right of his divisions to turn my left, and 
was thus pushing for the gap between the Second Division and 
my Brigade. Lieuts. Adams and Green of your Tenth Massachu- 
setts Battery, seeing this, turned their guns on the advancing 
Rebels; at the same time I ordered Col. Price, of the Seventh New 
Jersey Regiment, to oblique his fire, which he did handsomely, 
crossing your battery Are at right angles, and thus doing its 
deadly work. Some of your shots came up to our breastworks, 
but with no injury to us. 

"You can now see what I owe to your officers and men who 
thus assisted me in that hard-fought and successful battle." 

So much for official testimony Little remains to 
be said except to tell the story in brief from a bat 
tervman's standpoint. 

Two sections of the Battery had taken position as 


Lieut. Adams report indicates, covering either 
Hank of Gen. Smvthe's (Second) Division, -which was 
facing generally westward. Running nearly at 
right angles with this division, with a kind of 
swamp or marsh intervening, was (Jen. McAllister's 
Brigade <»f the Third Division, facing northward. 
Our guns were on Snivthe's side of the marsh, and 
had been engaging a Rebel battery, firing over his 
line, and anticipating an attack from that quarter, 
when, with hardly a premonition in the way of skir- 
mishing, the enemy came out of the woods in McAl- 
lister's front, evidently having discovered the inter- 
val between his left and Snivthe's right, and bent 
on penetrating it. The Tenth was the only battery 
on the field, and this was its opportunity Lieut. 
'Ireen at om-e directed his gnus to fire to the rear, 
and being exactly on the Rebels flank, every shot 
enfiladed their advancing lines. Lieut. Adams 
also turned his guns upon the triple line. 
His fire was oblique lo the enemy's front and did 
great execution. Never did shells do more effect ive 
work than did those fired by these two sections. 
Their opportunity was a rare one, and most rarely 
did they improve it. The Rebel advance first ap- 
peared to view in a somewhat scattered tract of 
woods, mainly pines and oaks, and amid these the 
havoc was greatest. Five men were afterwards 
found lying dead near a iree, killed by a shell 
which, singnarly enough, first, passed completely 
through the trunk of the tree, exploding on the fur- 
ther side. 

Our assistance was invaluable in rolling back the 
three successive charges made by the three Rebel 
divisions to break through our lines. The enemy 
had evidently maneuvered to bring about another 
such result as that which confused and demoralized 


the corps mi the Boydton Plank Uoad in October; 
but although tlie weight of numbers was on their 
side, the Cod of Battles was on ours, and in this the 
last important tilt between the old Second < 'orps 
and Lees army before the final break-up, Victory 
perched on the Union banners. 

At one time, owing to the peculiar situation of the 
lines, the shells from Lieut. Green's guns dropped 
among Bamsey s Brigade ( 4t h, of First Division), 
which had taken post at the right of McAllister, 
whereat Bamsey at once sent word to headquarters 
that his line was being enfiladed by a Bebel battery 

At the coielusion of the battle Gen. Smythe rode 
up to the lieutenants and handsomely complimented 
the Battery for its services, stating that but for it 
his division must have been Hanked or captured, 
perhaps both. (Jen. McAllister, too, admitted his 
inability to have held his post unaided by our guns. 
We were also mentioned favorably by the Chief of 
Artillery and bv (Jen. Humphreys in his congratu- 
latory order. 

Our casualties were three- horses shot. The total 
loss of the corps was one hundred and twenty-five 
men killed and wounded. This insignificant loss is 
due to the fact of our troops being, in the main, pro- 
tected by intrenchments. It fairly illustrated the 
difference between charging earthworks as our 
army had done from the Wilderness to Petersburg, 
and defending them from assault. The Confeder- 
ate loss was heavy, but is not known. 

This battle is known both by the name of 
Hatcher's Run and Armstrong's Farm, though the 
former more properly belongs to the action of the 
Fifth Corps further to the left, the next day. We 
usuallv call it the Second Hatcher's Ran. 

The weather, so mild a few days before, now 







lilt 1 Bit !l 


changed to piercing cold, and February Gth t;ave us 
a driving storm of sleet, which froze as it fell, cov- 
eriuu everything with a coating of ice. Bivouack- 
ing under shelters of brush and tarpaulins stretched 
against the storm, Ave shivered through the day and 
ni^ht. During the afternoon the Fifth Corps, hav- 
ing connecte<l with the left of the Second, was reach- 
ing forward with its left to strike the Boydton 
Flank Foad. Everything was projuressine, tinely, 
-- < Tawford, in command of the left, having ad- 
vanced and driven the enemy from Dabnevs Mill. 
But the Rebels putting into practice their old ^aine 
of sending a force bv a wide detour to the rear while 
they ene.'au.ei] anmition in front, fell first upon 
(rie^s cavalry, driving il before them, then upon 
Ayrcs Division of the Fifth Corps while in column 
uoinu io Crawford's assistance, driving ii back', and 
finally striking Crawford's Division, repulsing il 
with h.-avv loss. Here fell the Rebel (Jeneral Wil- 
liam J. IVijram, the 'Roy Artillerist," as his Con- 
federate associates called him." The discomfited 
neui .»f the Maltese (Toss now fell back pell-mell 
upon the position held by the Second Corps on 
Hatchers Bum Elated with their easy victory, the 
Rebels burst from the wood two hundred yards dis- 
tant, eagerly following up, when Ratlery K, which 
seemed to possess the facultv of heiim ia the ri Li lit 
place at the riiiFt time, and the supporting infantry 
of Molt s iThird) Division 1 1 )e Trobriaml s Brigade), 
— both posied at llie crossing of (he Yau^han Foad 
over the Fun, - ---nave them such a warm reception 
that they hastily retired. 

* "In the spring of "(it, a youth of modest demeanor, he entered 
the military service as a private soldier; in the spring of 'Cm, still a 
mere lad, he fell in action. Colonel of Artillery, mourned l>y an army. 
Such was William Johnson IVgram of the Third Corps, who, 
at the early age of twenly-l wo. died sword in hand at the head of 
his men." — dipt. W (Jo,iloii M't.'abe, in Army of Northern Virginia. 
Memorial Volume. 


Farly next morning reconnoissances were sent 
nut, whirl! advanced some distance, finally coming 
upon the enemy's pickets and driving them into t lie 
main line.* There was some skirmishing during 
the day, and one section of our guns apparently si- 
lenced some Uebel guns, which had, at intervals, 
seat shells among us, killing one horse. But the 
fighting was now over, and preparations were mak- 
ing to hold the ground we had taken, by construct- 
ing a line of fortifications connecting with the 
former extreme left at Fort Gregg. As this posi- 
tion had been taken by the Second Corps, so now it 
was to retain it in possession, and "Battery E" was 
built for our guns,t some six hundred yards to the 
rear of the field on which we had shattered the 
Kebel line, and in it the pieces Mere placed on the 
morning of the 11th. Not much farther to the rear, 
in the edge of a piece of woods, Battery headquar- 
ters were established, where we applied all our pre- 
vious experience in building the neatest and cosiest 
quarters we had ever erected, and all the longer to 
be remembered because the last of their kind. Thus 
the whole of this newly acquired territory was in a 
short time dotted with the white-roofed huts of the 
soldiery, and what we found a comparative solitude 
transformed into the stir and bustle of town life. 
Its sloughs were soon ribbed with corduroy, and in 
a few days Grant's modern marvel, the military rail- 
road, was extended along the new lines, having its 
terminus a few rods in rear of our cam]). 

The truce already mentioned as existing between 
the lines at Fort Welch was unbroken here, and the 
only firing heard was that of Kebel pickets directed 

'Mien. Humphreys' Report. 

fin recognition of our service in the fight. It was the only bat- 
tery posted along this part of the line. Lieut. (Jreen was in com- 
mand at the guns, and remained so during our stay here. 


at members of their own side deserting to the Union 
army. Every night especially dark, brought squads 
of These men in, whom we saw marched past to 
corps headquarters, but with whom we rarely had 
opportunity to converse. 

Five or six weeks wore quietly away in this camp 
with little, save a call from the paymaster, to vary 
their monotony < >n the 27th of February Maj. 
Sleeper severed his connection with the Company, 
and in a short speech, delivered with illy suppressed 
emotion, turned us over to Lieut. Adams, lie told 
us that if we ever came to Host on lie should feel 
slighted if we did not give him a call; that anything 
he could do for us would be cheerfully done, and 
concluded by wishing us all a safe return home. 
Lieut. Adams was at once promoted to the Cap- 
taincy, and first sergeant George M. Townsend was 
commissioned junior second lieutenant, to fill the 
vacancv created by promotions. 

The following letter was received by the Major- 
just after his discharge. 

Ilrihl-tjuiirti is Army of the J'otoinar, March 1st, ISli.'i. 
i'.ivvel Maj. Sli-eper. Muss. I'.att. 

Miiji>r, — Sincerely iviavti in.u- you should have been induced 
to resign the command of your I'.ailery I hope that you will al- 
ways remember that you carry with you ihe very lies) wishes of 
all with whom you have !>een counecied for four years. In- 
timately acquainted with you for the whole period of your serv- 
ices I coiijrratulale yon upon your military record with the hope 
of seeiim' you al no distant day ^ivin.ii' a practical helping hand 
to l hose who are still striving to put down the Rebellion. 

Sincerely your friend, 

Bc't Major general, chief of .Staff, A. P 

About the middle of March orders came to be 
ready to move at short notice, and to turn in one 
section of the Battery. 


March 24th a corps review was held, and sutlers 
and non-combatants generally "were ordered to City 

We were now on the tiptoe of expectation. Sher- 
man was marching northward by rapid stages, and 
peat events were discernible in the near future. 
We did not look forward to the opening of the 
spring campaign with so much dread as we felt a 
year before 1 , for two reasons, — first, because we 
had since become thoroughly seasoned by what was 
indisputably the hardest year's campaigning of the 
war; and second, because we knew the terrible 
strait to which our foe had been reduced in numbers 
and morale. We did not expect any more hard 
fighting. Everything during the winter had be- 
tokened a rapid wasting away of the so-called Con- 
federacy, and we felt the end to be near. 

We were aroused from our slumbers one morning 
(March 2.">) by the roar of artillery from the front 
of Petersburg, and soon came orders to pack up and 
be ready to move at once. It was occasioned by the 
Pebels assaulting Port Stedman at daylight, carry- 
ing it with almost no opposition; but not following 
up their success, they were served much as was the 
assaulting column at the Elliott Salient the memo- 
rable 30th of July previous. This fact we, of 
course, did not learn until later. We heard simply 
that Fort. Stedman had been captured, but as the 
firing died away, and no enemy appeared sweeping 
down on our flank, and as preparations were now 
making for an attack in our front, we became con- 
vinced that their advantage must have been short 

AVhen everything was in readiness the infantry 
advanced along our front and captured the enemy's 
fortified picket line, during which we employed our 


time at intervals in shelling what seemed vulnera- 
ble places, expending about ninety rounds in this 

Several hundred prisoners and deserters were a 
part of the fruit of this move, and it was diverting 
to us to hear the conversation taking place among a 
somewhat jolly crowd of them confined in a "bull 
ring" (/. c a cordon of sentries), as new accessions 
to their company were received; such as "Hallo! is 
that you, Sam?" "How are you, Old One-eye? How 
did you get away?" "Here's another of 'em, boys!" 
And at last one with stentorian voice bellows out, 
"Well, Cap n, I ituess you may as well call the roll of 
Company A." And, sure enough, here was one en- 
tire company of an Alabama regiment that had 
come in one by one, and seemed nothing loth to call 
Their roll under the old flair. 

aiobxixo bepobts. 


Nov 1. Lieut. II. II. O ranger died at City Point 
Hospital, Ya., Oct. 30, of wounds received in action 
Oct. 27 

Xov 2. Beceived notice of the following eidisted 
men missing since Aug. 2."i, being at Annapolis, Aid.; 
Serg't A. B. Parker, Corp. F AI. Howes, privates J. 
S. Bailey, Jr., Biehard Martin, (). V (Hidden, W E. 
Endicott and John E. Alugford. 

Xov 3. Private P A. Terbriggen sent to bri- 
gade hospital. Sergeant C AI. Townsond promoted 
First Sergeant. Corporals Parker and Currant 
promoted sergeants. Private A Hard promoted ser- 

* "During the day the Tenth Massachusetts, 'B,' First New Jer- 
sey, Eleventh New York, and First New Hampshire, fired on the 
enemy's position from their respective works, but the distance being 
so great it is doubtful if they rendered any material assistance." — 
Official Rfiiuit of Lirut. Col. John (r. Hazard, Chief of Artillery, Sec- 
ond Corps, 


geant. Privates Goldsmith, .John E. Mugford (?), 
O. F (Hidden (?), \V E. Endieott (?), Ellis l?) and 
Can- (?) promoted corporals (?). Private Ester 
Lance Corporal to date from Dec. 1. 

[The above record is a sad jumble of fact and 
fancy Mugford, (Hidden, Endicott, Ellis (whoever 
this may mean) and ('an- were not promoted. Estee, 
Leverett Pierce and John I). Billings were made 
Lance corporals.] 

Nov 4. Privates 'William Allen and Thomas 
Smith returned to duty from general hospital. 

Nov (I. Notice received of Corp. G A. Smith 
and privates Win. Rawson, Thos. Cnsick, (J. W Stet- 
son, L. W Adams and J. P Brown being at Camp 
Parole, Aid., as paroled prisoners. 

Nov 7 Notice received of private C ]). Thonip- 
son at hospital, Annapolis, Md. 

Nov. 8. Four horses turned over to Capt. Strang 
by order of Lieut. E. L. Smith Battery K, 4th V S. 
Arty, A. A. I. Officer. 

Nov 11. Private H. Orcutt reported to quarters. 

Nov. 12. Private Baxter reported to quarters. 

Nov 13. Notice received of the death from 
wounds received in action on Aug. 25, 1S<>4, of Pri- 
vate George K. Putnam Nov 2, 1S<>4. Private C A. 
Mason dropped from the rolls having been mortally 
wounded and left on the field at Beams Station, Va., 
Aug. 2.1, T>4. Private information received of his 

Nov 14. Private C 1). Thompson at Div 1, U. S. 
General Hospital, Annapolis, Md. Notice received. 
One horse died — worn out. 

Nov 1(>. Notice received of the discharge of 
James Peach, private, by Maj. (Jen. Augur, on sur- 
geon's certificate of disability Nov. 10, 1S(!4. 
Monthly inspection of Battery by C A. Clark, 1st 
Lieut, and A. I. G., Artillerv Brigade, 2nd < orps. 


Xov. 18. John Maynard, a recruit received from 
I>raft Rendezvous, Galloup's Island, Mass. Private 
Henry Murphy returned to duty from Galloup's 
Island, agreeably to a letter A. G. O., Washington, 
]). <\, Oct. 12, 1S04. 

Nov 19. Privates Thayer and H. Orcutt excused 
from duty Privates Terbriggon and Quimby in 
brigade hospital. 

Xov 2(1. Private H. Orcutt reported to duty J. 
L. Thayer and -T. F Baxter excused from duty. 

Nov 21. One horse died — stoppage 

Nov 2-'!. One horse died — tit. Private Baxter 
reported to duty 

Nov 24. Private Thayer reported to duty 

Nov 2.">. One horse died — Blind Staggers. Pri- 
vate Thayer excused from duty Corp'ls J. H. Stev- 
ens and P. Goldsmith and Private J. L. Schwartz ab- 
sent without leave. Milbrey Green reported for 
duty as 2nd Lieut., vice Smith deceased. Commis- 
sioned Oct 2S, isiil. 

Xov 20. ( 'orp'ls J. II. Stevens and P. Goldsmith 
and Private Schwartz returned to duty from ab- 
sence without leave Private Thayer reported to 

Xov 27 Private Thayer reported to quarters. 

Xov 2s. Private Thayer reported to quarters. 
Privaie M. M. Pierce returned to dutv from general 

Xov 20. Eighteen horses received from ("apt. 
Fisher. Peceived marching orders at 12.20 A.M. 
Moved out of cam]) at 9 \.M. and relieved the 11th 
Mass. Battery in Fort Welch at 2 P.M. Left Sec- 
tion occupies Fort Gregg. 

Xov 30. Moved the caisson camp to Fort 
Wheaton. Left section rejoins the Right and Cen- 
tre in Fort Welch. 


Dec 1. Private Hiram B. Oliver injured in foot 
by axe. Sent to brigade hospital. 

Dec. 1*. Corp. Leveret t Pierce reported to quar- 

Dec 3. Notice received of the death of Private 
Henry L. Ewell at Lincoln General Hospitals, Wash- 
ington, D. C, of Pyaemia, Nov 21, 1S01. Oorp'l 
Pierre reported to duty Private Thayer to quar- 
ters. Sixteen horses received from ('apt. Fisher. 

Dec. 1. Corp. Geo. A. Pease returned to duty 
from general hospital. Lieut. J. W Adams re- 
turned to duty from detached service having been 
absent since Sept. 21, 1801. 

Dec 5. Corp. Pease and Private Thayer reported 
to quarters. Serg't George H. Day discharged the 
service, for promotion agreeably to Special Order 
312 H'dq'rs 2nd Corps, Dec. 1, 1804, and mustered 
into service 1 Dec. 5, 180-1 as 2nd Lieut. 10th Mass. 
Battery 2nd Lieut. Win. G. Bollins commissioned 
1st Lieut, and mustered as 1st Lieut. Dec 1, 1801. 

Dec 0. Notice received of the discharge of Pri- 
vate Elisha T. Quiniby for epilepsy, Nov 11, iSlil. 
Private S. H. Foster returned to duty from general 
hospital. Two horses shot by order Lieut, (lark, 
A. L G. Art'y Brig. Second Corps. — Glanders and 

Dec 7 Corp. G. A. Pease sent to Brigade Hos- 
pital. Lance Sergeant L. L. Estabrook promoted 
full Sergeant. Lance Corporal Estee full corporal. 
Corp. J. II. Stevens and Private 1 \Y S. Round y pro- 
moted Lane* 1 Sergeant and Corporal respectively 
from Dec. .">, 1SC4. 

Dec 8. Bight and Centre Sections placed in 
Fort Emory; Left Section in Fort Siebert. Private 
E. J. Wilson released from confinement and re- 
turned to duty as Orderly at H'dq'rs Art'y Brigade, 
2nd Corps. 


Dec. 9. Eight and Centre sections march at 6 
o'clock P.M. with 1st Division, Sixth Corps. Ad- 
vanced to within one mile of Hatcher's Bun and re- 
mained in park till next P.M. 

Dec. 10. Notice received of transfer to general 
hospital of Corp. G. A. Pease, and Private II. B. 
Oliver. Private J. Edwards sick in quarters. Eight 
and Centre Sections returned. Pieces of Plight Sec- 
tion placed in Port Emory at 1 P.M. 

Dec, 11. Privates Jos. Edwards and J. L. W 
Thayer reported to quarters. 

Dec 13. Private -Jos. Edwards sent to brigade 
hospital. Privates J. T Goodwin, C. E. Prince, 
Thomas Ellworth returned to duty from general 

Dec li. Privates J. L. W Thayer and Henry 
Orcutt reported to quarters. Private A. C Billings 
returned to duty from general hospital. Monthly 
inspection by Lieut, (dark A. I. G. Arty Brigade. 

Dec lo. ( die horse died — Stoppage. Thirteen 
(13) horses turned over to < 'apt. Strang by order of 
Lieut. Clark, A. I. G. Arty Brig. Private informa- 
tion received of the death of Judson Stevens at East 
Boston while on furlough, Aug. 31, IStil. Lieut. Geo. 
II. Day on leave of absence of lo days to Boston. 

Dec. 10. Nine recruits received from Draft Ken- 
dezvous, Mass.; Win. II. (dark, Erancis A. Cook, Mi- 
chael Foley, Joseph Lear, George Nichols, (.'lias. E 
Clark, Patrick Poran, Samuel Otis, Moses Merrier. 

Dec. IT First Lieut. Wm. G. Rollins tempora- 
rily detailed on special service at Headquarters 
Art'y Brigade, Second Corps, agreeably to Special 
Orders 213, Headquarters Arty Brigade. 

Dec. 18. Private J. L. W Thayer sent to brigade 
hospital. One horse died. — Glanders. 

Dec. 10. Privates II. Orcutt, E. C. Jewell, T 


Herlehy, S. A. Atwood on (let ailed duty with <„>. M. 
Depf Art y Brigade, agreeably to S. ( >. 21. > IFdq rs 
Vrt v Brigade. Corp. (}. A. Smith and Privates -L 
S. Bailey, Jr., J„ P Brown, J. Millett and Thus. <u- 
sick returned to duty from Camp Parole, Md. Pri- 
vates Piei<e, Orcutt and Lucas reported to quarters. 

Dec. 20. Brevet Major J. Henry Sleeper absent 
with leave on court-martial. Privates J. A. Lucas 
and Sam'l Otis reported to quarters. 

Dec. 21 Major J. Henry Sleeper returned from 
absence with leave Private Samuel Otis reported 
to quarters. 

Dec. 22. Private M. M. Pierce reported to quar- 
ters. Private Samuel Otis returned to duty- 
Dec 2:>. Private Hiram Warburton returned to 
duty from general hospital. Private M. M. Pierce 
reported to quarters 

Dec. 2."). Privates F A. Cook and M. M. Pierce 
reported to quarters. 

Dec. 20. Private Jos. Edwards returned to li^ht 
duty from brigade hospital. Private Pierce re- 
ported to quarters. Corp. A. V Kichardson (?) ab- 
sent on furlough of fifteen days dated from Dec 27 
(The name is omitted in the Morning Peport Book.) 

Dec 2S. Notice received of the presence of Al- 
vin Thompson, private, at general hospital, Annap- 
olis, Md.. as paroled prisoner; also of C D. Thomp- 
son at same place. Private M. M. Pierce reported 
to quart ers. 

Dec 20. Privates Dam, Pierce (?) and Cross ex- 
cused from duty 

Dec. :>0. Lieut. Oeorne II. Day returned to duty 
from to days leave of absence. Privates Ham and 
Pierce reported to quarters. 

Dec. :!1. Privates L. Ham and P A. Cook sent 
to brigade hospital. Private M. M. Pierce reported 
to quarters. 



Jan. 2. Serg 't Stevens and privates Pierce and 
Merrier reported to quarters. 

Jan. 3. Private M. Merrier sent to brigade hos- 
pital. Privates McAllister and Pierce (?) reported 
to quarters. Corp. (1. A. Pease returned to duty 
from general hospital. Notice received of discharge 
of Private AY E. Hooper on surgeou's certificate of 
disability Dec. 30, 18(14. 

Jan. 4. Privates Ellsworth, (?) Southworth and 
McAllister reported to quarters. Corp. E M. 
Howes and Private Pic-hard Martin returned to duty 
from Camp Parole, Mel., Paroled (exchanged?) pris- 

Jan. 5. ("or}). Ceo. A. Pease excused from duty 

Jan. fi. Corp. Pease and privates McAllister and 
Campbell reported to <|uarters. Private F A. Cook 
reported from brigade hospital. Privates J. P 
Brown, T. Elhvorth, I). C Blackmer, M. Campbell, 
James A. Lucas, II. X. Pemis on detached duty at 
Q. M. Cept., Arty Prig. 2nd Corps. 

Jan. 7 Corp. Pease reported to quarters. 

Jan. 8. Lieut. J. Webb Adams on furlough of 20 
days. Corp. C. A. Pease reported to quarters. 

Jan. (I. Corp. < r. A. Pease reported to quarters. 

dan. 10. Cor]). Pease, privates Eloytrop and Otis 
reported to quarters. One horse died — - farcy 

Jan. 11. Corp. Pease reported to quarters. Pri- 
vate L. Ham returned to duty from brigade hospital. 

Jan. 12. Corp. A. F Pichardson absent without 
leave. Private Hiram P Ping a furlough of 15 
days to Millbury, Mass., and to Maine. 

Jan. 13. Private M. Campbell returned to duty 
from Q. M. Dept. Corp. A. E Pichardson absent 
without leave. 

Jan. 14. Cor]). Pease and Private Ham reported 



to quarter*. Priv (lias. J). Thompson returned lo 
duty from absence with leave. Paroled prisoner. 

Jan. ].">. Private L. Ham reported to quarters; 
Corp. <!. A. Pease and Private J. A. Lueas sent to 
brigade hospital from <>. M. Dept. Art'y Brig. 2nd 

< oips. Lieut. \V C Pollins detached to <J. M. 
Pep't as A. A. (J. M., by S. O. No. !, dan. (i. T>r>, 
H'dq r's Art'y Brig. 2nd Corps. Monthly inspection 
by Lieut. C. A. Cla * * A. A. C. Art'y Brig. 2nd 

< orps. 

dan. Ki. Serg't Lewis P. Allard and ( 'orp. To- 
bias Beck reduced to the ranks agreeably to Special 
Orders Xo. 1, IPdq r's Tenth Mass. Battery, Privates 
James S. Bailey promoted sergeant and Corporal C. 
W Blair, < J miner. Corporal W. B. Lemmon as- 
signed to the Fifth Detachment. Private (?) L. 
Pierce * * * days furlough to Mass. 

Jan. 17 Private Moses Merrier returned to duty 
from Brig. Hospital. Private L. Ham reported to 

Jan. 18. Becruits John Biley, Daniel Keefe, Ed- 
win A. Hill and James Oallagher joined the Bat- 
tery Private J M. Bamsdell returned to duty from 
general hospital. Corporal B. C. Clark and L. Ham 
reported to quarters. 

Jan. 19. Private L. Ham reported to quarters. 

Jan. 20. Private Michael Campbell on furlough 
of 15 davs to Boston, Mass. Private J. L. W Thayer 
returned to duty from brigade hospital; Private E. 
A. Hill sent to brigade hospital; Corp. Clark and 
Private Ham excused. Private A. L. Cowell on 
pass of 4S hours to .>4th (?) Corps. 

Jan. 22. Two horses received from ( apt. Ells- 
worth, A. Q. M. Arty Brigade, 2nd Corps. Corp. B. 
C. Clark reported to quarters. 

Jan. 2.'!. Private J. L. \V. Thayer sent to bri- 


gade hospital. Private L. Ham reported to quar- 
ters. Private A. L. Gowell returned from absence 
with leave. Eight horses received from Capt. Ells- 
worth A. G- M. Art'y Brig. 2nd Corps. 

Jan. 25. Privates G. H. Nichols and L. E. Hunt 
reported to quarters. 

•Jan. 2(1. Corp. G. A. Pease reported to duty from 
brigade hospital. Privates Hunt, Cook and Woodis 
reported to quarters. One horse shot — order of 

Lieut. W L. Bull. Ass't Inspector Art'y Brigade 


Jan. 27 Privates Hunt and Woodis reported to 

Jan. 2S. Privates Hunt and Woodis reported to 

Jan. 2!). Private P. P. Stowell detailed as me- 
chanic in G- M. Pep't., Art'y Brigade. Private E. 
C. Jewell returned to duty from Art y Brigade. G- 
M. Pep't 2nd Corps. Privates Woodis, Hunt and 
Bacon and Serg't Bailey reported to quarters. Pri- 
vate Hiram P King returned from furlough. Lieut. 
J. AY Adams absent without leave. 

Jan. 30. Lieut. J. W Adams returned from ab- 
sence without leave. Una voidable detention. Pri- 
vates Bacon, Hunt and Woodis reported to quarters. 

Jan. 31. Private Jas. L. Schwartz detailed as at- 
tendant at Art y Brigade Hospital. Private Hunt 
reported to quarters. 

Feb. 1. Maj. J. Henry Sleeper on leave and Pri- 
vate Joseph ( ross on furlough of 2(1 days each. 

Feb. 2. One recruit, Timothy Bevino received. 
Private L. E. Hunt reported to quarters. Notice re- 
ceived of transfer to general hospital Feb. 1, l.N<;3, 
of privates James A. Lucas, Edwin A. Hill, J. L. AY 
Thayer and P Terbriggen. 

Feb. 3. Private L. E. Hunt reported to quarters. 


Feb. 4. Private L. W Temple on furhm-h of 20 
days to Hosioii, Mass. 

Feb. ~. Corporal Leveiott Pierce and Private 
John Campbell returned from furlough and reported 
for duty Battery moved out of camp at S o'clock 
A.M., and arrived at Armstrongs Farm about four 
miles to the left where the left and centre sections 
were fiiua^ed, ri^ht section three-fourths of a mile 
on the riii'lit. One horse shot and killed and one 

Feb. (i. Private Francis Mins on furlough of L'O 
days to Barre, Mass. One horse died of wounds. 

Feb. 7 One horse died; exhaustion. 

Feb. !). Privates P T. Hill and L. E. Hunt re- 
ported to quarters. 

Feb. 10. Privates F. 1). Thresher, J. 1). Smith, 
P Terbriir^en and J. L. W Thayer returned to duty 
from hospital. Privates L. F. Hunt and J P Allen 
reported to quarters. 

Feb. 11. Private F V. Cook sent to brigade hos- 

Feb. 13. Script Charles W Doe sent to brigade 
hospital. Ser,u't James S. Bailey and Private Hunt 
reported to quarters. 

Fob. 14. One horse died, worn out; horses 
turned over to ('apt. Fllsworth, \. Q. M. Art'y Bri- 
gade. Ser^'i Bailey, Corp. Pease, privates Hunt, 
Pierce, Hill and Handlin reported to quarters. 

Feb. lo. Private I). C. Blaekmer returned to 
duty from (.). M. Dept. Prhate \\m. B. Nichols 
temporarily detailed in <,>. M. Dep't Art'y Brigade 
Second Corps, agreeably to Special Orders No. .'50, 
H'dq'rs Art'y Brigade. 

Feb. 10. Corporal Billings, Privates Jewell, 
Hunt, Handlin and Devine sick in quarters. 

Feb. 17. Private Patrick F. Xeaijle ahsent with- 


out leave since April 20, 1S04, returned (under ar- 
rest) Feb. (i, *<>."). Serg't ''has. W Doe to duty from 
brigade hospital. Corp. G. A. IVase reported to 

Feb. 18. Monthly inspection (foot) by Lieut. W 
S. Bull A. I. <;. Arty Brigade. Corp. (i. A. Pease 
rejjorted to quarters also James Lee. 

Feb. 10. Private Charles Slack on furlough of 
20 days to .New York City Private James Lee re- 
ported to quarters. 

Feb. I'll. Privates \Ym. Bawson and Alvin 
Thompson from Camp Parole (Fxehanged Prison 
ers). Private B. II. Phillips returned to duty from 
General Hospital. 

Feb. 21. Private F. J. Wilson returned to duty 
from brigade headquarters. Private T \Y Strand 
detailed as orderly at brigade headquarters. Pri- 
vate Joseph Cross returned to duty from furlough. 
Cue horse died; exhaustion. 

Fell. 22. Maj. J llenrv Sleeper returned to duty 
from leave of absence. 

Feb. 2-*>. Privates Harry Chase and Thresher 
sick in quarters. 

Feb. 24. Privates II. Chase and Thresher sick in 
quarters. Second Lieut. Milbrev Green on leave 
and Private James Dwighf on furlough to Mass. ol 
2(1 days each. Fight horses received from (,). M. I)., 
Art y Brigade 2nd Corps. 

Feb. 2."i. Privates M. Oreutt and II. Chase, ex- 

Feb. 2C. Privates M. Oreutt and II. Chase re- 
ported to quarters. Private L. \Y Temple returned 
from furlough. Brevet Major J. Henrv Sleeper 
mustered out of Fniled States service agreeably to 
provisions of circular 7."), War Dep't, Sept. 22nd, 
1S04. Battery commanded by Lieut. J Webb 


Feb. 1*7 Lance Corporal Chas. E. Osborne pro- 
moted corporal vice I»eck reduced, to date from dan. 
10, isi;.). Privates Wilson, Orcntt and Chase re- 
ported to quarters; Private Francis Mins reported 
to duty from absence on furlough. 

Feb. 2S. Privates J W Wilson, M. Orcntt, II. 
Chase, and F Alius, excused from duly Notice re- 
ceived of the transfer to general hospital of Private 
J. A. Lucas. 

March 1. Privates IT. Chase, J. W Wilson and 
M. Orcntt reported to quarters. 

March 3. Privates F Mins, M. Orcntt and J. M. 
Kamsdell reported to quarters. <2- M. Serg't W II. 
Fitzpatrick and Private Timothy Xowell on fur- 
lough of 20 days each to Boston. One horse died, 
worn out. 

March T. Private James A. Lucas reported for 
duty from general hospital; F Mins, II. Chase, M. 
Orcntt reported to quarters. 

March 5. Serg't A. B. Parker and Bugler J. E. 
Mugford, exchanged prisoners, returned from ab- 
sence with leave to duty 

March ti. Privates M. Orcntt, IL Chase, F Mins 
and S. Otis reported to quarters. 

March 7 Serg't B. F Parker on furlough of 20 
days to Mass. Privates II. Chase, F Mins and M. 
Orcntt reported to quarters. 

March S. Private Ellis A. Friend returned from 
(ieneral Hospital. Artificer Gross and Privates II. 
Chase and Orcntt (?) reported to quarters. 

March 9. Private Geo. II. Putnam on furlough 
of 20 days to Boston, Mass. Privates II. Chase, F 
Mins and M. Orcntt reported to quarters. 

March 10. Private Chas. Slack returned to duty 
from furlough. Privates Otis, Chase and Orcntt re- 
ported to quarters. Two horses died; glanders and 
worn out. 


March 11. Privates H. B. Beal and H. P. King 
detailed in Brigade 0- M. Dep't. Xotice received of 
absence on furlough, of D. K. Stowell, mechanic in 
Brigade 0. M. train. Private Charles Fiske sent to 
Brigade Hospital. Privates Orcutt, Chase and Otis 
reported to quarters. Bugler J T. Sullivan sick in 

March 12. Private F A. Chase detailed to Bri- 
gade 0- M. Dep't. Privates Chase and Orcutt (?) re- 
ported to quarters. 

March 1."!. Private IT. Chase reported to quar- 
ters. One horse died of exhaustion. 

March 11. Private M. Orcutt reported to quar- 

March l.">. Privates ( Mvutt and Fales reported 
to quarters. 

March Hi. Monthly inspection (mounted) bv 
Lieut. \V S. Bull. One recruit, Thus. J. Pratt (?), 
received. Private M. Orcutt reported to quarters. 
Xotice received of the transfer to General Hospital 
from brigade of Privates F A. Cook and Charles 

March 17 First L1. J. Webb Adams mustered 
out and re-mustered as Captain, agreeably to circu- 
lar A. G. <)., State of Mass. Private M. Orcutt re- 
ported to quarters. Two horses died; exhaustion. 

March IS. Second Lt. Milbrey Green and Pri- 
vate -Tames Dwight returned from leave of absence 
and furlough. 

March 1!). First Sergeant Geo. M. Townsend 
mustered out and mustered in as Second Lieuten- 
ant. Reviewed by Maj. Gen. Humphreys. Lieut. 
Green mustered in as 1st Lieut. Sergt. J. S. Bailey, 
Jr., promoted to Orderly Sergeant. 

March 20. One horse died of exhaustion. 




March .!<> In A/iril !). /,vD. 












'The Battery remained in this camp" |says ('apt. Adanis| "un- 
til the morn hit: of March i M .Mh, when, under orders. I reported to 
Gen. Hays.* commanding Second Division. Serond Corps, with the 
Tenth Massachusetts Battery and Battery T>. First Rhode Island 
LLht Artillery, both batteries having lieeii placed under my com- 
mand for the spring campaign, by order of Brevet Lieut. Col. 
Hazard, chief of artillery of the Second Corps." j 

In conformity with instructions issued from Gen. 
Grant's headquarters on the 24th, and thence pro- 
mulgated, the Second Corps moved at (! A.M. on the 
LM)th, ''crossed Hatcher's Run, ami took position cov- 
ering the Yaughan Road, with its right resting 
within supporting distance of the Twenty-fourth 
Corps, which had taken the place of the Second 

* "1 ordered ('apt. J. Webb Adams. Tenth Massachusetts Battery, 
and Lieut. Win. B. Wescott, 'P., First Rhode Island Artillery, to 
report to Brit:, (leu. Hays." — Jti-jmrt of Col. John <}. I/a:nril. 

t Adjutant General's Report. Massachusetts, ]8C>."i, p. 74N. 



Corps in the intrenchments."* Our guns, ordered 
into position in front of tlie camp, seemed to form 
the pivot on which the corps moved. The next day 
we were relieved by colored troops of the Twenty- 
fourth Corps, and moved up into a held near Dab- 
ney s Mill/ and parked, remaining here all night. 
But the rain, so frequently the accompaniment to 
the movements of this armv, did not now forget us. 



Strong working parlies were bnsilv engaged stretch- 
ing corduroys along the miry places in old or new 
thoroughfares, ;is we toiled on in mud towards the 
front. There was little for the artillery to do this 
day, as the corps lay in dense woods from Hatchers 
Ku n on the right, above our old position at Arm- 
strong's, to the vicinity of the Boydton Road where 
it massed on that memorable 27th of October — the 

* Report of Operations of Se<-i>nd Army Corp* from March 120 to 
April fl, ISO.". 

t "Tenth Massachusetts Battery moved up in Held near Dalmey s 
Mill and narked." — Col. Hazard. 


same woods and undergrowth that prevented con- 
nection being made "helween us and tlie Fifth Corps. 

The clouds broke away in tlie afternoon, and we 
bivouacked anticipating a bright day on the mor- 
row; but when morrow (the olst) came we were 
wakened by the raindrops pattering in our faces, 
ami found our beds already pools of water. It was 
about noon of this day that the gallant Miles and 
his First Division struck tlie enemy in flank and 
drove him back into his intrenchnients with severe 
loss in killed and wounded and one flag and many 
prisoners captured, and occupied the White Oak 
Ifoad. ]>y dint of much exertion we succeeded in 
reaching a position assigned us, but were ordered 
elsewhere at night.* 

Morning of April-fool da; (Saturday) dawned 
bright and beautiful. It b -ought to tlie ear fre- 
quent crashes of musketry These had been heard 
with greater or less frequency since the movement 
was initiated, but their authors were invisible to us 
for reasons already given. 

On either side of the road at Burgess Tavern the 
Kebels had constructed a strong fort, connecting 
the two by a heavy breastwork, and extending the 
same on their left to the Run, and on their right 
around to the mill-pond above the bridge. During 
this day (Jen. Mott with his Third Division at- 
tempted to cany these works but without success. 

Thus far we had taken no part in the frayj and 

* '•Tenth Massachusetts Battery was moved from field near I>ab- 
nc.v s Mill, and put in position on (he ri.iilil of ]'>.' First Rhode Island, 
at Crow House At dark this battery was withdrawn, and moved 
to extreme left of line, and parked near ltainey House." — Co/. Ilu:- 
(tnl's Rijioii. 

ltainey J louse is on Iloydton Koad. just south of our last position, 
October 27th. Sec map of Hatcher's Run. 

f "With the exception of 'I!.' First Rhode Island Artillery, the 
batteries were not en.^aned." -- ( '<;/. Hazard's Hi purl fur April lxl. 


during the afternoon we lav listening to the rolling; 
volleys at Five Forks, whose significance we did not 
then appreciate. But later, rumors were abundant 
and of a varied nature. First, Sheridan had been 
nearly surrounded, driven back, and badly beaten; 
then ho had attacked a second time, and with the 
Fifth Corps overcome all opposition and reached the 
Southside Railroad.* 

During the night we were aroused by the thun- 
ders of a cannonade up before Petersburg, rivalling 
that heard at the Mine disaster. It was ordered by 
Gen. Grant preliminary to an assault by the Sixth 
and Ninth corps upon the main lines, in order that 
the enemy should not concentrate against Sheri- 
dan. + 

At early dawn (Sunday, April I'd) the Battery was 
ordered into position.? Our shells were directed at 
the artillery inside the forts, already alluded to as 
occupying our old battle-ground. The Rebels re- 
plied briskly for a time, but at S. :■>(") A.M. were re- 

* It may lie fairly cited as showing the opinion entertained of the 
Sen mil Corps by Grant, that in his report ho should say: 

"Thus the operations of the day necessitated the sending of War- 
ren, because of his accessibility, instead of Humphreys as was in- 
tended, and precipitated intended movements.'' 

That the short record of the corps under Humphreys justified this 
good opinion is generally admitted, although its i><rxi>nncl had under- 
gone almost an entire change within a year. 

f "Some apprehensions filled my mind lest the enemy might desert 
his lines during the night, and by falling upon General Sheridan be- 
fore- assistance could reach him, drive him from his position, and open 
the way for retreat. To guard against this. Gen. Miles' Division 
of Humphreys' Corps was sent to reinforce him. and a bombardment 
was commenced and kept up until 4 o'clock in the morning (April L!), 
when an assault was ordered on the enemy's lines." — lit port of Lieut. 
(It ii. < I rant. 

% "At 4 A.M.. Tenth Massachusetts Battery, Capt. Adams, took 
position on the Koydton Flank Road and at 7 A.M. engaged 

the enemy. About daylight the enemy opened upon Battery M, First 
Xew Hampshire Artillery. This fire was replied to by that Battery 
and the Tenth Massachusetts Battery until 9 A.M., when it was 
observed that the enemy was evacuating the works." — Col. Hazard's 

lit 1)01 t. 


ported Id be e\ acuat inu, whereupon Mott s Divi- 
sion was immediately pressed forward to 1 1 m * attack, 
and in a few nioinents the stars and stripes were 
seen waving over the forts.* About noon 

against the rear assault, and found a <-,rave on the 
spot where Atkinson fell. Satisfied that it was his. 
there bein.L", no others near, we hastily inscribed his 
name, battery, and date of death on a rou^h 
board, with satisfaction at beini*; thus able to mark 
his remains for fid lire removal, before passing on 
with the column. 

We camped that ni<;ht without the city of Peters- 
burg, having supplied ourselves with tents and 
other conveniences from the stores which the enemy 
in his haste to escape had left scattered behind in 
i;real confusion. When morninu came we did not 
stop lo enter the city More important work was 
on hand, and the troops moved off on the "Kivei* 
Uoad," a thoroughfare running generally parallel 
with the Appomattox, and *<>nth of it. On we 
pressed through deserted camps left strewn with 
the evidences of panic and haste. All day and far 
into the nijjht the march continued. Two or three 
hours of rest were taken just before morning of 

H'fore morning of 
were off auain, fol- 

April ith, when at (! o'clock w< 

:,: Lieut, (ireen liad yonc forward mi liis own initial i \c and was 
there when the infantry ciunr up anil so lias been niven credit for 
heiujr first 1ci outer this part of the lino. 

-| "Mot I anil Hays were ordered in move on the l'.oydloii 1'lank 
Itoad towards IVlrrslmr;:." - (,v». II iiiii/iIiiii/s I'l/mrt. 

"'I'.. I'"irsl Uliode Island Artillery was brought up tol'lank Itoad 
and ordered with Tenth Massachusetts Tottery to report lo (Jen. 
Hays. Second I »i vision.** — I '«/. Ilir.nnVs l\<iiort. 


lowing the Fifth Corps, which left nothing of conse- 
quence behind it except the road, and this so badly 
cut up that a. brigade was detached to repair it in 
advance of our corps. 

April 5th, the corps moved at 1 o'clock A.M., fol- 
lowing the Xamozine Road, a southern fork from 
the River Road. We were delayed several hours 
by the cavalry cutting in ahead, but after S A.M. the 
road was again clear. This day the pursuit began 
to grow interesting. By niid-afternoon we had 
reached Jetersville, where we found the Fifth Corps 
in line of battle, and our own taking a like forma- 
tion on its rin'ht and left. While awaiting orders 
1o take position Ave engaged in coversation with a 
crowd of Rebel prisoners, but shortly a rush and 
cheer announced some new capture. It was (Jen. 
Lee s headquarters flag, one member of his staff, 
and a span-new battery that had been moving with 
headquarters guard, which our enterprising cavalry 
had cut out ol die enemy's column. The battery 
was a curiosity The guns were of an English 
breech-loading pattern unfamiliar to us. The har- 
nesses were just from the arsenal at Richmond, and 
were donii: duty on a sorry-looking collection of 
skin-and-bone horses and mules indiscriminately 
mingled. They depicted most pathetically the prox- 
imity of the Southern Confederacy to the historic 
"Last Ditch." Some expectations of a battle were 
had here for the possession of the Danville Koad, 
across which our army had planted itself,* but the 
enemy did not see fit to attack, and the night 
passed quietly 

With early morning of the <ith the pursuit again 

* "All llif batteries were put in position on the line, except one 
section of the Tenth Massachusetts." — Col. Hazard: /'(/imi of Oprra- 


began, the corps moving towards Amelia C II., with 
(lie design of attacking the enemy if found. We 
came within sight of his wagon train, and acceler- 
ated its speed in a most comical manner with a few 
shells.* It was not all holiday work, however, for 
the Uebels with their old-time dozedness, though 
fully realizing lhat the davs of the Confederacy 
were few, seized upon every commanding position in 
their path to make a short stand, which necessitated 
bringing up artillery and deploying the infantry to 
drive them on. By the time this was done they 
were ready to renew the retreat, having delayed our 
advance long enough to permit their trains and 
main column to get a good start. 

Other evidences of demoralization than those 
evinced by captured prisoners and artillery now be- 
came frequent along the route. These were aban- 
doned wagons, forges, battery wagons, puts and ket- 
tles, in short every description of army traps not 
absolutely essential in battle that pulled back their 
hungry, jaded beasts, and, it may be added, the hun- 
gry, footsore, worn-out Confederates as well, so 
many of whom still rallied around their idolized 

•"Tlic miser,- of the famished troops (luring the 4tli. ">th. nth, and 
7th of April, passes all experience of military anguish since the 
retreat from the banks of the Beresiua," |says Swinton.fl 
"Towards evening of the 5th," | says one of ilieir number,] "and 
all day lorn; upon the litli, hundreds of men dropped from exhaus- 
tion, and thousands 1ft fall their muskets, from inability to carry 
tliem any furl her." 

It was the lot of the Second Corps to follow 
sharply upon the heels of the enemy during his re- 

* " 'M,' First Nnv IT.-i inpshii-e Artillery, . ('apt. Koder's Bat- 

tery and Tenth Massachusetts Bull cry, shelled the train. These 
batteries continued niovinji' with the advanced line, shelling the en- 
emy every time he took position, until we came up to him in a strong 
position, trying to cover the crossinti of his train over Sailor's ('reek.*' 
— Co/. Hrpnrt of Opt rations. 

i ( 'iimpniiiiis of tin Army of the I'otomiic. 


treat, pursuing the same route, and to it these evi- 
dences of the disintegration of that once proud and 
valiant army were strikingly interesting. So hot 
had been our pursuit that at Sailor's Creek (not 
Sheridan s battle of Sailor's Creek, for that "was 
fought beyond the stream, two miles away from 
Gen. Humphreys troops."*) a short, sharp contest 
gave us thirteen flags, three guns, several hundred 
prisoners, over Two hundred wagons with their con- 
tents, and about seventy ambulances. ''The whole 
result of the day's work, to the corps, was 13 Hags, 4 
guns, 1,700 prisoners, and over 300 wagons. "^ We 
camped near this place for the night and at (5.30 
A.M. of the 7th moved down a long and quite steep 
hill to the creek, near whose banks stood the wag- 
ons already mentioned; and picketed near--thcy did 
not need this precaution — was a collection of the 
skinniest and boniest mules we ever set eyes upon; 
which, we believe, could not. in tandem, have 
pulled 'iif wagon up the sleep ascent opposite, much 
less (lie two hundred. The wagons, though now un- 
der guard, had been prettv thoroughly "inspected." 
The ground was strewn with clothing, good, bad, 
and indifferent, but mostly bad; tents, kettles, ba- 
con, cornmeal, officers' desks, and official documents 
<>f most execrable paper. Near bv was a bivouac 
ground from which the poor Johnnies had been 
called while in the midst of preparations for a much- 
needed meal. Baking-pans and kettles tilled with 
half cooked dough were about every tire, and near 
at hand stood a few bags of meal. As our supply 
train was far to the rear, and our rations drawing 
low, we were not. altogether unwilling to inter- 
change corn cakes with hard-tack for a time. But 
we move on. 

* With Oat. Hhcridan in Lee's Last (JanipuUjn. 
| den. Humphreys: Off trial Report of Operations. 


Soon we began to conic upon whole parks of wag- 
ons burned by the eneinv as they stood, to prevent 
them falling into mir hands; and then — the last 
tiling to go — artillery ammunition was thickly 
strewn along the roadside, some partially destroyed, 
and some uninjured, left in cases as it was packed 
in Kiclnnond. The caissons were found a short dis- 
tance away, partially burned. Some of the guns 
were also secured, but few in comparison with the 
abandoned caissons and limbers. We supposed 
them holding' on to these, until a squad of cavalry, 
scouting - through the woods, came upon some newly 
made graves with head-boards set up and duly 
marked with the name and regiment of the slain 
Kebel heroes. Four gun-carriages, however, hav- 
ing been observed standing suspiciously near, gave 
something of a cine to the kind of stuff, the defunct 
heroes were probably made of, and an inquisitive 
Yankee probing one grave found it to contain the 
remains of a lamented brass 12-pounder. Its three 
comrades were lying in adjacent graves, and were 
speedily exhumed to swell the captures. Others 
were said to have been found afterwards, which had 
been thus shrewdly concealed. 

All these evidences of extreme demoralization in- 
duced the reflection as to how long an army thus 
wasting away could endure before' surrendering or 
becoming a minus quantity From early dawn till 
darkness the booming of cannon indicated that 
Lee's retreating columns were being harassed at 
some point of contact. Sheridan's men were every- 
where, apparently, but really on his left flank, 
dashing in upon him by every highway or bvway 
that gave opportunity, and when least expected. 
Our own corps pressed vigorously on, this Friday 
April 7th. At High Kridge, where the Lynchburg 


Bailroad crosses the Appomattox on tall brick piers, 
(Jen. Barlow, now in command of tlio Second Divi- 
sion, came upon the rear of the enemy just as they 
had fired the wagon-road bridge, and as the second 
span of the railroad bridge was burning. He at 
once secured the former, as the river was not ford- 
able, and crossed his troops, preparing to move 
against the enemy who were stationed in a redoubt 
or bridge-head on the south bank. The artillery 
was also moved up into position* to cover the at- 
tack, but the enemy moved off without waiting 
longer, leaving behind them eighteen pieces of artil- 
lery This body constituted only a rear guard, and 
the pursuit was again renewed to the westward, 
Barlow marching by the railroad, and the rest of 
the corps by the old stage road farther north. At 
l'arinville, about six miles farther up the river, 
Barlow again came upon the enemy engaged in the 
work of bridge-burning, and covering a wagon train 
that was moving towards Lynchburg. 'Mien. Barlow 
attached and the enemy soon abandoned the town, 
burned about one hundred and thirty wagons, and 
joined the main body of Lee s army "">" 

In this attack the gallant (leu. Smythe fell mor- 
tally wounded, and a few of his brigade were cap- 

The enemy was next met with four or five miles 
north of Farmville, at bay on a high ridge of land, 
which he had crowned with his intrein diments and 
batteries, commanding the open and gradually slop- 
ing ground over which his assailants must pass to 
reach him. The artillery was again ordered up, our 

* "April 7th. Moved lo High Bridge, where Tenth Massa- 

chusetts Battery . was placed in position, and opened fire on 

the enemy's retreating columns, also upon a party who were trying 
to destroy High Bridge."' — Col. Ifa:anl: Report of Arlilleri) Opera- 

t Gen. Humphreys: Report of Operations. 


battery taking its last position of the war on a low 
piece of ground in the edge of a strip of woods, 
Avhore we were pretty well overlooked by the enemy 
Here, with our accustomed celerity, and for pruden- 
tial reasons, strengthened by what all seemed to 
feel as the near approach of the end, we erected 
breastworks for the last time. We were annoyed 
occasionally by a bullet, but from so great a dis- 
tance that no one was injured; and in turn annoyed 
the enemy bv occasional shelling. Towards night 
Miles attacked with three regiments, but was re- 
pulsed with a total loss of nearly six hundred men. 

At sundown, we put two TJebel shells, which we 
had picked up, into our guns, and sent them whiz- 
zing back to their former friends. These were our 
hist shots, and, it may be added, the last fired in the 
Avar by the Second Corps artillery The next morn- 
ing the enemy was gone, as was expected, and at 
5.30 A.M. the corps moved on in pursuit. 

Xow indefinite rumors of flags of truce and nego- 
tiations for surrender began to circulate. Of 
course we scouted them. It seemed as reasonable 
to suppose that the rugged hills which contested 
our advance would melt down to a plain before us, 
as that the proud and well-uigh invincible old army 
of Lee was about to lay down its arms. At sunset 
we Avent into park, and had nearly unharnessed 
when the sound of distant firing, rapid and pro- 
longed, told of sharp fighting in hand, and for this 
reason, as Ave supposed, orders Avere immediately re- 
ceived to hitch up and move on. In reality, Iioav- 
ever, the fighting had nothing Avhatever to do Avith 
the order, for it appears that (.Jen. Humphreys had 
ordered a halt at sunset, Avhich continued tAVo 
The march was then resumed in the hope 

* Scr his AY/m/7 of < tpiriiliniis, p. J 2. 


of coming up with the main body of the enemy, 
whose cavalry pickets had already been met with; 
but there seeming no probability of doing so, and 
the men being much exhausted from want of food 
and fatigue, a halt was ordered at midnight. The 
fighting we bad heard was due to a dash made bv 
the gallant Custer upon Prospect Station, where he 
seized four trains of sup] dies there awaiting Lee's 
army, and sent them puffing back towards Farm- 
ville for safe-keeping.* 

As the artillery was marching in the rear of the 
corps, it was the last to pitch cam]), which we did 
not do this night until into the small hours. It was 
now definitely affirmed that (J-rant had given Let? 
tlie choice of surrendering or receiving the shock of 
the whole Union army + 

Morning came at length, the bright, beautiful, 
and now historic morning of April 9th, l.S(i.*». The 
corps commander seemed in no hurry to move 

* With Urn. Sheridan in Lcr's Last Caiiipaifin. 

t Tin? actual correspondence in relation to the surrender was, in 
brief, as follows: 

At Farmvillo. the 7th, Grant wrote, asking the surrender of Lee's 

The same nighr Lee wrote asking the lerms of surrender. 

To this Grant immediately replied, slating generally (lie terms, 
and proposing to designate otlieers to meet Itebel officers named by 
Lee. to arrange definite terms of surrender. 

(>u the Nth, still flying as he wrote, Lee sent a note, stating that 
he did not think the emergency had arisen to call for the surrender 
of his army but was ready to consider proposals tending to a res- 
toration of peace, and appointed a meeting with Grant to that end. 

Grant answered this on the morning of April Hth, stating that 
he had no authority to treat on the subject of peace, but that the 
South would hasten the end by laying down their arms, and closed 
by hoping that "all our difficulties may be settled without the loss 
of another life." 

Before Lee received this, the time for parleying with him had 
passed, for Sheridan, followed by Ord's Army of the James and 
Fifth Corps, had cut him off from his only avenue of escape. He 
therefore sent a flag of truce, asking for a suspension of hostilities. 

Then followed a note from (Jen. Grant, detailing the conditions 
of surrender, succeeded by a note from Gen. Lee accepting the terms. 


Everything was as serene as in an established ramp. 
We leisurely Avaleivd and fed our horses, and then 
prepared our own breakfasts. Rands were playing 
merrily in all directions, men lay around at their 
ease, and the corps appeared more like a pleasure 
party than a host equipped, for battle. What did 
it mean? 

Towards 10 o'clock the corps began to move lei- 
surely forward, literally "dragging its slow length 
along." At one time firing was heard in the dis- 
tance, as if to disprove the rumors, now oft repeated 
and persistent, of coming surrender. About noon 
we came to a halt,* which was high-water mark for 
the Battery in its advance along the track of the 
retreating foe, and here we stood and waited, quiz- 
zing 1 every orderly who passed the road either way 
A staff officer from corps headquarters was heard to 
say that he had seen (leu. Lee this day. This was 
a straw in the right direction. It may seem to the 
casual reader that we were skeptical in the face of 
conclusive evidence. But "On to Richmond," the 
earliest rallying cry, perhaps, of the war, had long 
since been enrolled among the jests of the period, 
and no one thought of using it now except as such, 
or in irony; for when the number of campaigns hav- 
ing that end in view, and entered upon by the army 
with enthusiasm, is recounted, all of which, to 
date, had ended in failure or worse disaster, it can- 
not seem strange that we had lost faith in the 
speedy coming of the long looked-for and much de- 
sired end. 

►Suddenly a bugle call was heard from the rear. 

* "The troops moved forward again at N A.M., and at 11 A.M. 
came up with the enemy's skirmishers about three miles from Ap- 
pomattox Court House, where they remained during the day under 
the flags of truce." — fleii. Humphreys: Report of Operation* of Sec- 
ond A run/ (Jorps. 


We turned to discover its meaning. It was a warn- 
ing to clear the road for a carriage drawn by four 
tine horses that were approaching at a gallop. 
Within sat Gen. Meade, yet pale with an illness that 
had confined him to his ambulance for some clays, 
but now his face wore a 
smile, and he Avas look- 
ing eagerly forward, as 
if with joyful anticipa- 
tion. Not long after this 
all hands were ordered 
to the front, which surely 
indicated that in that di- 
rection there had ceased 
to be the usual danger, 
and the story soon 
reached us that all hos- 
tilities had ceased, and 
that our advance guard 
were walking side by 
side with the rear guard 
of the Johnnies. Our 
faith was beginning to 
wax. Truly something 
mis up, and it was begin- 
ning to dawn upon us, 
doubting souls! that the 
fighting was over It 
could not be, and yet every moment strengthened 
that opinion. 

Xoa\ officers and orderlies began to conic- from the 
front. They had scry/ the Rebel army It had 
stack"*! arms pending the terms of surrender-. How 
the men chaffed each other between their hopes and 
fears, ] hissing the long, anxious moments until all 
should be solved beyond doubt! At last the sus- 
pense was brought to an end. A wave of motion 



made by swaying bodies and uplifted hands swing- 
ing or throwing caps and liats aloft, rolled along the 
dense masses drawn up by the roadside nearer and 
nearer until we were swept in with the rest, willy, 
nilly, as by a tempest. It is an ovation to den. 
Meade, who now appears in sight returning on 
horseback, galloping along the lines, cap in hand, 
his gray hair streaming in the wind, and his beam- 
ing countenance telling - the whole story. It was en- 
tirely snperiiuous for the major riding just behind 
to announce that "Lee has surrendered," for the 
army understood its General, and straightway went 
beside itself. Such a throwing up of caps, such 
hugging and hand-shaking, such cheering, shouting 
and singing, such laughing, alternating with cry- 
ing! In short, a general effervescing in all the boy- 
ish demonstrations of which old soldiers are pecu- 
liarly capable, and which could in any way give ex- 
pression to the irrepressible emotions of the hour, 
was indulged in till nature cried out in protest. It 
was a rare occasion, the great day of a life-time, and 
one whose impressions will end only with life. 

We saw nothing of the Ifebel army during the 
truce pending the surrender, as a halt had been or- 
dered less than three miles to their rear, but several 
squads of their men, who had previously been taken 
prisoners, marched past us. A natural curiosity to 
see how the vanquished veterans took the new order 
of things prompted some interchange of remarks, 
but we heard nothing insulting, nothing even of an 
exultant character. "Well, boys, it's all over at 
last;" "Von can go home now," and other such ex- 
pressions, evinced the kind feeling of the victors, 
while in return they received from the vanquished, 
"Bully for you, boys!" "We are glad it's over, any 
way," and other remarks of like character, showing 


that these friendly feeling's were reciprocated; but a 
more extended conversation with the members of 
the surrendered army showed some bitterness left 
still. There were men who denounced the surren- 
der, and wished they could have been allowed to 
"fight it out t<» the bitter end." * Of course we felt 
bad for them to think they had not seen fighting 
enough, and could not repress a query as to whether 
they had always availed themselves of every oppor- 
tunity to fight that was presented in the four years 
agone. Otherwise we felt no great sympathy for 
their pugnacious unrest. But those persons were 
the exceptions. The great mass of the Confeder- 
ates were glad enough that the war was practically 
ended. t 



March 21. Lieut. Oeo. M. Townsend on 21) days 
leave of absence to visit Boston. 

* "After making my report, the < t> ■m-inl (Lcel said to me, 'Well, 
Colonel, what are we to doV' 

In reply a fear was expressed that it would be necessary to aban- 
don the trains, and the hope was indulged that, relieved of this 
burden, the army could make good its escape. 

'Yes,' saiil the General, 'perhaps wo could; but I have had a con- 
ference with these gentlemen around me, and they agree that the 
time has come for capitulation.' 

'Well, sir.' I said. T can only speak for myself; to me any other 
fate is preferable — ' 

'Such is my individual way of thinking, interrupted the General." 
— Col. TV H. Taylor, in l-'oitr Years tcith General Lee. 

t "Meanwhile there was a great stir in Gen. Lee's army, and they 
were still cheering wildly as we left McLean's house to find a camp 
for ourselves. Of course his intention to surrender had been noised 
abroad, and as he (Lee) returned from his interview with Gen. Grant, 
he was greeted with the applause we were now hearing. Cheer after 
cheer marked his progress through the old ranks that had supported 
him so gallantly." — With Gen. Sheridan in Lees Last Campaign. 

42( i 


March 22. Twenty horses received from O. M. 
J>ep't, Art'v Brigade, Second Corps. 

March I'-'!. Corps review by Maj. Cen. Humph- 
reys. Private James Lee reported lo (piarters. 

March 24. Private Edwin A. Hill returned from 
Tumoral Hospital. 

March 25. Packed up at S A.M.; S!l rounds of 
ammunition expended in action near Hatcher's Run 
1 77 rounds of Ilotchkiss Case shell and 12 rounds of 
I lot clikiss Percussion). 

March 2li. <„>. M. Serift Wm. H. Fitzpatrick and 
Private Timothy Xowell returned from furloughs. 

March 27 Private Charles Fiske returned from 
(ieneral Hospital at City Point. 

March 2S. Two , nuns turned over to -I. P. Farley. 
eighteen horses to E. J. Strang. One corporal and 
nine men detailed for cattle nuard. Two horses 
died of exhaust ion. 

March 20. Ser-t P. 1' Parker returned from 20 
days furlough. 

April 1. Private Ceo. II. Putnam and I). \i. 
Stowell returned from 211 days furlough. 

\pril 2. Expended 07 rounds of ammunition. 
I'elivered 120 rounds of Hotchkiss Percussion to 
First X. II. Battery 

April .'>. Three horses died of exhaustion. 

April 5. (hie horse died of exhaustion. 

April (i. Two horses died of exhaustion. Ex- 
ponded '•>* rounds of ammunition. 

April 7. Two horses died of exhaustion. Corp. 
Ceo. IT. Smith reduced lo the ranks. Expended Pi 
rounds of ammunition. Received horses from (,). 
M. Dept. 

April S. Four horses died of exhaustion. 

April 0. Two horses died of exhaustion. 



April 10— Maij .11. 










By degrees — by very slow degrees, we began to 
realize the great fact of peace. No more rattling 
>-hots of the pickets fell upon the ear; no booming of 
cannon in the distance; and the discharges of artil- 
lery at headquarters, tired to signalize the triumph, 
had lost their sting even for our foes, for the report 
was followed by no screeching shell. They were fir- 
ing blank cartridges — a discharge obsolete with 
the Tenth since February 22, 18(53. 

But now our advance was ended, and our foot- 
steps must needs be retraced. Let an extract from 
Lieut. Col. Hazard's Report tell the story of the 
next few days in brief: 

"April 9 : Butteries halted in the road until 4 P.M., when 

tlie announcement was made that the army of Northern Virginia 
had surrendered. The Batteries then went into camp. 

April 10th : Command remained in camp all day. 

April tlth: Batteries moved together, under my command, back 


mi the same road. They advanced to New Store, and camped for 
the night. 

April l°,th : Command moved at • ', A.M. hy a plantation, and 
from thence by the Plank to Farmville. l'arked on the hills 
near Farniville. 

April l.'U'i : Started at (i A.M.. camped near Kico's Station on 
the Danville Railroad. 

April 14th : Started at r, A.M., and marehed to Burkesville Ar- 
rived at 2 P.M. "Went into camp." 

(Mir loss ill horses on tins move the Report puis 
at thirty-four. Xo other battery used up more than 
ten. I can assign no reason for the difference. 

During this return march we were put on three- 
quarters rations, in order that the paroled army 
might be fed. The toil of the march, now made 
trebly difficult by the return of all varieties of army 
transportation oven- the same roads, was relieved 
by occasional sallies Avith the people white and 
black, the latter turning out in force from eveiv 
house to see us pass. They danced, sang, and even 
prayed their satisfaction in the most fervent man- 
ner, when prompted by some of the more light- 
headed. It was a trulv touching sight to see them 
give way to their extreme delight in their own 
(piaint melodies, all more or less of a sacred nature 
(although that quality did not always appear in the 
rendering), or, dropping upon their knees, pour out 
with the utmost volubility their simple petition of 
thankfulness and glorification to the Almighty for 
delivering them from bondage — a deliverance 
which, we are assured, was appreciated by few, and 
fully understood by fewer. Many of them had 
Uebel money to dispose of for whatever sum they 
could get for it. 

When we were about seventeen miles from Farni- 
ville our rations gave out, and no more could he 
had till we arrived at that place. On account of a 


drizzling rain making worse roads for our tired and 
hungry hi uses, two days were consumed in reach- 
ing that point, there to learn that the rations had 
been sent seventeen miles further. We remedied 
this unpromising state of affairs by "borrowing" 
two or three boxes of hard-tack from the rear of 
some wagons bound for the Twenty-fourth Corps. 
These carried us through, but our poor horses were 
((impelled to stagger on without forage, many, as 
the IJeport indicates, falling in their tracks, their 
places being tilled, if at all, by picked-up animals al- 
most equally exhausted. A deep stream, skirted 
with mud, at last compelled us to "expend" and 
bury much of our ammunition in order to cross. By 
nightfall we had made not over eight miles, but we 
met a train, sent back from Burkesville .Junction, 
with rations and forage at this time, which com- 
forted man and beast in great measure. 

\Ve reached the Junction next day, and went into 
camp on high ground, remaining two weeks await- 
ing the surrender of Johnstons army Meanwhile 
the paroled Bebel soldiers streamed along the rail- 
road at our feet, bound homeward. While here, 
our keen satisfaction at the closing of the war was 
turned into the deepest anguish bv tidings of Pres- 
ident Lincoln s assassination. I need not describe 
how the bravest men shed tears at the thought that 
this great soul, who had piloted the nation through 
its terrible travail for liberty and union so wisely, 
should now, just as he was about to enter into the 
enjoyment of the fruits of his labors, be laid low in 
so foul a manner; nor how, before full details were 
received, every man was fired with a disposition to 
continue the war till all vestiges of Kebellion were 
wiped from existence. 

Death invaded our ranks here for the last time, 


taking Flbridgo D. Thresher, a young man much re- 
spected in the company lie died in the Brigade 
Hospital, April 2Uh. 

Here, too, occurred (we believe) our last inspection, 
the whole artillery brigade being inspected; and we 
only mention the matter to state that the Bat- 
tery received the credit of appearing the best of any 
in the corps. At last came orders to march to 
Washington, taking Richmond on the way So, 
having - loaded our ammunition chest* upon the cars, 
May 2d we started in light marching order. 

Richmond, sombre and blackened by the tire 
which had left in ruins much of the business part of 
the city, received us gloomily ( astle Thunder, 
marked by a conspicuous signboard nailed up by 
our troops, frowned upon us, a spectre of bygone 
days. From the bars of Libby Prison incarcerated 
Rebels looked out upon our column, ruminating, no 
doubt, upon the mutability of human affairs; while 
our boys, who had boarded there awhile, pointed out 
the windows through which thev had looked for 
weeks with feelings akin to despair. 

A corps of Union troops lined the streets as we 
passed, and few citizens were to be seen. The ne- 
groes, however, and a tew whites, brought out pitch- 
ers of water for our comfort. 

Leaving Richmond, we resumed the journey to 
Alexandria. Passing almost in sight of some of 
the bloody fields we had fought over the year before, 
leaving Bowling Green on our right, where we had 
hoped to stop and renew our acquaintance with 
those ladies who had so confidently predicted our 
discomfiture, we at last reached historic Fredericks- 
burg. It looked seedy and crumbling, and with suf- 
ficient cause. Its streets were yet strewn with the 
shells thrown in '<»2. Few signs of life were visible. 


It seemed, in truth, a deserted village. It was our 
last stopping-place before reaching Alexandria. 
Strict orders had been, very properly, issued against 
foraging, and pigs and roosters uttered their own 
peculiar music from the door-yards as Ave passed, 
un vexed by the Union blue, for they were now at 
peace with us, and we, perforce, Avith them. 

Saturday afternoon. May 13th, Ave drew in sight 
of the dome of the Capitol, and felt as if we were al- 
most home again. We pin lied our camp near 
Baileys ( ross Beads, and remained about two 
Aveeks, living on the odds and ends of government 
rations, and speculating on the prospects of dis- 
charge. The grand review of Sherman's army and 
our oavu called us into the citv in holiday attire, not 
because of the review, -- Ave had had a surfeit of 
su<]i, — but to see President .Johnson, and the 
masses of people who had congregated there to Avit- 
ness the parade. 

Washington seemed changed but little during our 
two years and rive months absence from it. The 
dome of the < 'apitol which we had left unfinished 
had received its last block of cast-iron, and been sur- 
mounted by the <loddess of Liberty But we missed 
none of the filth of former days. Vaunted Pennsyl- 
vania Avenue was as rough and dirtv as ever. It 
may here very prop"ily be added that the end of the 
Avar closed this era of the city's uncleanliness, and 
to-day it is probably, Avhat it should be, the neatest 
and most comely city in the Union. 

In a few days orders were received to turn in the 
Battery at the Arsenal in Washington, Avhich Ave 
did, taking our farewell of the 3-inch Parrotts, to 
which we had become much attached, and Avhich Ave 
should have been only too glad to take along to old 
Massachusetts with us, had such a plan been prac- 


ticable. The horses, poor service-worn brutes, 
were turned in with the rest of the go\ eminent 
property, and sonic one curious in snch matters dis- 
covered that, out of the one hundred and ten ani- 
mals brought from Massachusetts in '02, but a sin- 
gle horse remained. All the rest had fallen by bul- 
let or disease It also appears from the morning re- 
ports that the Battery had used up about 400 horses 
in all. 

Henceforward preparations went actively on for 
departure, and everybody seemed happy We cele- 
brated the last, night in camp by a grand illumina- 
tion, furnished forth by the residue of candles left in 
I he quartermaster's stores, for which we had no fur- 
ther use, decking each tent with a number. Orders 
were received Friday night, June lid, to march in the 
moraine;, which we were ready to obey at an early 
hour. Having reached the citv, we were shown ;i 
train of palace — pardon the slip — of hn.r cars, pas- 
sably (lean but devoid of seats. These luxurious 
accommodations were shared with other batteries 
of our brigade, also homeward bound. About noon 
the train started, animate within and without with 
the army blue. 

Our journey was one continued series of friendly 
greetings from people along the route, universally 
evincing feelings of the most cordial and heartfelt 
good-will to the returning soldiery Even "Secesh" 
Baltimore extended a hospitable hand to us; all of 
which was in marked contrast to the pitiful "Lord 
help you! you'll be shot" kind of greetings they gave 
us on the way out. 

At Baltimore we exchanged the luxuries of our 
cars, to which we had become somewhat attached 
(by means of splinters), for a train especially fitted 
up for the transportation of a victorious loyal sol- 


diery, by the management of the Philadelphia, Wil- 
mington, and Baltimore Kailroad, a corporation 
which, probably having received more money from 
the general government than any other railroad in 
the country during the war, could Avell afford this 
mark of liberality It is true, the cars had every 
semblance of box-cars, but did they not have ele- 
gant plank seats in them, and weren't the afore- 
said plank seats thoughtfully left unplaned, so 
ihat the occupants should not slide off, and mayhap 
fall out of the car? 

An all-night ride brought us to Philadelphia at 5 
o'clock in the morning, before people were generally 
astir, but the booming of cannon announced our ar- 
rival, and we were soon marching on, under convoy, 
to the same Union Volunteer Refreshment Saloon 
that had used us so generously before, and after 
purifying by water we were treated to a substantial 
breakfast. We loitered about until past noon, 
when, having been shown to a decent passenger 
train, we entered and were whirled away across the 
plains of Xew Jersey We reached South Am boy 
about 4 o'clock, and embarked on the steamer 
"Transport" for Xew York, being greeted with 
many patriotic demonstrations as we skirted the 
shores of Xew York Bay Changing steamers at the 
latter city, we spent a delightful moonlight night on 
the Sound, and arrived at Xew London, Connecti- 
cut, early Monday morning. We suffered a long 
and tedious wait here also, but at last the train 
moved on. Worcester was reached and passed soon 
after noon, and the familiar stations along the old 
Boston and Worcester road brought us to realize 
more vividly that home itself was not far awav, and 
our spirits rose correspondingly We answered by a 
waving of the handkerchief or the cap, the kindly 


tokens of welcome home extended along the route. 
One man in his earnestness dropped his jacket from 
the car-window Another was wildly swinging 
both cap and kerchief at what proved to be a scare- 
crow At last the haze and distant spires and chim- 
neys of dear old Boston came into view Yes, there 
was no mistaking it. Oft, when surrounded by less 
peaceful scenes, had we visited it in our dreams; oft 
had we dwelt upon its attractions, and the enjoy- 
ment we had compassed within its limits, and won- 
dered whether we were destined to see it again. But 
the reality was upon us, and the men broke forth 
into singing until the cars rang again. Bunker Hill 
Monument appeared in view, and the chorus poured 
forth a louder greeting. In this wild tumult of ex- 
citement, each breast swelling with rejoicing at the 
pleasures of the immediate future, the train ran into 
the depot, and we surged out upon the platform. 

It was not far from 4 o'clock. We had expected 
to be accorded something of a reception, but not a 
familiar face was in sight, nor was there any sign of 
official recognition, either by the state or the city. 
This condition of affairs threw a wet blanket over 
our enthusiasm and lofty expectations of a warm 
welcome. We had entirelv ignored the fact that the 
reception of war veterans had become a common- 
place, every-day occurrence, and that returned sol- 
diers were no longer the town or village heroes; that 
to accord to all returning organizations the token 
of official recognition they deserved, would, in this 
piping time of peace, with such arrivals a daily 
event, have taken a great deal of some one's time 
and attention. This may seem a weak defence of 
the case. We hope there is a stronger. But be 
that as it may, we had received such cordial atten- 
tions at every stopping-place, from ante-rebellious 


llichmond forward, that it seemed somewhat singu- 
lar, at least, not to be as warmly received by those 
on whose regard our claims were strongest; and 
when it further became known that our immediate 
destination was Galloupe s Island, the recent ren- 
dezvous of so many of that class of men known as 
bounty -jumpers, the country s shanie, and that there 
we would be guarded as vigilantly as if we, too, 
were of that ilk, our indignation was iusuppressi- 
ble. It could not reasonably be expected that men 
who had been absent from their families nearly 
three years, were ready to be thus insulated when 
within sight of the smoke of their own chimneys: 
so when the column started, (apt. Adams kept his 
face steadfastly to the front, knowing that his ranks 
were being decimated at every street-corner. He 
knew his men better than the government did, and 
took no anxious thought for the consequences. Out 
of one hundred and eighty men who returned to the 
state, but seventy-five answered to roll-call on reach- 
ing the island. Had the men been dismissed to 
their homes, with orders to reassemble in twenty- 
four or forty-eight hours, or a week, to be paid off 
and mustered out, not a man irouhl have hem inissinf/. 
We mention this matter as illustrating one of the 
many ways how not to do it, so often met with in 
military matters. 

Having got fairly settled on the island, it was 
found that the muster rolls, made out with so much 
care at the Cross Uoads under orders from the War 
Department, Avere pronounced worthless by the offi- 
cials at this end of the route, therebv necessitating 
the making out of a new set These were com- 
pleted in four days and sent up for the inspection 
of the paymaster, Friday, June 9th, to be returned 
Mondav morning by him in person; but they were 


not received until Tuesday night, and then only 
through a vigorous stirring up <>f somebody by ('apt. 
Adams. The signatures of tlie men were added 
the same night. Early Wednesday morning, June 
34th, the paymaster appeared, our accounts with 
the government were settled, our discharges re- 
ceived, and all obligations to the United States wen* 
cancelled. We were citizens once more. 

And now began those marks of appreciation from 
friends of the Company, which went far to remove 
the unkind feelings engendered by our cool recep- 
tion. The town of Brookline, which had contrib- 
uted nearly a score of men to the Battery, was wait- 
ing to give the entire organization a warm greeting. 
It had been appointed for Tuesday the 13th, but for 
obvious reasons was deferred. On arriving at the 
wharf in Boston we were met by a deputation from 
that honored town, which escorted us to the Worces- 
ter Depot. There we took the cars for Brookline, 
where we were tendered a grand ovation. The 
town was ablaze with the national colors. The 
schools were closed, business was generally sus- 
pended, and everybody Avas abroad. We were 
marched through the principal streets of this beau- 
tiful suburb, escorted by all the local organizations 
and the school children, after which we were shown 
to tables, under a mammoth tent, richly freighted 
with the best of rations. Brookline will always oc- 
cupy a warm corner in the hearts of the Tenth Bat- 

Marblehead contributed more than thirty men to 
Hie organization, and extended the Company a sim- 
ilar invitation to its hospitalities. The invitation 
was accepted, and the time set, Tuesday, June 20th. 
Our reception here was a repetition of the one at 
Brookline, evincing throughout in vvi'vy possible 


way the most cordial good-will and gratitude to the 
men who had fought the battles of freedom. Din- 
ner was served in a tent on the common, and after 
I" lie customary speech-making was over, followed by 
a social good time, the young ladies in attendance 
captured our flag, and falling into line, escorted us 
to the station. Amid a general hand-shaking the 
train moved aAvay, reaching Boston in due time, 
when the men separated, and the Tenth Massachu- 
setts Batterv lived only in history 

That which I have undertaken to say of this Com- 
pany is now completed, and its closing chapters 
have been written with sincere regret ; for the task 
of tracing its history from the enlistment of its 
members to ilic close of the war has been one of un- 
alloyed pleasure. During its progress my imagina- 
tion has been peopled with the spirits and scenes of 
the conflict, and I have fought over again the old 
fights and lived over the old camp life so vividly, at 
times, as to regret the absence of the reality That 
the Company was worthy of a better historian is 
beyond dispute, but that it could have had one more 
diligent in his researches for the truths of history or 
more conscientious in their expression, 1 am not 
willing to admit. It would have been possible to in- 
troduce: into these pages some of the jealousies and 
feuds common, as Ave have reason to believe, to all 
military bodies, but no interest germane to the ob- 
ject sought in issuing the work could have been sub- 
served bv them, while their perpetuation would be 
undesirable in manv respects. 

The good deeds of the Battery have not been un- 
duly magnified. The time has passed when either 


parly to the war ran successfully claim the achieve- 
ment' of prodigies that never occurred. The system- 
atic sifting' anil weighing processes and tests to 
which all claims are subjected by the earnest seek- 
ers after the truth lay bare all such attempts at de- 
ception. The relative strength of the contestants at 
different periods of the war is the only question vet 
unsettled, and even that is rapidly approaching ad- 

Nor have I intended to underrate the calibre of 
our antagonists in writing up the Company, for, ob- 
viously, there must be at least two parties to a well 
contested field, and 1 firmly believe that no braver 
men were ever banded in an unrighteous cause than 
constituted the Rebel Army of Northern Virginia — - 
unquestionably the flower of the Southern forces. 
They fought with a valor that would have insure*] 
success had the God of Battles been on their side. 
To defeat such an army was glorv enough; to be de- 
feated by them, no disgrace. But they were nut in- 
vincible man for man. The men who entered the 
Army of the Potomac in 18(il, '<!2, and V>:> were 
every inch their peers. Whenever the circum- 
stances indicated otherwise, the fault was not in the 
men but their leaders. Had the Union army been 
as well officered as the Confederate, the Rebellion 
would have gone down in Virginia in l*r>L\ But my 
present purpose is not with this phase of the hit" 
conflict. I only wish to emphasize the good charac- 
ter and excellent fighting material of the Com pan v 
as a whole, and cite as weighty evidence bearing on 
this position the incontrovertible statement that tin- 
men never turned their backs upon the foe. unless 
by order, whenever there was an available shot in 
the limber. Nor was the Batterv ever driven from 
the field. Further, no man was ever accused of 


leaving his post in time of danger. Skulking to the 
rear Avhen duty called at the front was never 
charged against any member of the Battery, — a 
beast whose merit will be regarded as sufficient 
warrant for its making by those avIio know how gen- 
eral skulking was. At Reams Station our men 
were the last to leave the held, this being the cause 
of so many of them falling into the hands of the 

If, with the assistance so kindly rendered me, I 
have succeeded in spreading upon tin 1 page of his- 
tory an impartial record of the service of the Tenth 
Massachusetts Battery, of which it has always been 
my proudest boas! that I was a member, 1 shall 
consider myself amply repaid for the many hours 
devoted to its preparation. The decision of this 
question I cheerfully leave to the judgment of my 
late comrades in arms, for whose gratification the 
labor was undertaken. 


l *<;.->. 

April 10. Tavo horses died of exhaustion. 

April 11. Five horses died of exhaustion. 

April 12. Abandoned 202 rounds of ammuni- 
tion, hive horses died of exhaustion. 

April !•">. Four horses died of exhaustion. 

April t-J. Four horses died of exhaustion. 
Lieut. George M. Townsend returned from 20 davs 
leave of absence 

April lo. Two horses died of exhaustion. Re- 
ceived 20 horses from Q. M. Dep't. Turned in 21 
horses to O. M. Dep't. 

April 17 Received 30 rounds of ammunition 
from Capt. Meade. 


April IS. Two men, A. A. Pdandin and '!'. Herl- 
ehy reported hack for duty from the train. 

April 20. Private E. 1 >. Thresher reported to 

April 1*1 Private K. 1). Thresher reported to 

April '2-2. Private E. D. Tlireslier reported to 

April 23. Private E. I). Thresher reported to 

April 24. Private E. I). Tlireslier and Thomas 
Smith reported to quarters. Eeceived 300 rounds 
of ammunition, 70 of * * * 70 II. C, and LOO 
II. P from rapt* Meade ( c ). M. (Ordnance)? I >ept. 
Corporal Estee and seven privates returned to duty 
from Art'y Brigade Headquarters. 

April 2.1. Private T. Smith reported to quarters. 
Private E. I). Tlireslier sent to Brigade Hospital. 
Private S. H. Johnson returned to duty from Km- 
munition Train. 

April 2C>. Two horses died, Black Tongue. Pri- 
vate E. I). Tlireslier died in Art'y Brigade Hospital 
of Fever. 

April 27 (hie horse died of Black Tongue. Pri- 
vate Thomas Smith reported to quarters. Private 1 
E. T). Thresher buried with military honors. 

April 28. One horse died of Black Tongue Pri- 
vate Tlios. Smith reported to quarters. 

April 30. Mustered (for pay)? by (apt. Foder, 
Battery K, 4th U. S. Light Arty Peceived 40 
horses from Capt. Meade. Burned (?)*** 

May 2. Corporal Estee and Privates Wilson and 
Burroughs detailed to go to Alexandria with am- 
munition chests. 

Mav 3. < )ne horse died of exhaustion. 

May .1. Serg't A. B. Parker and Privates Xesbitt, 


Putnam, Tales, Handlin and Gowell transferred to 

May 0. Passed through the city of Richmond. 

May 8. One horse died — worn out. 

May it. One horse died — worn out. 

May 10. Two horses died of exhaustion. 

May 11. One horse died of exhaustion. 

May 12. One horse died of exhaustion. 

May 11. One horse died of exhaustion. 

May 10. Private Waldo Pierce transferred to 
Invalid Corps. Serg't A. B. Parker and Privates 
Xesbitt, Gowell, Fales, Putnam, Handlin returned 
from hospital. Corporal Estee and Privates Wil- 
son and Burroughs went to Alexandria and (got)? 
our ammunition chests. 

May IS. One horse died — worn out. 

May 11). Two spare caissons turned in to the 
Ordnance Department, Washington, D. C, with all 
equipments and ordnance belonging to it (them)? 
Corporal J. D. Billings and Private J. M. Bamsdell 
reported to quarters. Two horses died of exhaus- 

May 20. < >ne horse died of farcy 

May 23. Grand Review of the Army of the Po- 

May 20. Private T. W Strand's horse taken up 
on Report Book. 

May 27 One horse died — worn out. 

May 29. Privates J. P Brown and T. El worth 
returned to duty from the train. 

May 31. Turned over the Battery to the Ord- 
nance Department, AVashington, D. C. Horses, (84) 
to Q'r M. Department. Privates Xorthey, J. L. 
Schwartz and W Moran returned to duty from 
Art'y Brigade Hospital, Second Corps. Received 
notice of the death of Private C. W Green 
in * * * 




We were with the Battery until July 10, lsr»:i, 
when 1 received orders to select three good men, and 
with them return to P>erlin, Md., for mules and har- 
nesses. We were then some twenty miles into Vir- 
ginia. Having selected comrades Allard, Abbott, 
and Chase, in the latter part of the afternoon we 
took our departure, mounted, for Jierlin, all feeling 
in good spirits. On our arrival at Harper's Ferry 
Ave dismounted, fed our horses, ate our rations, and 
bivouacked. On the following morning early, af- 
ter feeding once more and eating another frugal 
meal of hardtack and coffee, we started for our des- 
tination, reaching it about 1he middle of the fore- 
noon of t,he 20th. We could in>t the mules, but could 
obtain no harnesses, and as we could not procure 
both, agreeably with instructions, left the mules 
and set out on our return, crossing again at Har- 
per's Ferry into Virginia. 

We had ridden perhaps fifteen miles up Loudon 
Valley, when we were suddenly surprised by a band 
of Mosby s guerrillas, lying in ambush behind stone 
walls both sides of the read, their carbines covering 
us. Not a word passed between us, but thev beck- 
oned for us to approach and enter their lines 


through an opening in the wall about large enough 
for a horse to pass, which wo saw at a glance was 
the only wise thing left for as to do. Having com- 
plied with this requirement, we were ordered to dis- 
mount. They then searched us, taking all our valu- 
ables and what of our clothing they wished, putting 
1 heir old worn-out garments upon us. Some of 
their number then mounted our horses and marched 
us to the summit of the Blue Kidge, where they 
guarded us and some twenty or thirty othevs whom 
they had captured previously Here we biv 
ouacked with nothing to eat. 

On the following evening (Tuesday, 21st), having 
marched twenty or twenty-five miles, they filed us 
off into an open field to spend another night, with 
only a blanket to cover our half-clad forms, 
starvation staring us in the face, for we had eaten 
nothing since our capture. But our captors took no 
pity on us, nor heeded our applications for some- 
thing to ear All rhe satisfaction we got was, 
"(Jood enough for you. We have starved more than 
we have killed bv the bullet." We resumed our 
march next morning, and at night brought up at 
Berrvville, where they gave us a cup of flour, having 
nothing more, as they said, to give us. The most 
of us mixed it with water and then ate it, having no 
conveniences to cook it with. 

Wednesday morning they again ordered us into 
line, and we marched through quite a number of 
settlements to Winchester, A a. After leaving Ber- 
rvville, many of the prisoners became so footsore 
that they walked barefooted the rest of the journey 
Many, too, began to be afflicted, first with constipa- 
tion, and afterwards with chronic diarrhea, which 
ultimately caused the death of a large number. 

At Winchester they put us into an old building 


under a strong guard, where they issued a ration of 
wormy hard-tack to us, which we devoured, and 
then stretched ourselves upon the bare floor. From 
Winchester we were marched to Staunton, Va., and 
bivouacked on a high hill. Here they dealt us out 
a ration of mouldy hard-tack and a small piece of 
bacon, — a mite for starving men, but a (Jod-send, 
small as it was, though crawling with animated na- 

We remained at Staunton two or three days, 
when they marched us to the railroad station and 
packed some five hundred of us so closely into box- 
cars that we could scarcely raise our arms. A 
guard stood at each door ready to shoot or bayonet 
the first man who should attempt to escape. After 
proceeding some distance they stopped the train in 
a long tunnel, owing to an accident ahead. We were 
in this dungeon nearly two hours. Meanwhile 
many of the men got out of the cars stealthily, and 
creeping alongside, and underneath them, secured 
whatever missiles they could lay hands on, and then 
returned to the inside. When the train got under 
way, bang! bang! bang! would go the stones, taking 
off boards from the sides of the car, and the guard 
would fire at random in the direction of the sound. 
Two or three men weir wounded, but not mortally. 
When the train reached Richmond, which was early 
in the morning, there was not a whole box-car re- 
maining, all having been more or less staved out 
ward to obtain fresh air. 

At Richmond they guarded us on the train some 
three or four hours, not allowing us to get off to ob- 
tain water to quench our thirst. Next we were or- 
dered into line, where — weak as manv were, so 
weak that their stronger comrades were obliged to 
give support, for not a man could leave the ranks 

The tenth Massachusetts battery 445 

under penalty of being shot — Ave were kept stand- 
ing in the broiling sim more than an hour. Two 
were shot while we were in line in front of Libbv; 
they called us all sorts of abusive epithets. After 
they had thinned the prisoners out in Libbv, in- 
tending to transfer some to Salisbury and Ander- 
sonville, they put a part of our squad into Libbv 
and a part into Castle Thunder. 

Constant siftings were taking place from these 
prisons to make room for fresh arrivals. We four 
were amongst a squad they transferred to Belle 
Isle — a Paradise to the places we had been in, 
though not much better than a hog-pen, and with 
the appearance of having long been inhabited by 
that animal. Like every rendezvous for prisoners, 
it was alive with vermin. On a hill near the stock 
arte in which we were kept stood a number of can- 
non trained on the prisoners in case of any general 
attempt to escape. We were on this island some 
six Aveeks, during which time Ave got only one ration 
in two days, the same consisting of a pint of bean 
soup, or a small bit of half-boiled beef — more bone 
than beef. In a pint of this liquid, by brisk stir- 
ring, we could manage to arouse from one to six 
lonesome beans, which seemed as if trying to es- 
cape our search, — a forlorn and useless hope, how- 
ever, for, half boiled and hard as they usually 
were, they Avere seized and swallowed. 

One day AA'e were lucky enough to Avork ourselves 
into a squad picked out for exchange. This we did 
by feigning sickness; and if ever we felt happy and 
grateful to our heavenly Father, it was when avo 
Avere released from that sink of filthiness and fast- 
ing called Belle Isle. From there we Avere taken to 
Richmond, where Ave were confined for the night in 
Libbv Prison. The next morning they packed us, 

-I Mi 


;is at Staunton, in l><>.\-< ars, like sardines, — I think 
there were three <>r four hundred e.i' us, -and dis 
patched us to Petersburg. Thence we went by the 
exchange boat to City Point, "where we *:tw for the 
tirst time since our capture the glorious old Stars 
and Stripes. They never meant so much to us be- 
fore, and weak as we were we sent up a rousing 

At City Point we were transferred to the si earner 
"City of New York," which soon east off and started 
for Annapolis, where was located the camp for pa- 
roled and exchanged prisoners. Our feelings at 
this moment can possibly be imagined, but it was an 
ecstasy of joy I cannot describe. But so weak and 
shattered were many of the men released, that the 
reaction was too much for them, and several passed 
away before reaching their destination. The first 
"sipiare meal" we had after our rapture was ob- 
tined on board this steamer. It consisted of hard 
tack, bread, cheese, and coffee, but such was the 
condition of the digestive organs of some of the pris- 
oners that death soon followed. The bodies of fif- 
teen such lay on the bow of the steamer as she 
reached Annapolis. At this place the prisoners 
were distributed, some being sent to College Creen 
Barracks, others to Parole Camp, to remain until 
they rallied, when they were returned to their re- 
spective regiments or companies. The writer re- 
mained here on detail until the close of the war 



Bjl Williiim /:. EiulivoU. 

[The writer of this chapter was Number ( )ne man 
on 'he first piece, the one nearest the spot where the 


enemy succeeded in entering- our works. The first 
few lines of the following account are his own expe- 
rience only, for no man could do more than look out 
for himself in that time of great confusion.] 

When the ammunition of the first piece was ex- 
hausted, nothing remained to be done. The gun's 
crew, therefore, fell back to the next piece, and the 
next, — and so mi, each gun firing its last round in 
"urn. The other guns crews fell back as we did. 
At one piece fought Isaac Burroughs and Frank Es- 
iee. The former had just time to insert the last 
round (canister), as a body of Kebels came down 
upon them. "This is my gun!" shouted the officer in 
command, coming straight in front of the piece. 
"Take it!'" answer-d Estee, pulling the lanyard. 
These two cannoneers got safely off of the field. 
Those of us who fell back along the works kept on 
as far as the traverse which separated our left piece 
from the right one of the Bhode Island Kattery 
How many of the boys of the Tenth were at that 
spot I cannot say I remember only one, beside my- 
self, but there must have been many others. Look- 
ing toward the right, the scene was frightful. The 
ground was thickly strewn with the dead and 
wounded of both sides. Many of the infantry who 
had gathered courage enough to try a dash towards 
the rear, were seen to fall as they ran, and in the 
middle ground lay the gory heaps of our poor horses, 
who had stood with such unflinching firmness under 
the terrible tempest of shells and bullets which had 
swept the plain. The victorious Bebels were ad- 
vancing, evidently in high spirits, as well they 
might be. Hundreds of the wretched fellows who 
had failed so miserably in their duty as support to 
the Battery, lay huddled under the works, too ter- 


rifled even t<» stand. It may be imagined that our 
feelings were bitter enough when we learned, souk 1 
months afterward, that one of the New York payers, 
in its account of the battle, had stated that the 
Fourth New York Heavy Artillery had manned the 
guns of our Battery after we had fled. There was, 
however, one exception to the poltroonery which 
most of tliese poor creatures displayed: Major Frank 
Williams, of the above regiment, rallied about a 
score of his men, and charged upon the vastly supe- 
rior force of the enemy with the utmost gallantry; 
but bravery was of no avail: all of his party were 
soon killed or captured. 

The enemy continued firing as they bore down 
n pon us, and it seemed to be their intention to kill 
us all; and, as we had no weapons, we could only 
stand up and take it. A Rebel, at the distance of 
fifty feet, drew his rifle to his shoulder and aimed in 
such a direction that I could look, as it seemed, di- 
rectly into the muzzle. I was certain that niv time 
had come to die After a moment's pause he fired, 
and I was surprised to find mvself unhurt; but a 
man at my side, and partly behind me, sunk down 
with a groan, shot in the head. The next minute I 
felt the cold muzzle of a Rebel lieutenant s pistol 
just behind my ear, and heard a command, in most 
abusive language, to get over the works and go to 
the Rebel lines; which I obeyed at once. 

When Ave reached the open level field which lay 
behind the low ridge where their guns had been 
posted, we saw at least two brigades which they 
had not brought into the fight at all; so, very likely, 
the result might have been the same if our support 
had been a help instead of a hindrance. 

It would be a natural supposition that the two 
thousand prisoners who met in that hold were full 


of sorrow and dreadful forebodings; but nothing 
could be farther from the truth. The flush and ex- 
citement of battle were still on us too strongly to 
allow us to think of what we should have to endure 
in Rebel prisons, and our conduct was more like 
that of victors than vanquished; as one after an- 
other of a regiment or battery met his fellows, the 
handshaking and loud salutations were renewed, 
and the air rang with our talk and laughter. Occa- 
sionally a shot from a Union gun would come ob- 
liquely over the field, and the prisoners shouted and 
jeered to see the Rebels dodge and break ranks. 

They took our chaff very good-naturedly; indeed, 
to do them justice, their conduct towards us was 
very kind and friendly, with one or two exceptions. 
I had received a new felt hat from home that morn- 
ing, which a ragged Rebel took possession of with- 
out much ceremony; and a few other instances oc- 
curred of similar seizure's; but I feel bound to say, 
that, as our enemies had showed the most desper- 
ate courage in the battle, they proved themselves 
humane when the victory was assured. But when 
I speak of humanity, it must be remembered that I 
speak onlv of the actual fighting-men, as will be 
seen further on. 

We remained in the field I have spoken of for per- 
haps an hour, and then took up the line of march 
for Petersburg, not by a direct course, for fear of 
recapture, but making a detour towards the south. 
Our exhilaration had by this time subsided, and the 
feelings naturally to be looked for had taken its 
place, and that evening's march was indeed a 
gloomy one. To add to our depression of spirits, it 
soon began to rain, and when we halted for the 
night, about 9 o'clock, the wet grass was our bed, 
and the pouring clouds our covering, until the 


march was resumed at about four next morning. 
Most of us had been taken in our fighting costume 
of shoos, pantaloons, shirt, and hat. The only ar- 
ticles I took into Libby Prison, beside these pieces 
of clothing, were a towel and an old condensed-milk 
can, and few of us had much more. 

This day's march was exceedingly severe, for the 
sun was unclouded, and shone down upon us with 
its full August fierceness. Water was scarce, and if 
it had been plentiful, we could have done no more 
than dip up a little in our hands as we passed along. 
The guards were changed twice, if my memory does 
not deceive me; but for us there was no relief, noth- 
ing but an incessant tramp. We sometimes met 
parties of Kebels on the way, who seemed much 
pleased at having taken so many of the Second 
Corps. *'I reckon we have got about all of Han- 
cock's Butterflies," they would say ''Go to Deep 
Bottom, and see! 1 ' was the bitter rejoinder. This 
generally put an end to their questions. 

Several times we encountered officers who were 
looking for our gallant corps commander himself, 
the story having reached Petersburg that he was 
among the captives. "Where's Hancock? Where's 
Hancock?" they asked. "You'll hear from him 
within twenty-four hours," we replied. They took 
our retorts in perfectly good part, as if they could 
make allowance for our condition, and knew the 
dismal place we were going to. At about 3 o'clock 
we were allowed to rest in a thin grove of pines. At 
this place I had the exceedingly good fortune to 
find a condensed-milk can, which I used afterwards 
in Libby to hold my ration of pea-soup. Had 
1 not found this I must have gone without my soup, 
in which case T might not have been now where I 


It was a little before sunset when we readied 
Petersburg. I was surprised to see, in the outskirts, 
how every spot sheltered from the bombardment 
had been seized upon as a dwelling-place by those 
whose residences were in the more exposed part of 
the city The citizens were living there in scores, in 
ti 11 kinds of habitations, — tents of cotton-duck; 
wigwams of poles tied together at the top, and cov- 
ered with bed-quilts; booths of boughs of pine-trees; 
and now and then a log-cabin. As we hied through 
the streets we were pleased to see that many of the 
houses had great gaps in their walls, made by the 
passage of our shells. We were fortunate enough 
to pass the church by whose clock it was the fashion 
of our men to set their watches when we first came 
in sight of the town, so as to be able to give each 
other Petersburg time, until a three-inch shot tore 
through it, completely upsetting its internal econ- 
omy The citizens looked rather black as we 
pointed up to it, but our guard only laughed. 

We passed the night on an island in the river, and 
in the morning Ave were counted, searched, and 
robbed. lOverything of value was taken from us. 
The search was especially keen for money. Their 
own currency was exceeding] v plentiful, and <-orros- 
pondingly worthless. We had been much surprised, 
the day before, when we were led through the town, 
to have little boys come to us to buy buttons from 
our blouses, offering four or five dollars a piece for 
them, and showing the money Some of these boys 
tried to find a Yankee with a watch to sell, and went 
about with a handful of Confederate promises to 
pay, shouting that they would give two hundred 
dollars for a silver watch. 

I had a little experience of my own in regard to 
the value of Pebel scrip. (Hidden — my "partner," 


as we used to call it in those days — found a razor 
in the grass on this island, which he sold for twelve 
dollars; and Ave both felt considerably (dated, for 
we Thought that if provisions ran short in prison we 
could buy extras with all that money This was 
Saturday forenoon. We had had nothing to eat 
since Thursday forenoon, — just before the tight, — 
so we thought it best to buy a little bread to break 
our long fast. It took the whole of the money to 
buy three biscuits, and the vender was by no means 
desirous to sell even at that. 

By some inquiry and comparison we found that a 
dollar of our paper money was worth twentv of 
theirs, and considering the price of gold, the actual 
value of Rebel scrip must have been about the same 
as that of the old Gallipolis bank of which the story 
went that you could buy wood with it at the rate 
of cord for cord. 

That afternoon they issued a ration to us: four 
mouldy hard-tack, to last us until we should reach 
Libby- A little before sunset we were started for 
the train of platform cars which were to take us to 
Richmond. To reach them we were obliged to 
march about three miles out, for the thirteen-inch 
mortar, the Dictator, which we had seen a month be- 
fore on the (Mty Point road as we came back from 
Deep Bottom, dropped its shells so neatly on the 
railroad just out of Petersburg that the track was 
impassable. We had watt lied the mortar practice 
at the Union end with pleasure and interest, and 
now, at the Rebel end, observed its effects. 

We were crowded on the cars and very slightly 
guarded, as it seemed to me, for there were not more 
than four or six guards to a car, and perhaps some 
of us might have escaped by suddenly pushing them 
off. But the risk was certainly very great, and the 


probability of reaching our own lines exceedingly 
small; so, though one or two of us whispered a sug- 
gestion to each other, nothing was done. The 
guards were the very soul of good-nature and 
treated us with great consideration. At Chester- 
field Station the train halted for a few moments, 
and I asked an old man, a civilian, who stood by the 
track, what time it was. •' Yankee time!" said the 
old fellow; not a very bad insult, but one of our 
keepers, who heard him, rated him soundly for his 
incivility I mention the good feeling of the actual 
fighters because it was in such marked contrast 
with the conduct of the home guard and plav-sol- 
diers who took charge of ns the moment we arrived 
in liichmond. With oaths and curses we were 
driven into the street, sometimes at the point of the 
bayonet, and were marched to Libby with jeers and 
execrations. The hunger Ave had endured we 
thought little of; similar experiences had not been 
unknown when wagon trains had failed to come up; 
but the brutality so suddenly showered upon us 
brought to us all the realization that Ave Avere in- 
deed prisoners of Avar. 

In Dante's "Inferno" the gates of Hell bore the 
inscription, "All hope abandon, ye who enter here." 
The words came into my mind Avitli frightful force 
that night; the street was just light enough to en- 
able us to see the pale faces pressed up to the bars; 
the corpse of a newly slain prisoner lay in its blood 
on the pavement near the door-; and the door-Avay it- 
self Avas a great square mass of blackness, for noth- 
ing Avas Adsible Avithin. They forced us in, closed 
and barred the door, posted the guard, and left us to 
our reflections. That it was an exceedingly miser- 
able time for us I need not say It Avas as dark as a 
pocket; there Avas no room to lie doAvn or for many 


even to sit; sleep was of course impossible, and we 
spent the rest of tlio night wondering Avhat would 
be the end of all this. At about eight the no\! 
morning wo were takou, two hundred or so at a 
time, up two flights of stairs, to the rooms which 
were to bo our jails; and there IH'K Tri:.\i:i; robbed 
us again. There was not much to reward his in- 
dustry, — wo had been too thoroughly searched b\ 
the Petersburg thieves for that, — and when lie had 
stolen everything" lie could find lie left us. 

With the idea of humiliating us, a negro with a 
(dub was stationed at the door, but it may bo imag- 
ined that lie did us no harm. In the greenness of 
niv soul I asked him what we were to keep our ra- 
tions in when they weir dealt out. "Von won't bo 
troubled with rations," he answered, and his words 
came true. 

I have told the story in detail so far; but we were 
now fairly entered on our prison life, and one day 
was like another, so it will not be necessary to par- 
ticularize. Our daily life was as follows. We got 
up off tlie floor at daybreak, cold and numb and 
lame, and when the sun rose and shone a little while 
into the two eastern windows, we gathered there 
to enjoy his ravs as flies do when they begin to feed 
old and stiff in autumn. Then we would go to our 
own part of the room; for Ave formed little squads, 
and had our own territory which we never left by 
day. The Tenth Battery squad had, as I believe, 
the most eligible camping ground in the whole 
room, for it was on the side next the river and had 
two windows. Here we sat until the sweepers 
came, three negroes with a broom and one with 
a half barrel, — whose business "was to sweep the 
floor. Thev were under command of a tall, thin, 
and sour Georgian who made it his occupation to 


see that we held no communication with the sweep- 
ers: a task quite out of his power to accomplish. A 
few would bey-in to argue with him about the war, 
and he would take fire at once and forget every- 
thing else, and while he was telling us for the twen- 
tieth time, "You uns had no business to come down 
here to fight we uns. If you uns had stayed where 
vou belong there wouldn't have been any war," the 
others got all the news of the day from the negroes, 
and those who had money sent out by them to get 
things to eat. Sometimes tin* value of their money 
came back to them and sometimes not. 

In t his way we learned the news of the fall of At- 
lanta and taunted the Georgian with it. He de- 
nied it as long as he could, ami ended bv drawing a 
pistol and commanding silence. After the sweep- 
ers had gone, the next excitement was the entrance 
of pompous Major Turner, Dicks brother, by whose 
ciilers we were formed in two ranks up and down 
the room while he counted us. What he would 
have done if he had found his birds short in number 
I can neither tell nor imagine. This brought us to 
about half-past nine, when Ave devoted ourselves for 
the next half-hour to waiting for breakfast which 
was due at ten. Those Avhose territory lay at the 
street end of the room had the excitement of Avatch- 
ing for tin* negroes who brought the rations in 
greasy tubs from the cook-house across the street. 
When Ave heard the joyous cry "Fall in" we gath- 
ered in our respective squads and waited for the 
welcome food. The bulk of meat and bread A\as 
divided into as many parts as there were squads, 
and the chief man of every squad divided these por- 
tions into as many parts as there were men in a 
squad; then one turned his back and was asked, 
"Who shall have this lot? this lot? this lot?" and so 
on until all were disposed of. 


The next half-hour was always a time of great 
enjoyment. We ate slowly to prolong the pleas- 
ure, gathered up the smallest crumbs that had 
fallen, and picked every atom of meat from the 
bones; but the end of the feast would come at last. 

I will describe these rations a little more fully 
The bread Avas of the coarsest description, made of 
corn, ground cob and all, and not finely ground. I 
have lately read that chemists sav there is a good 
deal of nourishment in cobs, but I think they do not 
look for it in the same way as we did, for we looked 
in vain. Of this bread, such as it was, we got about 
four ounces. The meat was of a character which 
made it a fitting companion for the bread, and, poor 
as it was, they gave us only about three ounces, in- 
cluding the bone. We liked to have a bone fall to 
our share because 1 it took so long to pick it, and 
some bones, the ends of the ribs for example, had 
soft places in them which we could chew and try to 
think that we were eating. One day we had a fine 
lot of bones. General Early had captured a herd of 
cattle from the Union army, and the heads were 
boiled and sent in to us after the cheeks, brains and 
tongues had been removed. 

The next meal — the other meal 1 should say — 
was not until four in the afternoon, and there was a 
great deal of time on our hands. We passed this 
in various ways. Somebody had managed to save 
a pack of cards, and those who liked played until 
so many of the cards were lost that no game could 
be carried on; others sat and talked the time away, 
telling all the adventures that never happened to 
them. One day I found a piece of laurel wood, and 
made a spoon which I still keep as a memento of 
that dismal time. I also marked my tin can with 
my name, and around the rim I cut Lovelace s lines, 


u 8tone walls do not a prison make, nor iron bars a 
rage," and thought as I did so that the poet did not 
know about these things. In some way or other, 
three books had escaped the clutrhes of the two sets 
of thieves who had robbed us. These were a Bible, 
which I read completely through; a copy of Miss 
Braddon s JauIi/ Audit i/'.s Scent, which I also read, 
but without much enjoyment; and The Arabian 
X ighi s, a book whose absurdity and childishness 
were too much for me, even in prison. We used oft- 
entimes to sit and gaze at a field of corn which grew 
on the south bank of the river, hardly a stone's 
throw away, and say to each other, "Oh, if I were 
only in that cornfield!" Other objects which 
whiled away the weary prison day were the occa- 
sional passage of a tug up or down the canal, or a 
group of turkey-buzzards hovering about some 
choice bit on the river bank. It was hazardous to 
approach the window near enough to be seen by the 
sentries, for it was at once their delight and their 
orders to shoot any one who did so. Yet we were 
never warned by any one in authority to keep back, 
nor did the sentry often take the trouble to give any 
orders. The sight of a musket being brought into 
position was generally the only intimation of dan- 
ger before the discharge of the piece. We did some- 
times venture, however, and it gave us unfeigned 
satisfaction to see how thickly the grass was grow- 
ing between the paving-stones. One day — it was 
the 13th of September, I believe — we heard heavy 
cannonading down the river, and could even see 
Union shells exploding in the air. Pretty soon a 
string of fugitives appeared coming up the canal 
bank, among them an old lady in a high-wheeled 
chaise and with a lapful of silver ware, who was 
frantically urging on an old horse which was wholly 


unable to satisfy her desire tor rapid transit. We 
made sure that our side had gained some great ad- 
vantage and saluted the shells with cheers, to the 
great disgust of the sentries. 

Some of the prisoners managed, one day, to cut 
out a piece of the flooring so as to communicate 
with the prisoners on the floor below The Kebel 
authorities suspected this, but they never could find 
the place. The negro sweepers must have known 
where it was, but they never told. 

In these ways the wretched days dragged on. At 
four o'clock, each day, a shout from the northern 
end of the room gave notice that our luxurious sup- 
per was about to be served; this consisted of another 
piece of the apology for bread, which we by no 
means sneered at then, and bean, or rather pea 
broth, about one-third of a pint to each man. It 
was very galling to see those worthless negroes 
pour out some of it into the street when the tubs 
were a little heavy. This stuff was made of the cow- 
pea, raised as a forage crop at tin- 1 South; and these 
peas, like others, were full of weevils to such an ex- 
tent that their carcasses made a thick, black layer 
over the broth. This was of a dark-red color, and 
we thought the flavor excellent. 

We were as long as possible in eating supper, and 
when it was over we soon went to bed; that is, we 
went in a body to our chosen spot near the centre of 
the room, as far from the window as possible, and 
lay down. There was no glass in the windows, and 
as the month was September, and the prison on the 
river bank, it always became very cold before morn- 
ing; so we used to lie down as close together as we 
could get, and when one wanted to turn we all had 
to turn in concert. It took some time to <j;i't to 
sleep under such circumstances, and just as we were 


getting into a doze the sentries were sure to wake 
us with their half-hourly cry, like this, "Post-num- 
ber-seven-half-past-twelve-and-airs-well !" Rut no 
person born north of Mason and Dixon's line can 
reproduce the drawling whine of the Georgians who 
guarded us. One night one of them started out in 
full cry, "Post number t\yo half — what time is it?" 
The effect was very ludicrous, and we jeered and 
shouted at him for some time. Late in September we 
had a piece of good news, which, however, turned 
out to be fals". A crowd of prisoners arrived at 
midnight. Some one among them shouted, "Hut 
ler's got his machine to working." We supposed by 
this that the Dutch Gap Canal had proved success- 
ful, and felt quite happy over it. So we turned to 
and fro until davbreak, when we rose and tried to 
hobble to the cast window to get a minute's sun- 

Thus the time passed for live weeks. During this 
period we always stopped eating while still hungry, 
as we are often told we ought to do; but the result 
"was not such as to cause us to continue in the same 
course when not obliged to. At the end of the 
third week any sudden change of position was fol- 
lowed by ringing in the ears, darkness before the 
eyes, and great dizziness; and when five weeks wer<' 
over and they took us out, we found that to go 
down stairs even with our lightened bodies was a 
severe trial to the strength of our knee-joints. We 
were marched through the streets on that drizzly 
dav to Belle Isle, and found it a far worse place 
than that which we had left, in most respects, al- 
though exposure to the sun was quite a luxury to 
us. The population of the island, at that time, must- 
have been about six thousand. The area of the 
prison pen was laid out in about sixty streets, 


branching out at right angles from a central ave- 
nue, thirty on a side; these st reels were numbered, 
and on each were the quarters of a hundred prison- 
ers, their covering a condemned tent, their bed the 
ground, sometimes wet, sometimes not, according 
to the weather. This camp was guarded by a 
strong line of sentries, and several pieces of cannon 
on a hill near at hand were trained upon the inclos- 
ure in case of a sudden outbreak. 1 strolled out to 
see the place on the first afternoon, and was sud- 
denly accosted with, "Look out, dead line!" from a 
prisoner who was better acquainted with the prem- 
ises. I looked up and saw the silent sentry just be- 
ginning to bring his rifle to position. I disap- 
l>ointe<l him of his expected reward — a furlough — 
by stepping back. ''Where's the dead line?" I asked 
the prisoner. "Anywhere within three rods of the 
stockade," he said. "Sometimes nearer, sometimes 
not so near." And Ave soon found that "dead line" 
was wherever the sentry chose. Some of these 
guards were friendly and would warn us, but the 
majority were quite the other way 

There was a daily count as there had been in 
Libby. For this purpose' Ave were all marched out 
of the stockade while our quarters were being 
searched, and were' counted as we passed in again. 
Some spent their time while outside 1 in digging 
witch-grass roots out of the sand, getting as much 
as could be clasped in one hand. I could not imag- 
ine a\ hat they did with this at first, but found that 
they dried the roots and then used them to heat 
their pea broth; making for the purpose a circular 
Avail of earth just large enough to set a tin can upon, 
leaving a draught hole and a place for the escape of 
the smoke, thus saving nearly every particle of heat. 
Once or twice a man tried to escape by burying him- 


self in the sand while outside and lying there all 
day, slipping into the river by night. One, I be- 
lieve, got away while we were there. After dark 
it was exceedingly hazardous to move outside of 
the quarters. One night we heard the report of a 
musket, followed at once by shrieks of agony, and 
we knew that one more murder had been done. 

One day cannonading was heard down the river, 
apparently at no great distance, and our hopes be- 
gan to rise. The guards were doubled, the artiller- 
ists were posted at the guns on the hill, and an offi- 
cer came in and gave us notice that if more than 
two men were seen talking together fire would be 
opened upon us. The cannonading continued, and 
feeling very little confidence in the forbearance of 
the guards we went into oar tents, threw up breast- 
works and lay down behind them. That, however, 
passed over; the firing died away, and our position 
was no more hazardous than before. 

In the second week of October the prisoners be- 
gan to be sent to Andersonville and Salisbury, two 
or three hundred at a time. Some supposing that 
they would be better treated there exchanged them- 
selves into the hundreds next in order; others, rea- 
soning that it was best to stay as near our own lines 
as possible, made exchanges the other way One 
morning, after we had come in from being counted, 
we found that three of our battervmen were miss- 
ing; they had got separated from the rest of us, had 
been counted in with a lot to go South, and we never 
saw them again; they all died at Salisbury: Charles 
Oreen, Timothy <i. Kedtield, and Francis L. Macom- 
ber. One night, all of us that were left on the 
island, to the number of several hundred, were or- 
dered out, and marched across the railroad bridge 
to where the cars bound South were standing. 


Looking around I saw thai not a guard was in sight; 
it seemed ;is if it would be almost tfyinu in the fare 
of Providence not to attempt to escape, but in a f«wv 
minutes came the joyful news that we were to be pa- 
roled. It seemed too good lo be true, but true it was. 
After having had rations furnished us for the jour- 
ney to the South, and while we were standing by the 
cars that were to take us, the orders were changed, 
and we were sent North instead. We tool; up the 
line of march to ( astle Thunder, and there look oath 
not to serve against the Confederate States iso 
called) until exchanged. This formality over. Major 
Turner asked if there was any one there who could 
write; hundreds at once stepped out. Two of us. 
•las. S. Bailey and the present writer, were chosen, 
and we wrote all night long, taking names, rank, 
regiment, etc. In the morning early we got another 
ration of bread, and were packed on board a Rebel 
vessel, and taken down the James, past Fort Dar- 
ling, to Yarina Landing, where we went ashore 
The rivei- at this point makes a wide sweep and 
comes back again nearlv to the same place, so it 
was a short Avalk acoss the neck of the peninsula. 
As we got to the top of the little hill which lay in 
our way we saw the most magnificent sight our eyes 
ever rested upon — the Star-spangled Banner at the 
mast-head of the fiag-of-truce boat "New York," 
which was to take us to Annapolis. There is no need 
of spending fine words to express feelings which 
were beyond the power of Avords to express. If 
such feelings are not understood without words 
they never can be understood at all. In due time 
we reached Annapolis, and there several of 
us were detailed for duty under < 'apt. Davis, who 
had charge of College (ireen Barracks. I re- 
mained there several months, and when the ireneral 


exchange Avas declared, aud the prisoners who had 
been twelve or eighteen months in Salisbury and 
Andersonville arrived, I saw sights which made nie 
feel as if I had no right to say that I had ever been 
a prisoner at all. 



"With the morning s dawn I settled my bill at Ho- 
tel Oarv in Petersburg and at 8 o'clock took seat in 
an open carriage and set out on a day's campaign. 
A pair of high-stepping grays took nie along at a 
lively pace to the Boydton Plank Road and down 
that historic thoroughfare we proceeded. I had in- 
structed the driver not to tell me when we arrived 
at Burgess' Mill, wishing to test the accuracy of my 
recollection. But when he drew up at Burgess' 
barn and asked me if this was the place I had to 
give it up. Yet here we were at Burgess' Tavern, 
wrongly so called, sure enough and I had just 
crossed Hatcher's Bun. On this very ground stood 
the lines of the Second Corps Oct. 27, 1SI14. Had I 
approached the spot from the Union side I think ' 
should have recognized it Here is the White Oak 
Bead which enters the Blank Boad from the west 
Burgess old house was torn dowu bv the Rebels af- 
ter we left on that October day. and a heavy line of 
works was built across the road connecting with a 
strong fort a few rods away on either side. The old 
barn into which Lieut. Smith was carried wounded 
was destroyed at the same time and a new one 
stands in its place. 


As I left the carriage a young man perhaps nine- 
teen veavs old came out of the barn. He gave his 
name as Burgess and from him I learned that not 
his father but his grandfather it was who lived here 
in war time, and that said grandfather had been 
dead three years. An elderly man with full gray 
beard now appeared from the house. It was Clark 
Burgess, the present proprietor. I accosted him by 
saying that as I had not seen him for nearly twenty- 
live years I would give him a call. He retorted 
quickly that unless I was more friendly than when 
here last he did not care to see me. He regretted 
much that his father was not alive 1 to talk with me. 
For himself he was in the north when the battle oc- 
curred and knew nothing of it save by hearsay 
"The mill has disappeared and I have drained off 
the mill pond," he went on to say, in answer to my 
inquiries. "Bight down there," he continued, point- 
ing to the low ground back of his barn, "(ten. Hamp- 
ton corralled those 3000 cattle he took from you. 
He turned them into our cornfield at night and in 
the morning not a leaf or stalk remained. There," 
pointing to a large tree perhaps half a mile away, 
and at some distance to the left of the White Oak 
Boad, "was Hampton's headquarters during the 
fight of the 27th. Our house was used as .a hospital 
during the battle, the surgeons throwing tin 1 ampu- 
tated legs and arms out of the windows. My 
brother was up in Petersburg that day and on his 
return at night he said he found our hogs running 
about with these fragments of human kind in their 
mouths. He says he found our father perfectly de- 
mented by the excitement of the hour and engaged 
in collecting in one vast, unassorted pile, knapsacks, 
blankets, overcoats, muskets, shelter tents — in 
short all belongings abandoned bv the soldiers. 


Your departure from the field that night, my father 
Las often said, was so sudden and stealthy he never 
could understand it. You see they all went to our 
well for water, and after awhile so many canteens, 
dippers and buckets had been dropped into it no one 
could get water. So father tells that he had gone 
down to the pond for some and when he returned a 
few minutes later ymi all had gone. After you were 
here our folks built two forts on our farm. Yon- 
der is one of them. The other I levelled, also the 
line that ran between them." 

Mr. Burgess answered all my inquiries as far as 
able and urged me to come again and stay longer. 
Nearly opposite the barn at the corner of the Plank 
and White Oak roads was a cotton field from which 
1 plucked a few bolls as mementos. 

Across this field and covering the White Oak 
Boad stretched the left of Egan's division — Bugg's 
Brigade, as I remember. When the Johnnies came 
in upon our right flank that afternoon, Major W O. 
Mitchell, an aid on Hancock s staff, was on this part 
of the field and had just started for the rear when 
he found the Bebels across his path. With that 
rare presence of mind and promptness to act in an 
emergency which was one of his distinguishing 
characteristics the Major rode back at full speed 
and ordered Kugg to take his brigade, charge down 
the road to the rear and (dear the way once more, 
but Bugg lay cowering and immovable in his tracks. 
He was afterwards court-martialed and dismissed 
the service for neglect of duty and disobedience of 
orders. Major Mitchell told me since the war that 
Bugg's excuse was that Mitchell had no authority 
to order him but while that was literally true, the 
circumstances so fully justified it that Hancock 
stood lovallv bv his Aide. I well remember this bri- 


gade as I saw them that day lying low behind a has- 
tily improvised barricade of boards and fence rails 
which they had collected early in the tight. Right 
here opposite the opening of the White Oak Road 
and not six rods from it stood early in the fight 
Beck's Battery C & I, Fifth V S. Arty, relieved 
later by the Tenth Massachusetts Battery Here 
our Lieut., Asa Smith, tumbled from his horse mor- 
tally wounded. Here fell Daniel \Y Atkinson of 
my own pirn's crew Here fell Captain David A. 
Cranger at the time in command of the Eleventh 
Mass. Infantry Here David B. Stowell of the Bat- 
tery seized hold of the staff of the regiment's col- 
ors as the men fell back through the guns and of- 
fered to lead them himself. Dave was no dress pa- 
rade soldier and had little or no style about him, 
but when the crisis called for a man he easily sized 
up to the requirement. Here Lieut. <1 ranger, then 
in command of the Battery, said as coolly as if on 
parade, on learning that our support had fallen back 
and that we had no canister left, "Fire whatever you 
have got into the woods. We can whip them 

This is an enchanting spot, but much more re- 
mains to be seen. So getting into the carriage re- 
gretfully, and taking from Mr. Burgess his last 12-lh 
cannon ball which he generously disengaged from 
his mole-trap, I bade him a reluctant good bye, and 
the "army" moved on down the Boydton Road. Per- 
haps not as fast as the Battery went over the same 
ground when it ran the gantlet of the Rebel skir- 
mish line that stirring afternoon. 

We halt again at the Dabney's Mill Road. Into 
the field at my left, about 300 yards from Burgess , 
the Rebels came out of the woods and overran (Jen. 
B. B. Pierce's brigade about 4 o'clock that after- 


noon, and there 300 yards further along, Gen. P 
Regis de Trobriand's men formed line, faced and 
headed them. What a fat, jolly Frenchman Tro- 
briand was! What a funny figure he cut on horse- 
back! His short, stubby body, rigidly perpendicu- 
lar with short, stubby legs projecting stiffly at right 
angles with his body the whole decorated with his 
scarlet Zouave uniform made a figure decidedly pic- 
turesque. Yet he was a good soldier withal, and 
popular with his command. 

Under this tree which stands in the angle of the 
Plank and Dabney roads, I saw Generals Grant, 
Meade, and Hancock holding a conference. It 
ought to be marked for the information of tourists. 
But no, that would ensure its destruction. Oppo- 
site the Dabney Road, in this clearing, was the sec- 
ond position taken by the Battery which Gen. 
Walker in his history of the Corps lias omitted from 
his map of the field, presumably because it is not 
found on the memory sketch of Col. Morgan, Han- 
cock s Chief-of-Staff. Yet here fell Lieut. Henry 
H. Granger mortally wounded, here privates Alfred 
C. Billings and Mike Farrell were wounded and 
here a piece-wheel was shattered by a Rebel shell. 
The Battery, however, did not fire. 

At or near this vei v spot stood the guns of the 
First New Hampshire and Tenth Massachusetts, 
Sunday morning, April 2nd, 1X(!.~>, and shelled the 
two forts on Burgess farm; and later our hearts 
thrilled with joy inexpressible to see the flag going 
over the works in the hands of Mott's division of 
the Second Corps. The rifle pits thrown up by this 
corps along the eastern side of the Bovdton Road 
are still visible, but the last one disappears as we 
speed along and soon after high noon we have 
reached Dinwiddie Court House. 



The Williams House was one of the many which 
came in the way of the Union lines in the move- 
ments of the army before Petersburg. The Sixth 
Corps built high breastworks near it. These the 
2nd Corps occupied for a time. On the high ground 
in its rear the engineers decided to locate a fort, and 
Fort Stevenson, the largest and strongest fort iu 
the line, was built. Ax the ^Villiams House 
screened its outlook it was pulled down. Seen in 
outline against the sky the fort suggests the battle- 
ments of a castle. It is a magnificent relic, nearly 
as perfect as in war time In it our four Barretts 
took position on retiring from Hatcher's Run. 
Here we lay when < 'apt. Sleeper returned from leave 
of absence on account of wounds. Here Lieut. Mil- 
brey Creen joined us on being commissioned into 
the Battery Here Ave heard the sad announce- 
ment that (Jen. Hancock was to leave us. Here 
Barney Oliver cut off three of his toes. Near it is 
the identical spot where the fragments of the com- 
pany camped that survived the battle of I {earns 


I drive to Hotel (iary from the (rater, resolved 
after dinner to locate old Fort Morton if possible. 
On reaching the vicinity, I call at the house of a gen- 
tleman whose farm covers much of the Union line. 
His name is B. V Taylor. "I. am the fifth bearing 
that name to lhe on this spot," he informed me 
"You ask where Fort Morton stood. I think it 
stood where we now are When vour army estab- 
lished their lines here, the main line ran by niv fa- 



ther's house, and a large fort was built enclosing oiir 
well in one corner. The house was then destroyed; 
and by the way, a house located on that spot has 
been destroyed in three different wars. This fort 
took up much valuable land so I set to work carting 
it away Yonder is a small corner of it. I think 
this was Fort Morton." He was correct, and the 
massive old earthwork whose mortars and 32s made 
such merry music had been wiped out. From this 
I easily located old Battery XIV, now tumbled in 
ruins, and overgrown with bushes and briars. The 
parapet between Battery XIV and Fort Morton had 
also been removed. 





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Shortly after the close of the war, an attempt was made to in- 
augurate the plan of holding an annual reunion of the Company 
The tirst one was held at the home of Comrade Augustus C. 
White. No. 1' Bowdoin Street. Boston, Oct. l_'4. lSi;r>, and one or 
two supplementary ones for perfecting the organization at the 
rooms of the First Massachusetts Infantry Association, corner of 
Essex and Washington streets; for various reasons they proved 
only partial successes But Feb. i. 1N7!>. in answer to a call is- 
sued by a self-constituted committee consisting of comrades 
(ieorgo M. Townsond. Charles E. Pierce, William E. Fndicott, 
<; Fivd. Could, Joseph II. Currant, and John 1>. Billings, forty- 
four comrades met at Youngs Hotel. Boston, and formed the 
present Association. 

Soon after 7 o'clock the assembly was called to order by Com- 
rade Pierce, who briefly stated the object of the gathering. Com- 
rade William E. Endieott was chosen temporary chairman. 

A committee was appointed, who reported the following, which 
was unanimously adopted by the Association as its 


Prru mhli:. 
We. honorably discharged members of the Tenth Massachu- 
setts Battery wishing to hold stated meetings of that organiza- 
tion for the purpose of renewing old associations and extending 
fraternal greetings to comrades in arms, adopt the following sim- 
ple articles of government. 

X a inc. 

Artivlr I. This organization shall be known as the Tenth Massa- 
chusetts Battery Association. 

Art. 11. Ill All honorably discharged members of the Tenth 
Massachusetts Battery shall be entitled to membership, except 


such as have been or may lie convicted of any gross violation of 

(_'i Relatives ni' deceased members may attend the meetings 

Art. III. The officers of the organization shall be a President, 
two Yice-rresidents, a Secretary (who shall also be Treasurer!, 
and an Executive' Hoard of live niemliers. 

Election (if Officirs. 

Art. IV The officers shall be elected annually, or as often as 
the Association meets, in sue]] manner as a majority of those 
present at the meeting may determine. Their term of office shall 
begin with the close of the meeting at which they are elected. 

Duties of Officers. 

Art. 1 (1) The President and Vice-President shall perform 
the duties usually devolving on such officers in similar positions. 

(2) The Secretary shall notify members of meetings, call meet- 
ings of the Executive Board, and do such other duties as prop- 
erly pertain to his office As Treasurer, he shall receive and dis- 
burse moneys under the direction of the Executive Board. 

(oi The Executive Board shall make arrangements for meet- 
ings, and in general deliberate upon matters of interest to the 
organization. Tlie President and Secretary shall be cx-ufficiis 
members of the Board, the President acting as Chairman of the 

Time ami Place of Meeting. 

Art. VI. The time and place of meeting, when not decided 
upon by the Association, shall be appointed by the Executive 

Hoir Amended. 

Art. VII. These articles may be amended by a t wo-thirds vote 
of members present at a regular meeting. 

Order of Business. 
Boll Call. Election of officers. 

Report of Secretary. Dinner Call. 

Report, of Treasurer. After-dinner Exercises. 

Report of Committees. Adjournment. 

New Business. 

A committee to nominate officers for permanent organization 
reported for President, Maj. J. Henry Sleeper; for Secretary and 


Treasurer, Lieut. Charles E. Pierce; and a list of two vice-pres- 
idents, and an Executive Committee of five,— all of whom were 
unanimously elected. 

The Association lias met annually ever since, usually at 
Young's Hotel. Boston, and now regularly on Patriots' Day, 
April 19. 

One very pleasant episode of the first meeting was an act of 
generosity on the part of Comrade A. E. Rice, which gave full 
possession of the battle flag to the Association. 

A large amount of time and labor has been devoted by the Sec- 
retary to making the records of the Company complete; and 
every comrade even though he may not always be able to attend 
the meetings, can confer a great favor upon his fellow-comrades 
and himself by notifying the Secretary of any change in his own 
address or that of others, or of the death of a comrade, and its 
date, place of death, and cause I'.y doing this the Secretary will 
be enabled to keep the records complete, and at all times lie 
ready to impart desired information in relation to any individual 
of the Battery. 




Abell, Samuel 




Adams, J. Webb 



IS! tO 

Apthorp, John F 




Atkinson, Daniel W 




Atwood, Edwin T. 




Armitage, Lieut. Thomas It. 




Allen, Joseph P 




Adams, Daniel D. 




Ashcroft, Elias 




Amsclen, Charles AY 




Bickford, William H. 




Barnes, Hosea 0. 




Bailey, James S., Jr. 




Bailey, John W 




Bradley, John 


Barker, Cornelius N. 




Brooks, Joseph 




Brown, Orrin P 


Baxter, John F 




Brown, John Perry 




Bemis, Bos well 




Blaney, William T. 




Beals, Horace B. 




Bruce, Charles E. 



Billings, Alfred C. 

1 >ec 



Bacon, Amasa 1). 
Butterfield, Norman H. 





Browning, James \Y 
Childs, Jonatlian E. 
('base, Harrison 






("lark, George L. April S, 1S0S 

< olbath, Charles G. Dec. 13, 18S3 
(.Toss, Joseph April 1, 1893 
Crawford, Robert Oct. 25, 1894 

Cranston, George T. , 181)4 

( arter, Theodore A. , 1808 

Chase, Charles L. Xov 23, 1899 

Chase, Frank A. June 15, 1908 

(lark, Burnham C Nov 21, 1900 

Carr, Patrick Dec, 10, 1901 

Doe, Charles AY Oct. IT, 1888 

Day, Lieut. < leorge II. 

Devereaux, George X. 

Dixon, ( ieorge M 

Donnelly, William G. 

Danirell, Edwin F 

Ewell, Henry L. 

Edwards, Josei»li 

Edwards, William 

Ellswort li, James 

Ellsworth, Thomas 

Estabrook, Luther L. 

Endicott, William E. 

Estee, Francis M. 

French, John W 

Friend, Ellis A. 

Floytmp, Emil C 

Foley, Patrick 

Frost, John C 

Farrell, Michael 

Follett, Algernon P. 

Granger, Lieut. ( ol. Henry H. 

Could, Chandler 

< rould, < Ieorge F 
Green, Charles W 
Goodwin, John T. 
Gallagher, James 










1 >ec 











1 )ec 



















■ > 










1 873. 






1 893 

















1 sso 



Gowell, Asa L. 

llolbrook, Alexander W 
Harrington, S"rg't Otis X. 
Hanson, Samuel A. 
Herlehy, Timothy 
Hooper, Joseph A. 
Herring, "William 
Horrigan, Biehard 
Hill, Pierce T. 
Handlin, John 
Innis, George H. 
Jewell, Edwin C. 
Jones, Henry 
Johnson, Stephen H. 
Kay, James (?) 
Killoran, Hugh 
Knowland, John H. 
Lee, James 
Loham, Francis 
Maxwell, Albert X. A. 
Mullett, Emerson B. 
Mason, Charles A. 
Ma comber, Francis L. 
Mugford, John E. 
Martin, William H. 
Millett, John 
Monroe, Frank A. 
McAuliffe, Cornelius 
McAllister, Daniel 
Xewton, Harmon 
Xesbitt, John 
Xorthey, William E. 
Kichols, George H. 
Nichols, Wnu B. 
Xowell, Timothy 
Xeagle, Patrick E. 
Orcutt, Henry 

1 Hm .. _, 1902 

1 'K \. . 



_L *J \J +d 














































































Oliver, Hiram B. Jan. — , 1897 

Tunnel], Jeremiah May 5, 1905 

Pierce, George H. Mar. 15, 1864 

Pierce, Waldo April 1(5, 18X1 

Pierce, Leverett 

Putnam, George K. Nov 21, 18(54 

Putnam, George IL April 8,1906 

Peach, James Feb. 6, 1865 

Packard, Charles N. Feb. 13, 1887 

Parker, Adolphus B. June 13, 1889 

Parker, Benjamin F Feb. 20, 1907 

Pike, Hiram Aug. — , 1892 

Pease, George A. April 17, 1895 

Paine, Samuel April 10, 1900 

Pedrick, John Nov 7, 1901 

Rawson, William 

Redfield, Timothy G. 

Peed, Joshua T. 

Riley, John 

Rollins. Lieut. William E. 

Ri.e, Albert E. 

Rising, Justus J. 

Richardson, Asa F 

Sleeper, Maj. J. Henry 

Smith, Lieut Asa 

Smith, James I), 

Smith, Albert W 

Smith, George A. 

Spooner, Albert B. 

Stevens, Judson 

Stevens, John Henry 

Sheridan, Joseph 

Soutlnvorth, Alvah F 

Strand, Thomas W 

Slack, Charles 

Starkweather, William II. 

Thresher, Elbridge D. April 26, 1865 

































-* 1 



























Trcfr.v, William A. 
Terbri^uen, Peter A. 
Thompson, Alvin 
Thonipsim, Charles 1). 
ToAvnseud, Lieut, Coor^e 
Temple, Lyman W 
Woodfin, Lieut. Philip T. 
Ward, Franklin 
Whiting, Edwin S. 
White, John D. 
Wright, Kufus C. 
Winslow, Henry B. 
Wood is, Charles E. 
Warburton, Hiram 













IS!) 7 

































Abbott. Alvin, 42. 48. 100. 116, 
117. 148. 203. 272. 
Abell, Samuel, 20, 47. Si;. 
Adams, D. D., 302. 303, 340. 

Lieut. J. WcblL IS, 31. 42. 
S2. S.'l, S4. Sli. 137, 201, 
2(»2. 323, 34s, 352. 35o, 
Msi i. :is2, :;s."i. 38t;, 387. 
305, 400, 403, 4or.. 407. 
Ciipt. J. Webb, 410, 413, 

43r>. 430. 
L. W., 205. 2(17. 208. 320, 
33.0, 30S. 
Allien, S. Augustus. 31. so. SO, 
100, ll(i. 117. 148, 151. 30.3. 
Allard, L. R.. 30. S2, S7. 100. 117, 
14S. 203. 272. 307. 404. 
Allen. .T. I 1 .. 3,51. 400. 

William, 14S, 140. 304, 308. 
Amsden, Charles W., 350. 
Anderson, Ceil. R. H.. 225, 22S. 
Andrew, Cov. John A., 17, 100, 

Antietani. 104, 107. ]os, 110. 
A.pthorp, John P., 152. 102. 305. 
Armitage, Lieut. T. R.. 31, S4, 

154, 103. 
Armstrong's Farm, 3SS. 400. 
Ashbv's Cap, 110. 
Asheroft, Elias. 83. 84. 140, 150. 

151, 1(13. 
Atkinson, D. W., 140, 150. 20S, 

300, 414. 
Atwood, E. T.. SO, SI, 82, 87. 

S. A., 402. 
Auburn, 133, 138, 130. 141, 142. 


Bacon, Amasa D., 31, SO, 200, 208, 


Bailey, James 8., Jr., 39, 150, 151, 
203, 204, 207, 208, 209, 326, 
33,0, 307, 402, 404, 405, 406, 
4( >0. 
John W., 87, 200, 201, 
210. 304, 305, 300, 338, 
Bailey s Cross-Roads, 431. 
Barker, C. X., 80, 81. 82. 84. 
Barlow, Cen. F. C, 23,2. 240, 254, 
203,, 283, 201, 200, 419. 
Barnes. Rosea O.. 252, 253,, 250. 
Bastable, W M., 200. 207. 350. 
Battery. First Mass.. 27. 107, 240, 

370. 379. 
Sixteenth Mass., 138. 
Fifth Mass.. 20. 
Eleventh Mass.. 39, 43, 
380, 399. 
Twelfth X. Y., 42, 101, 
200, 311, 318, 331, 348, 

Xinth Mass.. 43, 104. 
Fourteenth Mass., 05. 
"Bandbox,- 100. 
"Saucy." 208. 
E, First R. I. Reg., 125, 
177, 184, 188. 
Clark's First X. J., 127, 
188, 332. 
K. Fourth U. S. Regu- 
lars, 154, 103, 1SS, 207, 
245, 354, 303. 382, 391, 

Fourth Maine, 188. 
Sixth Maine, 213. 210, 
220, 223. 
Ricketts' First Pa., 210, 
223, 249. 
C & I, Fifth U. S. Regu- 
lars, 238, 351, 354, 357, 
372, 373. 

First X. H., 245, 240, 397, 
412, 414, 420. 



B.itterv. Hexamer's X. J.. 259. 

It. First K. I. Beg.. 290. 

311, .".is. ;:::i. 410. 412. 


Werner's Third N. J.. 322. 
1), Fourth F. S. Kegu- 
liirs. 340. 

lVsraais Petersburg. -".42. 
Eleventh X. Y.. 380. :',!lT. 
XIII, 344. 
XIV 342. 34( i. 3,80. 
Haxter. John F.. S3. 147. 148. 198, 
1!i!t, 2os. 209, 210. 3,03. 3,05. 
.",!)S, 3,00. 
Heal, Horace B., Mi, 2(12. 2(l(i. 409. 
Bealeton, 120, 13,2. 
Keek, Tobias. 23. 3!>. 255. 349. 404. 
Belle Isle, 110. 
Belle Plain, 132. 
Bemis, H. X.. 350, 351. 

Roswell, 4S, 349. 
Benson s Hill, 70, 7F 
Benson, Surgeon. 150, 152, 153 
1S3, 201, 202, 204 
Bei'dan s Sharpshooters, 1(50, 177 
Bermuda Hundred, 258, 299. 
Bickford, Win. H., 117, 149. 288 

Billing's. Alfred C 3,50. 305, 375 

John D„ SO, 335. 302 
8t»S. 400, 413, 441 
Birmingham, Michael, 351. 
Bisbee, ('. L„ 2S, 21). 
Birney, Gen. D. B., 105, 120, 120, 
13,2. 138. 144, 100, 101, 108, 
177, 184. 103, 197. 213. 210, 
220. 227. 230. 240, 240. 250, 
270. 283. 291, 298. 299. 
Blair, G. W., 351, 404. 
Bladensburg Pike, 39. 
Blaudin. A. A.. 47, 150, 201, 208, 

200. 440. 
Blaekmer. I>. C. 350, 40.3, 400. 
Blaney, W T., 84. 
Boxford, 22, 23. 30, 3,1, 37, 30, 52, 

Bowling Green. 241. 244. 430. 
Botts. John M., 180. 
Bradley, John, 202. 
Bradlee, Samuel J., 31, SO. 147, 

Bragg. Ceu., 127, 13>o. 

Bi ks, Joseph, 8(1, 81. 81!, 84, SO. 

Brown, Fred F., 7'.), 82. 

Brown. John P.. 81. 82. S3,. 20.3, 
208, 3,20. 339. 3,08, 402. 
4o3. 441. 

O. P., 202. 33,9. 348. 
Brownsville. 10S. 
Bi-ooline. 430. 

Bru.-e, Chas. E.. 48. 81. 255. 
Buckman, Win.. 28, 29. 
Bull Bun. 1.39. 140. 144. 
Bnford, (ien., 101, 110, 1,30. 
Burnside, Gen. A. E„ 101, 212, 
249, 283. 

Mine, 298. 
Burkes ville, 428, 429. 
Burroughs. Isaac X., 149. 150. 440, 

Butler. (Jen., 189. 228, 277. 299. 


Bull, Lieut. W S.. 405. 407, 409. 

Butterfield, X. H., 82. OS. 121, 

148. 151, 103, 203,. 208. 


Camp Stanton. 18, 23. 31, 30. 

Barry, 38. 39. 42, 43. 44. 
45, 48, 49. 50, 7.8. 79. 101, 
Davis, 02, 05, 73,. 
Heintzelman, 02, 79. 
Campbell, Michael, 205. 200. 207, 
350, 40.3. 404. 400. 
Carr, Gen. J. B., 179. 

" John H., 207, 350, 398. 
" Patrick, 351. 
Carter, Theo. A., 203. 204, 207, 

Castle Thunder. 189. 43,0. 
Cavalry, "Scott's X'ine Hundred," 
52, (iO, 93. 
Sixth Michigan. 00. 
Stuart's, 138. 
Merritt's, 228. 
Gregg's. 3,45. 3,72, 375, 
Hampton's, 324, 3,03, 
First Mass.. 379. 
Chancellorsville. 05. 213,. 214. 
Ghapin s Bluff, 297. 
Childs, Jona. E., -17. 
Childs, Dr., 72. 

Chase, Chas. 1... 148. 151. 202. 





Chase, Frank A., 4S, SI, ST, 109, 
151. 103. 409. 
Harrison, SI. S2. S3. 85. 
110, 149, 103, 407, 40S, 
Church. Edwin H.. 303, 3(1.". 
Massaponax, 243. 
Dunker, 107. 
Karniel, 245. 
Bethesda, 254. 
Shady Grove. 210. 
Oak Grove, 30S. 
Poplar Oi'nyp. 34.". 3S0. 
City Point. 300. run. 353. 371. 390. 
Clark, B. C. 110, 200. 209. 325, 

302, 404. 
Iti'ii. P.. 30. 14S. 
Chas. P., 39S. 401. 
Win. H., 401. 
Cochrane. Capt. W H. D., 200, 
272. 302. 3.04. .",n5. 
Colbath. Chas. (4.. S3. N5, Sc, 147, 

Cold Harbor, 257, 2S7, 289. 
('miners, Charles. 351. 
d.llis. dd.. 13,3. 13,7. 13N. 
Cook. Francis A.. 4(11. 402. 403. 
4o5. 400. 4()0. 
Corlew. Benj. E.. 31, S7. 151. 
Corps Badges, 122. 
Court House, Dinwiddie, .",27. 
" " Culpepper. 120. 

('range, lso. iM'.t. 
Spottsvlvania. 224, 
225, 220. 227. 
Prince George, 27s, 
2Si i. 
Amelia, 410. 
Appomattox. 422. 
Crawford, (Jen. S. Y\\, 303. 373, 

374, 391. 
Robert. N5. 
Creek, Tolopotomoy. 252. 254. 
Rowan ty, 327, 372. 
Sailor's," 417. 
Cranston, George T.. 351. 
Critchett, Moses G.. 4S, 79, SO. 
Cross, Joseph, 4S. so. 81, S2, 201, 
208, 405. 407. 
Culpepper, 12S. 140. 
Currant, Joseph H., 31, S3, 184, 
198. 200. 201, 35S. 397. 
Cusick, Thomas, 320, 339, 398, 

Custer, Gen., 421. 

Dabney s Mill, 391, 411, 412. 
Damrell. Edwin F., 87, 209, 237, 

Davis. Moses K.. 28, 29. 
Pa vis. Col. P. S., 51. 81. 
Pay, George H. 150, 1.11, 207. 
309, 3S0. 3,82, 400. 401. 402. 
Deane, Lieut. Sixth Me. Artillery, 

305, 375. 
Deep Bottom. 20.",. 297. 320. 
Pe Trobriand, Gen., 100, 358, 373, 

Deveus, Con. Chas.. 200. 201. 202. 
Devereaux, Ceo. X.. 242. 3,03, 304, 
3,05, 3,24, 3,38, 348. 
Devine, Timothy, 405, 400. 
Dixon. Ceo. M." 47, SO. 
"Dictator," Mortar, 298. 
Dillingham, ('apt., 05. 
Doe. ("has. W., 31, 151. 208, 400, 

Donnelly, Win. C, 87. 184. 
Divwry"s Bluff, 297. 
Dwight. .Tallies. 47, SO, 201, 205. 
207, 407, 409. 


Early, Gen., 293. 

Edwards. Joseph, 401, 402. 

William, so. 
Egan, Gen., 240, 357, 301. 304, 
371, 373. 374. 
Elder. Lieut. M., 23,, 24, 28. 
Ellsworth, Capt., 404. 405. 4O0. 
James. 20S. 209. 
Thomas. 117, 147. 183, 
199. 3,02, 401. 403, 441. 
"Elliot Salieni," 342. 39(1. 
Endieott, Wm. E., 83, 9(1, 198, 
253. 310, 325, 320, 339, 348, 
397, 39S. 
Estabrook. L. L., 19S. 40(1. 
Estee, Frank M., 110, 398. 400, 

440, 441. 

Ewell, Henry L.. 200, 204, 209, 

325, 3,39, 348, 400. 

Ewell, Gen. R. S., Ill, 143, 241, 


Fales, Edw. A., 409. 441. 
Farmville, 41!), 421, 428. 
Farrell, Michael, 351, 305, 375. 


Ferry, Harper's, 71, 01. 02, 04. 
!)."». 07. 101. KIN, 11.",, 121. 
Edwards. 51, 00. 72, it."!. 

(olcs. 270. 

Fisher. Alvin B., 4S. 

('apt.. 340, ."..",1, 300. 4( in. 
4'iske. Charles A., 420. 
lil/.patrick. William H., 31. 42, 
1S4. li)S, 2n4, 40S. 420. 
Eive Forks. 357, 413. 
Eloytrop. Einii. S3. 4<i3. 
Foley, Patrick, 351. 
Michael, 4(11. 
Pollett. A. P., 351. 
Eoran, Patrick, 401. 
Poster, Gen., 2! Id. 

S. II., 2(i4. 205, :;i4, 32.",, 
33s, 34s, 4nn. 
Ford. Freeman s, 127. 132. 
Kelly s, 157, 104. 
Fox's Mill, 131. 
Jacobs Mill, ION. 1S(i. 181, 
Germania, 108. 178, ISO, 
184. 212. 
Culpepper Mine, 17S, ISO, 
181, 184. 
Morton s. ISO. 
Ely's, 180. 212. 
Jericho, 24!). 
Fort, Morton, 340. 
•' Haskell, 344. 
" Harrison, 345. 
Bross. 353. 
Stevenson, 307. 370. 
" Du ( 'hesne, 372. 

Blaisdell, 375. 
" Welch, 37!), 302, 300. 
" Wheaton. 380, 3S1, :',!)!). 
" Gregg, 302, 300. 

Stedman, 300. 
" Emory. 400. 401. 
" Siebert, 400. 
" "Battery E," 3S!I, 302. 
Monroe, 32. 
Fiench, (Jen. Wm. H., 02, 03, 04, 
08, 100, 101, 100, 107, 
11.",, 132. 133, 150, 103, 
1 (',.->, 172. 173. 1S1. 1S2. 
1SS. 180, 100, 1!)7. 
John W., 4S, 80, 81, 82. 
Frederick, 00, OS, DO, 100, 101, 102, 

100, 110. 

Fredericksburg, 4.",. 77, 120. IS.",, 

214, 210, 240, 430. 

Frederick .hunt ion. OS, 00, lno. 
Friend. Ellis A.. 140. 151. 204. 
303. 340, 40S. 
Frosi. John ( '.. S2. S3. S5. S7, 11.",. 

117. 151. 


Gallagher. Patrick. 207. 
James, 404. 
Garlic, ('apt.. 22. 
(Jetty, (Jen., 21!), 3,7!). 
Gettysburg. OS. 101, 104, 100, K>7. 

125, 144. 
Gilley, P. (J.. 201, 200, 210. 34S. 

Gibbon, (Jen. John. 23,0, 240, 252, 

200, 201. 203, 200, 27S. 2S.4, 

201. 322, 327, 32S, 331. 332. 
357. 371. 

Glidden, ('». p., 140, 150, 10."., 320. 

33!). 307, 30S. 

Goldsmith, Richard, 202. 20.",. 30S. 

Goodwin. John T., 87, 110. 151, 
203. 205, 200, 200, 210. 23,1, 
242. .",14. 325. 330. 34S. 401. 
Gordon, Gen., 3S0. 
Gould, Geo. P., 31. 07, 1S3. 207, 
30.",, 340, 3,50. 
Chandler, 31, S2, 148, 103, 
255, 340. 350. 351. 
Gowcll. Asa P.. 14!), 150. 151. 103, 
20.",. 205, 255, 2SS, 351, 4<)4. 
Granger, Lieut. H. II., 17, IS. 1!), 
2."., 31, 13.",, 1!)!). 200, 202. 
205. 231. 2S4. 313. 314. 
323 333, 343. 344, 358. 
.",02. 305. 307, 3,08. 3,75. 
('apt. I). A., 30S. 
" Louis P.. 371. 
Grant, Lieut. Gen.. 10S, 100, 104, 
105, 212. 214. 217. 218. 224. 
220. 234. 235, 240. 240, 257, 
200, 271, 278, 207. 413,. 421, 
Greenwich, 13!), 142, 154. 
Green, ('has. W., 325, 320, 330. 

Lieut. Milbrey. 370, 377. 

3S2, 3S3, 3S5, 3S0, 3SS, 

300. 407. 400. 414. 

Gregg, (Jen., 132. 141, 214, 225, 

2!)!). 327. 352, 303, 304. 374. 



Gross W Y.. 101. 200, 207, 255, 
304. 402. 40S. 


Haley. Michael. 205. 2(10, 207, :.*.50. 
Ham, Llewellyn. N4. 117. 147, 200. 
402. 403. 404, 405. 
Hanson. S. A.. 47, Nl, S3. 84, SO. 
Handlin. John P.. 207, 350. 400, 

Harrington, Otis X., 31. S4. 115. 

117, 147. 
Hancock. Gen. TV S.. 101. 107, 
100. 104. 213. 214. 210. 217, 
210. 220. 221. 222. 225. 220, 
227. 22S. 23o. 23,5. 240. 241, 
240. 254. 257. 25S. 205. 271, 
277. 27s. 200. .",07, .",12, 3,22, 
323. 327. 320. 334. 353. 303. 
371. 375. 3sn. 
Halleck, Cen. H. W., 03. OS. 154. 

Hampton, (ion. "Wade. 25. 
Hawes's Shop. 251. 
Hayden. Jos. "W.. 207. .",50, 
Hayes. Cen.. lo7. 4lo. 414. 
Hatcher's Run. 352. 3,57. 303,. 308, 
372. 3S1, 3S2, 3S0. 301, 
401, 410, 411. 
•• Secoml. 388. 
Plaza nl. Lt. Col. John C, 338. 371. 
307. 410. 427. 
Herlehy T.. 3,75. 402. 440. 
Herring. Wm., S3,. S4. 255. 
Hosser. Lieut. Col.. 172. 
Heth, Cen.. 320. 334. 303, 375. 
Hill. Cm.. A. P.. 127. 143, 210, 

221, 33,4. 
'• I'ierce T.. 2on. 201. 200,. 207, 
351. 400. 
•' E. A.. 404. 405. 420. 
High Bridge. 41S. 410. 
Hinks, Gen. E. W., 270. 
Holbrook. Alex. W., S4. 137, 1S4, 
100, 2ol, 207, 302. 303, 304, 
305, 300. 
Hooker. (Jen. Jos.. 71. 72. 03. 04, 
00,, 101, 122. 125. 215. 
Hooper. Jos. A., 137. 138. 151, 203, 


Benj. G.. 325. 330. 348, 


Wm. E., 207, 351, 403. 

Horrigan, Richard, 15o, 151, 201. 

Howard, Gen. 0. 0., 107, 130. 
Howes, Frank M., 205, 200, 207, 
321, 320, 339, 397. 
House Stevens, 235. 237, 240. 
Chancellor. 215. 
Brown. 235. 
•' Harris, 240. 
Avery, 270. 
" Hare, 270. 2S3. 
Jones. 280. 290. 
Williams. 3,24. 332. 
Gnrlev, 320. 
Rainey, 412. 
Tucker, 382. 
R. Armstrong, 382. 
" Crow, 412. 
Humphreys. Cen. A. A.. 374. 380, 
3,S0. 388. 409. 413,, 417, 420, 
422. 420. 
Hunt. Cei). H. J.. 188. 193. 197. 
Leroy E.. 85, 150, 151, 198, 
200. 203. 200, 207, 212, 405, 


Innis, George H„ 80, 117, 147. 
Island, Oalloupe's, 435. 


Jackson. Stonewall, 92. 
Jetersville, 415. 

Jewel t. Col. A. B., 70, 83, 80, 87. 
Jewell, E. C, 350. 351, 401, 405, 

Johnson, S. IL. 42. 205, 208, 440. 
Johnson. ( Jen., 235. 
Jones. Henry, 210. 
Jones, Col. E. ,T., 27, 28. 
Jones's Farm, 252. 


Kav, James, 200, 320, 339. 
Kellysville. 158. 
Keefe, Daniel, 404. 
Ivearny, Cen. Phil., 101, 121, 125. 
Kemper. Gen., -45. 
Kershaw, Gen. J. B., 92. 
Killoran. Hugh, 302. 304, 305, 349. 
Kilpatrick, Gen., 113. 
Knowland, J. H., 81, 83, 87, 208, 
209, 302, 351. 



I, nulling. Harrison's. 275. 
Pratt's. -24-2. 
Wilcox's, 27.". 
Lane. Gen., 020. 

Lee. Gen. Robert E.. TO. 94. MS, 
!)!l, 104, 100. 110, 127, 
i;'»0. 141. 144, 153. 102, 
17."., ISt I, 189. 121 -_►. 210, 
223. 227. 234. 237. 242, 
271. 27'.i. 2S4. 2!>7, 415, 
41 S. 419. 420. 424. 425. 
" (Jen. Fitz-Hugh, 225, 251. 
'■ James, 351. 407, 42G. 
Lear, Joseph, 401. 
Lenimon, Wm. B.. :!!"), 198, 201 

272, 404 
Libbv Prison, 430. 
Loham, Franeis. SO, S5, 140. 100 
200, 200, 207 
Lonustroet, (Jon., 121. 130, 240. 
Lucas, James A., 402, 40.'!. 404 

405, 408 
Lyman. < V.I.. 271. 
Lynnfield, IS. 20. 


Mahone. (Jen., 301, 325. 
Martin, ('apt., 100. 107. 

Richard, SO. 203. 320. 

339, 397, 403. 

Wm. H.. S2, S3. SO. 
Mas.m. Cluis. A.. 200. 314. 324, 
339. .",52, 375, 3!)S. 
Manassas. 110. 113, 139, 140. 
Maryland Heights. 87, 91, 92, 93. 
94. 95. 90. 97. 98, 115, 110 
Mavnaril, John, .",99. 
Maxwell, A. X. A., 148. 15(1. 184 
199. 200, 201. 204. 
Malone's Crossing, .",12. 
McAllister. (Jen. Robert. 330, 373 
3,85. 3S<;, 3S7, 3,88 
Daniel, 184, 202, 20S 
209, 403 
MeAuliffe, Cornelius, 350. 3(i7. 

MeClellan. (Jen.. 101. 102, 125. 
Macomber, Francis L.. 208, 325 

32<i. .">.">9 
McRac (Jen.. ".20, 337. 

Merrill, A. N.. 47, 84, 109. 203, 

204, 205. 

Meade. Cen. Ceo. G., 94, 90, 98, 
100. 1(17. 110. Ill, 120, 127, 
13,(1. 139, 140. 141, 144, 153, 
ION. 17.",. 177. ISO, 181, 188, 
194. 211, 214, 217. 219. 225, 
228. 234, 240. 254, 271, 277. 
278. 327. 329. 338. 372. 380, 
42.",, 424. 

Mereier, Moses. 401. 403. 404. 

Miles. (Jen. X. A.. 220. 239, 3,07, 
327. 331. 332, 333. 372. 382, 
412, 413, 420. 

Millett. John, 87. 150, 151, 200, 

208, 209. 3,05. 320. 3,3,9, 350. 

Mins, Francis, 203,, 204, 205, 200, 

400, 408. 
Mine Hun. 174. 170. 182. 217. 
Miller, Capt. W D. W.. 303. 348. 
Mitchell, Major. 303, 373. 374. 
Mora n, Win.. 205. 207. 350. 441. 
Morris. (Jen., 103. 
Mosby. Col. John S., 01, 09. 
Montague, Francis, 303. 
Mott, Gen. (J. B.. 291. 329. 372. 
3,7.",. 381. 3,85. 391. 412. 414. 
Mullett. E. B.. 204. 23,0. 23,2. 242., J. E., 31. 42. S3. S4, 200, 

209. 304. 320. 339. 3,97. 39S, 
4( IS. 

Munroe, Frank A.. 203,. 207, 304, 
305, 300, 338. 
Major. 43, 48. 
Murphy, Henry, 350, 351, 3,99. 


Xeagle. I*. F.. 202. 203. 204, 209, 

Xesbitt, John, 200. 202, 203,, 200, 

440, 441. 

Xewtoii, Harmon, 80, 81, 84, 117. 

13,0, 148. 183,. 19S, 199, 3,02, 

3,05. 350. 

Nichols, George II., 80. 87, 242, 

Wm. B., 400. 
George, 401. 
Xorthev. Wm. E. 117, 148. 204, 

209, 441. 
Norton. John, SI, 83. 
Nowell, Timothy G., 110, 408, 420. 




O'Connell, Jere., 351. 
O'Connor, Daniel A., 350. 
O'Xeil, M. B., 200. 201, 202, 204, 
200, 207. 350. 
Oliver, Hiram B„ 4oo, 401. 
Orcutr, Henry, IDS, 2(15, 200. 303, 
398, 399, 401. 402. 
Mears. 203, 407, 408, 409. 
Ord. Gen. E. O. C. 421. 
Osborn. Charles E.. 149, 150. 2o3, 

208, 408. 
William, 351. 
Otis, Samuel, 401, 402. 403, 408, 



rackiird, C. X.. 4S. S5. so, 149, 

1 03, 323. 
Paine, Samuel. 199. 302. 34S. 
Park. Men. John (J., 345. 
Parker, A. B., 2o2, 20.",. 2oS. ::20, 
339, 3,07. 40S, 440. 441. 
B. I\, 31. 202. 3,0.",. 397, 
408, 426. 
Parks, Oec YV., 49. S.",, 87, 117, 
14S, 151. 205, 209. 
Patrick. On. M. K., 179. 
Peach, Tames. 49, si. 117. 147, 
14S, 2O0, 209, 3O0. 338. 3,98. 
Pease, Geo. A., 39. 103. 351. .",75. 
400, 401, 40.",, 404, 405. -1 00, 
Pedrick, Ben. G., 149. 150, 2SS, 


John. 4S. SI. 2o7, 20S. 

Tegram, (Jen. W., 3,20, 3,91. 

Petersburg, 22S. 277. 27S, 2S3, 

284^ 20S. 209. 300, .",70,, 390, 

413. 414. 

Phillips, Ben. IT., 81, 148, 300, 

349. 407. 
Pickett. On. T., ISO. 
Pierce, Chas. E., 31, 198. 2S1. 288, 

" Capt., A. Q. M., 149. 150, 
183, 184. 199, 200, 201. 
" Geo.' H., 202. 

Leverett, 85, 398, 400, 404, 


M. M.. 202, 203, 200, 207, 

303. 304, 300. 338, 399, 

40--!. 403. 

Pierce. Waldo. S2. 87, 151, 198, 
201, 441. 
" Gen. B. R., 240. 373. 
Piatt, Maj. E. K., 197. 
Pike, Hiram, 305. 
Pleasant Valley, 97. 108. 
Pleasantou. Gen.. 107, 127. 
Point of Rocks, 295. 299, 300. 
Poplar Xeck Rid«e. 219. 
Poolsville, 49. 51, 55, 57. 09, 72, 
77. 78, 79, 88, 93, 142. 
Pope. Gen., 101. 118. 
Prince, Gen.. 47. 48. 82, 83, 209, 

210, 401. 
President Johnson, 431. 

Lincoln, 17, 125, 190, 

195, 340, 429. 

Putnam. Geo. II., 31, SO. 115. 147, 

198, 199, 201, 207, 208, 

302, 41 IS, 420, 441. 

Geo. K., 47. 48, 202, 325. 

3,3,9. 349, 398. 

Ouimby, Elisha T., 351, 399, 400. 
Ouinn, Georjjc. 3,51. 
Q'uint, Louis E., 351. 


Railroad, City Point, 277, 279, 298. 

Orange iV: Alexandria, 

141, 308. 

Petersburg & Xorfolk, 

2S0, 353. 

Weldon, 291, 301, 307. 

312, 3,45, 372. 

" Lynchburg. 418. 

Southside, 353, 382, 413. 
Danville, 428. 
P W & B., 433. 
Boston and Worcester, 
Ramsdell, T. M.. SO. 117, 147, 198, 
190, 200, 209, 255, 250, 302, 
303, 304, 34S, 349, 404, 408, 
Randolph, Capt. Geo. E., 125. 137, 
154, 172, 190. 
Rawson, William, 80, 152, 103, 
205, 304, 310, 320, 339, 398. 
Redfield, Tim. G., S3. 80, 303, ?•">" 

320, 339. 



Reed. Joshua T., ::i, 42, ir>(>, 151. I 
is::. 1S4. 203. 

Re-iment, 41st Mass. Inf.. 114. 
(ith " " 35. 

::«>tii •• " ."»i, (>i. 

02. T'.t. 

Slli •' •' KM). 

4i;th •• " 100. 
51st •' •' KM). 

1st - " i24::. 

40th - " 12S4. 

5th " " .".124. 

llth ■• " 359. 3os. 

4th " II. A.. .".Til. 
14th N. H. Inf.. 51. (il. 
23rd Me. Inf., til, i.e.!. 

1st Me. Cnv, ::i:'.. 

10th Yt. Inf.. (il, 712. 9S, 

i2(iT. 3si. 
7th N.Y. II. A., 100.331, 

40th " Inf., 100. 
4th " H. A.. ::17. 
" 52nd " Inf., 3,31, 333. 
30th " " 331 . 333. 

" 125th " - .".31. 

" 12(ith - " 331. 

(list " •' 331. 
104th " " 37.".. 
lintli Ta. " 100. 
72nd - ■' 172. 2S.X. 
o:inl " " 174. 
1st Ind. " 100. 
20th " " TOO. 
14th " - 223. 
3rd Mich. Inf.. 100. 
21st Miss. Inf.. 23!). 
7th X. J. Inf., 3S5. 
1121 li Va. Inf., Kio. 
ISth S. C Inf.. 342. 
22nd " " 342. 

1st. Minn. Inf.. 303, 
Richardson. A. F., S7. 200, 20S. 

402. 403. 
S. <;., 110. 305. 
Richmond. K>2. K)5. 224. 22*. 41N, 

Rieketts. Ccn., 370. 
Ring, Hiram P., S4. 117. 14S. 149, 
150. 10! t, 40."., 405, 40!). 
Riley. John, 404. 
River. North Anna. 245. 
Pamunkey, 250. 
Mattapony, 250. 


River. ( hirkahcuniny, 274. 
James. 275. 205. 
IV 227. 22S. •_>3o. 231. 2:::',. 
Ny, 240, 241. 

Rapidan. 127. 130. 217, 224, 

2! 14. 

Appomattox. 205, 200. 

Rollins. W (J.. 110. 204. 205. 2O0. 

241). 305. 352. 35! I. 375. 400, 

401, 404. 

Rooney, Francis, 351. 

Road. Stevensburg Flank, 171. 

17.S. 217. 
Orange Flank, 172. 17S. 
ISO. 210, 217. 
Brock Flank. 217, 210. 
221, 225, 220. 227. 
( 'atliarpin. 225. 
Fredericksburg, 241. 
Jerusalem I'lank. 2S!). :',(i7, 
30S. 32S. 330. 332. 
Quaker, 372. 

Dinwiddie, 30S. 312. 31S. 
322. 32S, .",20. ."..".0. 
Boydton I'lank. 354. 3,02, 
303. 304. 307. 372. 374. 
3SS. :',!)]. 411. 412, 414. 
Halifax. 30S. 311. 312. 
White Oak. 354. 302. .",04, 
372, 3,73. 412. 
Yaughan, 32S, :',72, .",S2, 
390. 410. 
Dabnev s Mill, 3,54, 3,03,, 
304, 374. 
Claiborne, 3,73. 
River. 414, 415. 
Namozine. 415. 
Russell, Gen. I). A.. 15!). 
Roundy, YV S.. SO. 400. 
Uugg. Eieut. Col., 331, 374. 
Rucker. C<>1.. SI. 


Sanderson, Jos. F., 207. 350. 
Sanitary Commission, 2!).".. 
Sandy Hook. 91, 94. 
Sawyer, Michael, 202, 242. 
Savory. Peter, Jr., 2S, 20. 
Saloon. Cooper Shop, 3,4. 

I'hihi. Union Volunteer 
Refreshment. 34, 433. 
Salisbury, 325, 320. 


± { X 

Sedgwick, Gen. John. 101. 107, 

130. ir,ti. IS! I. 193, 194. 233. 

Schwartz. James I,.. 202. 203, 204, 

2( 15 207. 350. 300. 405, 441. 

Sheridan. Joseph. 205. 20ii. 340. 

Gen. Phil. 104. 3.". 379, 

413. 417, 41S. 421. 

Sherman, (ien. W T., 04. 228, 3,95. 

Shattuck, Andrew B., 31, 83. SO. 

87, 151. 

Sickles. Gen. I>. F... 101, 144, 100. 

Slack. Charles. 42. 4S. 115. 183. 

2(15. 200. 207, 4117, 4l IS. 

Sleeper, ('apt. J. Henry. 27. 28, 

29. 31. 45. 00. 01. I'm. CO. 

51. S2. S3. S4. 85. 80, 101, 
117, 120. 132. 13*. 147. 
149. 151. 154, 155. 193. 
190, 197. 198. 1!)!). 200, 
201. 204. 205. 208. 212, 
253. 200. 302. 305. 314, 
324. 348. 349. 351. 375. 
Brevet Major J. H.. 338. 
3,70. 382. 395. 402. 4o5. 

SI. "-urn. (Jen. H. W.. 97. lo7. 130. 
Smith, Lieut. Asa, 31. 47. CO. 07, 

52. S3.. S5, 200, 203. 204. 
30.3. 304. 323. 357. 359, 
301. 302. 307. .".71. 375. 

A. W.. 202. 2o.3, 207, 350. 

<Jc. A.. 15o. 151. 19S, 199. 

201. 272. 3,02, 320, 339. 

39S. -|II2, 420. 

.1. P.. 150, 20.3. 205. 200, 

20S, 210, 3,50. 400. 

Thomas. 303, 304, 3,05, 

39S. J40. 

Lieut. (Batt. K), 305, 375, 


(Jen. W I-"., 25S. 27S, 

Smvthe. Gen. T. A., 372. 3S2. 385. 

3*7. 419. 
Snelling, John !•'.. 202. 203. 
Soldiers' Best, 37. 
South worth, A. I-\, 110, 14*. 20S, 

South Mountain, 110. 
Speer. Col., 328. 

Spooner. A. B.. 2o*. 304, 305, 348. 
Spinola, Gen. F. B., 110. 190. 
Station, Bristow. 143. 154. 

Fairfax, 144, 154. 102. 

Station, Catlett. 141, 154, 102, 

Rappahannock, 159. 
Brandy. 140, 161, 1G4, 
107, 179. 184. 185. 180, 
187, 208. 
(Juinev's. 244. 
Milford, 244. 
Dispatch, 274. 
Reams. 3oS. 310. 320. 
32S. 333. 3,38. 301, 300. 
1 'inspect. 421. 
Rice's. 428. 
Starkweather. William H.. 39. 4S. 
S7. 110. 152. 102. 200. 325. 
33,9. 348. 
Stanton, F. M., 33S. 
Stewart. (Jen.. 23,5. 
Stuart. Gen. J. B., 113. 127, 139. 

14L 142. 
Stediiian. Hon. Chas. M., 3,27. 
Stetson. Geo. W.. 20.",, 204, 205. 
325, 320. 33<). 398. 
Stevens. .Tudson, 205, 302. 401. 

John H.. 31. 84. 103. 198, 
199. 200. 207, 303, 304. 
399. 4oo, 403. 
Slevetisbnrg. 193. 195, 208. 
Stearns. John A., 2*. 29. 
Stone. (Jen. A. P., 52. 
St. .well. David R.. 44. S3, 84. 85. 
14S, 200, 2ol. 205. 200, 207, 
20*. 255. 359. 405. 409, 420. 
Strand, T W.. 202, 407, 441. 
Strang, ('.'apt., 3,02. 305. 348. 351. 
.".OS, 401, 420. 
Strickland, Geo. H., 28. 
Strong, ('apt. J.. 202. 203. 205, 

St rout. Jonas W., 255, 250. 
Sulham, Jacob B., 200. 202, 349. 
Sullivan, John F., 349. 401. 
Sulphur Springs. 115, US, 121, 
125, 120, 132, 141. 
Sumner. (Jen. E. V., 101. 
Sykes. Gen. "On.. 107, 142, 191. 

Tavern, Robertsons, 171, 173, 18], 

182, 184, 217. 

Todd's. 214, 210, 217, 

21*. 225. 221 i. 228. 

Burgess, 357, 304, 372, 

373, 412. 


Tin: TENTH massacih-sktts kattkky 

Tavern. Globe. o5.",. 

Yellow. ::.">::, .".co. 

Taylor, Col. W H., 425. 
Temple Lyman W.. 4ui;, 4<>7. 
'J'i'iit. Sibley, 20. 4.",. 55. 

Boll. I'll. 

A, ::o. 4.-.. 

Shelter or Log, 120. 187. 
Terbriggen. Peter A.. ;>51. ."07, 

.">!»'.}, 4(1.". 40C. 
Thayer. J. L. W., 47. SO. SI. SIS 

s4. s.5. i4s. i4i>. 204. ::o2 
">o.". :'»o4, :;o5. :','.i!i. 400. 4(»l 
404. 4o.">. 40c,. 4:;o. 

Thompson. Alvin M.. 20.",. 204.210 
::o4. .".•_'(',, :;.",!•, 402. 407 
('has. D.. 20:;. 2(1.-.. 
2011. .".2( i. :S!>N. 402. 404. 
Thresher, E. D.. 204. 20."., 20S 
200. M04. .">0C.. .",4 '.1, 41 Hi. 407 
Torberl. Gen. A. T. A.. 24:',. 
Townsend, (!i'n. M., ">1. SI. 155. 
].->•!. 204. 2or>, 242. 255, :;.-)'.». 
."02, :;s2, ",05. .",07. 4oo. 42.-.. 

Trefry. Win. A.. 149. 151. 1(12. 201. 

.",o:',, :',o4, :;o5. :;oc>. :ws. 

Tremlett. Maj. H. M.. 7!). 
Tripp. Lieut. Col.. 177. 
Turkey Kun, I."..".. 
Tyler, (Jen.. 241, 24.'!. 250. 


I'pperville, 110. 

Yicksburg. '.t'.t. 12.-). 


Wadsworlh. Gen., 107. 
\Yapping Heights, 110. 

Walker. Win.. OS. 

Warhurton. Hiram B.. 110. 152. 

k;.".. is::. :;4o. ::r>o. 402. 

Ward, Franklin. 47. 4S. 40. l.~.L 
(Jen. .1. Ilobarl. 110. ].-,<;. 

Warren. On. G. K.. 127, 142. 14.",, 
I.-.4. 172. 17.".. 17S. 1S2, lo::. 
104. 217. 21S. 22S. 240. 2r.4. 

::oi. ::o7, .">2s, ::20, .",si. 

Warrenton, 110, 112. ll.">. 117, 

IIS. i:i2. 14M. 155. is.-j. 
Webb. Geu. A. S.. ".SI. .",!>5. 
Wendall. K. B., 4S. 40. S4. 
Whalen, Daniel, .".50. 
Wheeh.ek. Henry L.. 28. 20. 
(). W., 200. 3o.->. 
White Augustus C. 84. 85, 20:',, 
204. 2::i. 242. 
John I>.. ."51. 
Maj., .".I. 
House. 2.-.O. 2.->7. 
Wilson, E. J.. 200, 202. 242. :!4S. 
.",40. .",.-.2. 400. 440. 441. 
Jonas W., ST. 200. 2(17, 
Col., .'1. 

Wilcox. Gen., ::20. .".: : :o. 

Williamsport, 104. 10C>. 

Wilderness. 174. 217. 21 S. 22:1, 

224. 240. 

Winslow, Henrv H.. 2nd. 28, 20. 

48, 40. S1. 140. l.TL. 

W lard. J. J., 47. 4S. 

Woodtin. Philip 4'.. Ml. 4S, l.",T. 

IMS, 14S. 14!). l.'.l. 2<>(>. 

YYoodis. Chas. E., 47, SO, 85. 405. 

Wright, II. ('.. 202. 20"., 204. 205, 

207, ."50. 

Gen. II. G., 257,- 20.5. 


Young, Henry, (i: